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Cryptococcus Neoformans Melanization Incorporates Multiple Catecholamines To Produce Polytypic Melanin, Rosanna P. Baker, Christine Chrissian, Ruth E. Stark, Arturo Casadevall 2021 Johns Hopkins University

Cryptococcus Neoformans Melanization Incorporates Multiple Catecholamines To Produce Polytypic Melanin, Rosanna P. Baker, Christine Chrissian, Ruth E. Stark, Arturo Casadevall

Publications and Research

Melanin is a major virulence factor in pathogenic fungi that enhances the ability of fungal cells to resist immune clearance. Cryptococcus neoformans is an important human pathogenic fungus that synthesizes melanin from exogenous tissue catecholamine precursors during infection, but the type of melanin made in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is unknown. We analyzed the efficacy of various catecholamines found in brain tissue in supporting melanization using animal brain tissue and synthetic catecholamine mixtures reflecting brain tissue proportions. Solid-state NMR spectra of the melanin pigment produced from such mixtures yielded more melanin than expected if only the preferred constituent dopamine had been incorporated, …


Consultation/Liaison Psychiatry During Covid-19, Robert Frierson, Steven B Lippmann 2021 University of Louisville

Consultation/Liaison Psychiatry During Covid-19, Robert Frierson, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Consultation/liaison psychiatrists care for people with co-existing medical and psychologic difficulties. The coronavirus pandemic is stressful for patients and their psychiatric caregivers. Patients have lost support systems and harbor fears about exposing family to the virus. COVID-19 sometimes exacerbates previous psychiatric conditions, while diminishing intimacy with physicians. Everyone is oversaturated with COVID-19-related news focusing on rising concerns about the illness and about jobs, school, and housing insecurities.

The psychiatrist maintains a hospital presence despite fear of contracting the disease. Challenges include addressing staff morale, evidencing empathy despite telecommunication devices, and treating anxiety, depression, sleep phobias, post intubation flashbacks, COVID-19-induced cognitive …


Genital Chlamydia Infection Is Influenced By The Female Sex Hormones Estrogen And Progesterone In Vivo, Amy Gail Gravitte 2021 East Tennessee State University

Genital Chlamydia Infection Is Influenced By The Female Sex Hormones Estrogen And Progesterone In Vivo, Amy Gail Gravitte

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chlamydia is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the United States and worldwide. It often goes unnoticed due to lack of symptoms and left untreated it can ascend the female genital tract to cause sequelae like pelvic inflammatory disease and irreversible tubal infertility. In reproductive-aged women, female sex hormones estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations fluctuate during the menstrual cycle and are influenced by hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. E2 and P4 influence genital Chlamydia infection in women and mice, but these multifactorial interactions are not entirely mapped out. The complex interplay of E2 and P4 with …


Eradication Of Enterococcus Faecalis In Conventional Endodontic Retreatments (A Randomized Clinical Trial), Fadl H. Khaled, Roula S. Abiad, Khaled Abd El Galil, Essam Osman 2021 Division of Endodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon,

Eradication Of Enterococcus Faecalis In Conventional Endodontic Retreatments (A Randomized Clinical Trial), Fadl H. Khaled, Roula S. Abiad, Khaled Abd El Galil, Essam Osman

BAU Journal - Creative Sustainable Development

Enterococcus faecalis is the most common bacteria isolated in conventional endodontic retreatments. Aim: To compare the impact of three irrigation modalities on the elimination of the isolated microbial strains of Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients requiring conventional endodontic retreatment for one of their mandibular premolars and tested positive for E. faecalis were chosen. Patients were randomly divided into three groups (n=10) according to the irrigation modality to be used; group I: syringe irrigation (NaOCl 2.625%), group II: NaOCl 2.625%+EndoActivator and group III: NaOCl 2.625%+diode laser. Before obturation, samples S2 were collected and PCR analysis was performed to identify …


Arrhythmogenic Hearts In Pkd2 Mutant Mice Are Characterized By Cardiac Fibrosis, Systolic, And Diastolic Dysfunctions, Farideh Amirrad, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Kiumars Shamloo, Brian S. Muntean, Surya M. Nauli 2021 Chapman University

Arrhythmogenic Hearts In Pkd2 Mutant Mice Are Characterized By Cardiac Fibrosis, Systolic, And Diastolic Dysfunctions, Farideh Amirrad, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Kiumars Shamloo, Brian S. Muntean, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a hereditary disorder affecting multiple organs, including the heart. PKD has been associated with many cardiac abnormalities including the arrhythmogenic remodeling in clinical evaluations. In our current study, we hypothesized that Pkd2 gene mutation results in structural and functional defects in the myocardium. The structural and functional changes of Pkd2 mutant hearts were analyzed in the myocardial-specific Pkd2 knockout (KO) mouse. We further assessed a potential role of TGF-b1 signaling in the pathology of Pkd2-KO hearts. Hearts from age-matched 6-month-old MyH6Pkd2wt/wt (control or wild-type) and MyH6 …


Micronutrient Supplements Can Promote Disruptive Protozoan And Fungal Communities In The Developing Infant Gut, Ana Popovic, Celine Bourdon, Pauline W. Wang, David S. Guttman, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Robert H J. Bandsma, John Parkinson, Lisa G. Pell 2021 Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Micronutrient Supplements Can Promote Disruptive Protozoan And Fungal Communities In The Developing Infant Gut, Ana Popovic, Celine Bourdon, Pauline W. Wang, David S. Guttman, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Robert H J. Bandsma, John Parkinson, Lisa G. Pell

Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health

Supplementation with micronutrients, including vitamins, iron and zinc, is a key strategy to alleviate child malnutrition. However, association of gastrointestinal disorders with iron has led to ongoing debate over their administration. To better understand their impact on gut microbiota, we analyse the bacterial, protozoal, fungal and helminth communities of stool samples collected from a subset of 80 children at 12 and 24 months of age, previously enrolled into a large cluster randomized controlled trial of micronutrient supplementation in Pakistan (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00705445). We show that while bacterial diversity is reduced in supplemented children, vitamins and iron (as well as …


Deletion Of The Stress Response Gene Ddr48 From Histoplasma Capsulatum Increases Sensitivity To Oxidative Stress, Increases Susceptibility To Antifungals, And Decreases Fitness In Macrophages, Logan T. Blancett, Kauri A. Runge, Gabriella M. Reyes, Lauren A. Kennedy, Sydney C. Jackson, Sarah E. Scheuermann, Mallory B. Harmon, Jamease C. Williams, Glenmore Shearer 2021 University of Southern Mississippi

Deletion Of The Stress Response Gene Ddr48 From Histoplasma Capsulatum Increases Sensitivity To Oxidative Stress, Increases Susceptibility To Antifungals, And Decreases Fitness In Macrophages, Logan T. Blancett, Kauri A. Runge, Gabriella M. Reyes, Lauren A. Kennedy, Sydney C. Jackson, Sarah E. Scheuermann, Mallory B. Harmon, Jamease C. Williams, Glenmore Shearer

Faculty Publications

The stress response gene DDR48 has been characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans to be involved in combating various cellular stressors, from oxidative agents to antifungal compounds. Surprisingly, the biological function of DDR48 has yet to be identified, though it is likely an important part of the stress response. To gain insight into its function, we characterized DDR48 in the dimorphic fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum. Transcriptional analyses showed preferential expression of DDR48 in the mycelial phase. Induction of DDR48 in Histoplasma yeasts developed after treatment with various cellular stress compounds. We generated a ddr48∆ deletion mutant to further …


Investigating The Growth Of Algae Under Low Atmospheric Pressures For Potential Food And Oxygen Production On Mars, Leena M. Cycil, Elisabeth M. Hausrath, Douglas W. Ming, Christopher T. Adcock, James Raymond, Daniel Remias, Warren P. Ruemmele 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Investigating The Growth Of Algae Under Low Atmospheric Pressures For Potential Food And Oxygen Production On Mars, Leena M. Cycil, Elisabeth M. Hausrath, Douglas W. Ming, Christopher T. Adcock, James Raymond, Daniel Remias, Warren P. Ruemmele

Geoscience Faculty Publications

With long-term missions to Mars and beyond that would not allow resupply, a self-sustaining Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) is essential. Algae are promising candidates for BLSS due to their completely edible biomass, fast growth rates and ease of handling. Extremophilic algae such as snow algae and halophilic algae may also be especially suited for a BLSS because of their ability to grow under extreme conditions. However, as indicated from over 50 prior space studies examining algal growth, little is known about the growth of algae at close to Mars-relevant pressures. Here, we explored the potential for five algae species …


The Temperature-Dependent Conformational Ensemble Of Sars-Cov-2 Main Protease (Mpro), Ali Ebrahim, Blake T. Riley, Desigan Kumaran, Babak Andi, Martin R. Fuchs, Sean McSweeney, Daniel A. Keedy 2021 CUNY Advanced Science Research Center

The Temperature-Dependent Conformational Ensemble Of Sars-Cov-2 Main Protease (Mpro), Ali Ebrahim, Blake T. Riley, Desigan Kumaran, Babak Andi, Martin R. Fuchs, Sean Mcsweeney, Daniel A. Keedy

Publications and Research

The COVID-19 pandemic, instigated by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, continues to plague the globe. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease, or Mpro, is a promising target for development of novel antiviral therapeutics. Previous X-ray crystal structures of Mpro were obtained at cryogenic temperature or room temperature only. Here we report a series of high-resolution crystal structures of unliganded Mpro across multiple temperatures from cryogenic to physiological, and another at high humidity. We interrogate these datasets with parsimonious multiconformer models, multi-copy ensemble models, and isomorphous difference density maps. Our analysis reveals a temperature-dependent conformational landscape for Mpro, including …


For The Birds Absence And Vision In Teaching Texts, David I. Smith 2021 Calvin University

For The Birds Absence And Vision In Teaching Texts, David I. Smith

University Faculty Publications and Creative Works

No abstract provided.


Ecthyma Gangrenosum And Panniculitis Secondary To Acute Pseudomonas Myositis Without Bacteremia, Heather Gosnell, Matthew Burke, Joseph Shnouda 2021 Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine

Ecthyma Gangrenosum And Panniculitis Secondary To Acute Pseudomonas Myositis Without Bacteremia, Heather Gosnell, Matthew Burke, Joseph Shnouda

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction

Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is a relatively uncommon cutaneous manifestation of an underlying Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and is clinically described as necrotic with gangrenous ulcers surrounded by erythematous halos. Cases of EG may occur in the absence of bacteremia and have been increasingly reported in literature. Here we present a patient with features of both EG and panniculitis, despite the lack of underlying