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Oxidative Stress Strongly Restricts The Effect Of Codon Choice On The Efficiency Of Protein Synthesis In Escherichia Coli, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Sara Elgamal, Sebastian A. Leidel, Omar Orellana, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz 2022 Universidad de Chile

Oxidative Stress Strongly Restricts The Effect Of Codon Choice On The Efficiency Of Protein Synthesis In Escherichia Coli, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Sara Elgamal, Sebastian A. Leidel, Omar Orellana, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction

The response of enterobacteria to oxidative stress is usually considered to be regulated by transcription factors such as OxyR and SoxR. Nevertheless, several reports have shown that under oxidative stress the levels, modification and aminoacylation of tRNAs may be altered suggesting a role of codon bias in regulation of gene expression under this condition.

Methods

In order to characterize the effects of oxidative stress on translation elongation we constructed a library of 61 plasmids, each coding for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) translationally fused to a different set of four identical codons.

Results

Using these reporters, we observed that …


Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina

Masters Theses

Human body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus, and head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have been hematophagous ectoparasites of humans for thousands of years. Despite being ecotypes, only body lice are known to transmit bacterial diseases to humans, and it appears that lower humoral and cellular immune responses allow body lice to possess a higher vector competence. We previously observed that the transcription level of the defensin 1 gene was up-regulated only in head lice following oral challenge of Bartonella quintana, a causative agent of trench fever, and also that body lice excreted more viable B. quintana in their …


Sea-Phages Research Opportunity, Sarah Ballarin 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Sea-Phages Research Opportunity, Sarah Ballarin

Trick to the Treat of Internships and Research

Research opportunity targeted for freshmen and sophomores through the SEA-PHAGES program. The goal of the research is to discover new bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to help combat antibiotic resistance. Phage therapy is a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics. Phages have also been widely used in the food industry to prevent microbial growth on certain foods and are currently being explored as a method for bioremediation of oil spills and wastewater treatment.

Last year, my research team discovered two new bacteriophages: Genamy16 and NovaSharks that were able to infect the bacteria Gordonia rubripertincta. These phages can possibly be used for …


What? Is Epstein–Barr Virus Infection Linked To Multiple Sclerosis?, Asha Mahajan, Steven B Lippmann 2022 University of Louisville

What? Is Epstein–Barr Virus Infection Linked To Multiple Sclerosis?, Asha Mahajan, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Do You Know The Pathophysiology Of Cytokine Storm During Covid-19?, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Deekshitha Turaka, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Mounica Vorla, Steven B. Lippmann 2022 University of Louisville

Do You Know The Pathophysiology Of Cytokine Storm During Covid-19?, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Deekshitha Turaka, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Mounica Vorla, Steven B. Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Frequency Of Bystander Exposure To Antibiotics For Enteropathogenic Bacteria Among Young Children In Low-Resource Settings, Elizabeth T. Rogawski McQuade, Stephanie A. Brennhofer, Sarah E. Elwood, Timothy L. McMurry, Joseph A. Lewnard, Estomih R. Mduma, Sanjaya Shrestha, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Pascal O. Bessong, Gagandeep Kang 2022 Emory University, United States of America

Frequency Of Bystander Exposure To Antibiotics For Enteropathogenic Bacteria Among Young Children In Low-Resource Settings, Elizabeth T. Rogawski Mcquade, Stephanie A. Brennhofer, Sarah E. Elwood, Timothy L. Mcmurry, Joseph A. Lewnard, Estomih R. Mduma, Sanjaya Shrestha, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Pascal O. Bessong, Gagandeep Kang

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Children in low-resource settings carry enteric pathogens asymptomatically and are frequently treated with antibiotics, resulting in opportunities for pathogens to be exposed to antibiotics when not the target of treatment (i.e., bystander exposure). We quantified the frequency of bystander antibiotic exposures for enteric pathogens and estimated associations with resistance among children in eight low-resource settings. We analyzed 15,697 antibiotic courses from 1,715 children aged 0 to 2 y from the MAL-ED birth cohort. We calculated the incidence of bystander exposures and attributed exposures to respiratory and diarrheal illnesses. We associated bystander exposure with phenotypic susceptibility of E. coli isolates in …


Cmv And Ebv Co-Infection In Hiv-Infected Children: Infection Rates And Analysis Of Differential Expression Of Cytokines In Hiv Mono- And Hiv-Cmv-Ebv Co-Infected Groups, Fizza Nazim, Hammad Afzal Kayani, Aspara Ali Nathwani, Fatima Mir, Syed Hani Abidi 2022 Aga Khan University

Cmv And Ebv Co-Infection In Hiv-Infected Children: Infection Rates And Analysis Of Differential Expression Of Cytokines In Hiv Mono- And Hiv-Cmv-Ebv Co-Infected Groups, Fizza Nazim, Hammad Afzal Kayani, Aspara Ali Nathwani, Fatima Mir, Syed Hani Abidi

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: CMV and EBV co-infections can affect the HIV disease progression by modulating the immune system. The disease dynamics can differ in HIV-positive adults and children. In Pakistan, HIV is rapidly expanding, especially in children; however, the prevalence of CMV and EBV co-infection and the effect on immune modulation in HIV-positive children are not known. This study aimed to bridge this gap by estimating the rate of active CMV and EBV co-infection in HIV-positive children, followed by the analysis of differential expression of cytokines in HIV mono- and HIV/CMV/EBV co-infected children.
Methods: DNA samples from 319 HIV-positive children, previously recruited …


What About Anosmia From Covid-19 ?, Sharanya S E Santhi, Sara Elnour, Steven B Lippmann 2022 University of Louisville

What About Anosmia From Covid-19 ?, Sharanya S E Santhi, Sara Elnour, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Genetic Diversity Of Cladosporium Species Isolated From Air Of Cairo, Egypt Using Microsatellite Primed Pcr (Mp-Pcr) And Universally Primed Pcr (Up-Pcr) Techniques, Mohammed Salah Abdulrahman, Hamido M. Hefny, Moselhy S. Mansy, Amal A. I. Mekawey 2022 TEACHING ASSISTANT OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY

Genetic Diversity Of Cladosporium Species Isolated From Air Of Cairo, Egypt Using Microsatellite Primed Pcr (Mp-Pcr) And Universally Primed Pcr (Up-Pcr) Techniques, Mohammed Salah Abdulrahman, Hamido M. Hefny, Moselhy S. Mansy, Amal A. I. Mekawey

Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy Cairo University

The samples were then identified by macroscopic and microscopical methods, Molecular fingerprinting, of Cladosporium strains populations depending on MP-PCR using Primers (AGG) 5 , (CAG) 5 , (GACA) 4 , and (AG) 8 C. In addition, we have applied the UP-PCR technique using L21 and Fok1 Genotyping patterns extracted by MP-PCR showed good discrimination with amplification of (AGG) 5 , (AG) 8 C and (CAG) 5 over (GACA) 4. In addition, L21 primer revealed variability over FOK1 primer. current work indicate that MP-PCR and UP-PCR fingerprinting method are appropriate for characterization of large groups of Cladosporium due to its simplicity


Incidence Of Typhoid And Paratyphoid Fever In Bangladesh, Nepal, And Pakistan: Results Of The Surveillance For Enteric Fever In Asia Project, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Sadia Shakoor, Irum Fatima Dehraj, Junaid Mehmood, Rozina Thobani, Aneeta Hotwani, Najeeb Rehman, Seema Irfan, Abdul Momin Kazi, Mohammed J. Hunzai 2022 Aga Khan University

Incidence Of Typhoid And Paratyphoid Fever In Bangladesh, Nepal, And Pakistan: Results Of The Surveillance For Enteric Fever In Asia Project, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Sadia Shakoor, Irum Fatima Dehraj, Junaid Mehmood, Rozina Thobani, Aneeta Hotwani, Najeeb Rehman, Seema Irfan, Abdul Momin Kazi, Mohammed J. Hunzai

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Precise enteric fever disease burden data are needed to inform prevention and control measures, including the use of newly available typhoid vaccines. We established the Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP) to inform these strategies.
Methods: From September, 2016, to September, 2019, we conducted prospective clinical surveillance for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S Typhi) and Paratyphi (S Paratyphi) A, B, and C at health facilities in predetermined catchment areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh; Kathmandu and Kavrepalanchok, Nepal; and Karachi, Pakistan. Patients eligible for inclusion were outpatients with 3 or more consecutive days of fever in the last 7 …


Treating Cytokine Storm In Patients With Covid-19, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Deekshitha Turaka, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Steven B Lippmann 2022 University of Louisville

Treating Cytokine Storm In Patients With Covid-19, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Deekshitha Turaka, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz PhD, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz Phd, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a relatively abundant, virulent species of bacteria that is most known for spreading gastrointestinal diseases through food. These illnesses result in approximately 1.35 million infections, including over 25,000 hospitalizations each year, in the U.S. alone (CDC.gov). As antibiotic resistance becomes an increasingly urgent public health problem, the importance of developing alternative treatment methods is only becoming more crucial. One of the genes responsible for this virulence is known as hilA. HilA is the main transcriptional regulator of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 gene (UniProt). SPI-1 plays an important role in the invasion of Salmonella into epithelial cells. The proteins encoded …


A Case Report Of Pulmonary Actinomycosis: A Diagnostic Quagmire, Sarah Akbani, Aderinsola O. Ademiluyi, Jonathan Dean, Vinita Mathur 2022 Piedmont Macon Medical Center

A Case Report Of Pulmonary Actinomycosis: A Diagnostic Quagmire, Sarah Akbani, Aderinsola O. Ademiluyi, Jonathan Dean, Vinita Mathur

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

The implications of misdiagnosis can be drastic, especially when the correct diagnosis is treatable. Pulmonary actinomycosis is one of the complications of infection with actinomyces, an anaerobic gram-positive organism that is usually found as a part of the normal flora in the human body infection. It is a very rare disease and is frequently mistaken with other diagnoses owing to its nonspecific presentation. In this report, we present a 67-year-old male with a mass like lesion on a CT scan of his chest that was done due to progressively worsening productive cough, weight loss and fatigue. These symptoms could have …


Antimicrobial Stewardship Meets Transitions Of Care: Defining Length Of Therapy For Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cap), Christopher Whitman, Sarah E. Moore PharmD, Matthew Song PharmD, BCIDP, Brian C. Bohn PharmD, BCIDP, Ashley M. Wilde 2022 Infirmary Health

Antimicrobial Stewardship Meets Transitions Of Care: Defining Length Of Therapy For Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cap), Christopher Whitman, Sarah E. Moore Pharmd, Matthew Song Pharmd, Bcidp, Brian C. Bohn Pharmd, Bcidp, Ashley M. Wilde

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Hospital-based antimicrobial stewardship efforts have traditionally focused on inpatient settings. Antibiotic prescribing at discharge is often an overlooked area of focus for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Discharge prescribing optimization is necessary to combat antibiotic overuse.

Methods: This was an observational, retrospective cohort study at a four–adult community hospital system. Four hundred adult patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia and discharged with antibiotics were included. The primary outcome was overall (inpatient and discharge) antibiotic length of therapy. The secondary outcome was percentage of patients discharged on a fluoroquinolone who had not received one in the hospital. Descriptive statistics were utilized.

Results: The …


Effect Of Bovine Lactoferrin On Seroconversion Following Polio Vaccine Administration In Children: Protocol For A Double-Blinded Randomised Controlled Trial, Atif Habib, Sidrah Nausheen, Shanila Nooruddin, Tooba Javed, Tariq Samejo, Amjad Hussain, Suneeta Namdave, Sehrish Amirali, Muhammad Umer, Lumaan Sheikh 2022 Aga Khan University

Effect Of Bovine Lactoferrin On Seroconversion Following Polio Vaccine Administration In Children: Protocol For A Double-Blinded Randomised Controlled Trial, Atif Habib, Sidrah Nausheen, Shanila Nooruddin, Tooba Javed, Tariq Samejo, Amjad Hussain, Suneeta Namdave, Sehrish Amirali, Muhammad Umer, Lumaan Sheikh

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Introduction: The oral polio vaccine (OPV) has substantial results in eliminating wild poliovirus and the vaccine of choice in polio eradication. However, the mucosal immunity induced by the OPV is still uncertain. Literature has shown that bovine lactoferrin (BLF) is a safe and useful protein found in cow's milk with extraordinary antimicrobial, antiviral, antiinflammatory and immune-modulatory functions that help children's gut to fight against micro-organisms like poliovirus. However, limited data exist regarding the effect of BLF on polio vaccine immune response. The primary objective is to evaluate the effect of BLF in enhancing mucosal and humoral immunity in children following …


Covid-19 Case Complicated With Organizing Pneumonia And Pneumothorax: Correspondence, Hammad A. Bhatti, Minh Q. Ho 2022 Orlando VA

Covid-19 Case Complicated With Organizing Pneumonia And Pneumothorax: Correspondence, Hammad A. Bhatti, Minh Q. Ho

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer 2022 Seton Hall University

Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Drug resistant microbes are a considerable challenge for modern medicine to overcome. The research described in this dissertation involved development of lipid flippase inhibitors and investigating their potential as antimicrobial agents against various drug resistant microbes. The microbes primarily investigated were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) & Cryptococcus neoformans. Chapter 1 reviews the historical perspective and summarizes the current state of the field of research. In Chapter 2, the design space of an antimicrobial peptide known as humimycin was explored and the effects of modifications on its structure were observed against MRSA. Several key observations resulted. Most notably, the …


Covid-19, Vaccination, And Heart Transplantation, Forest W. Arnold 2022 University of Louisville

Covid-19, Vaccination, And Heart Transplantation, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Neurosyphilis: A Monkey Among Men, Cameron Rowe DO, Nathan Buckley DO, Bhaskar Chhetri MD, Suresh Paudel MD 2022 Cape Fear Valley Medical Center

Neurosyphilis: A Monkey Among Men, Cameron Rowe Do, Nathan Buckley Do, Bhaskar Chhetri Md, Suresh Paudel Md

Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives

Neurosyphilis is the progression of the untreated sexually transmitted infection caused by Treponema pallidum. When the initial infection is not adequately treated, progression of primary syphilis can lead to a wide variety of serious health sequelae. While neurosyphilis can appear up to 10-30 years after the initial infection, syphilis can invade the nervous system at any stage of infection and can imitate symptoms of many other diseases. This variety of symptoms is why syphilis has been called “The Great Pretender” or “The monkey among diseases” (12). This is a case report of an 83-year-old female with a history of multiple …


Investigation On Bacterial Signaling Through Generation Of A Ppgpp Biosensor, Andrew Robinson 2022 East Tennessee State University

Investigation On Bacterial Signaling Through Generation Of A Ppgpp Biosensor, Andrew Robinson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) is a bacterial signaling molecule involved in activating the stringent response, a cellular reaction to environmental stress that downregulates cell division and metabolism processes to conserve nutrients. The stringent response is implicated in some instances of antibiotic persistence, so broadening the current understanding of ppGpp signaling is useful. This thesis seeks to generate a ppGpp biosensor that will bind ppGpp and emit fluorescent light in its presence, which will allow for improved research into the pathways and functions of the signaling molecule. To generate a novel ppGpp biosensor, I converted a biosensor previously used to detect cyclic …


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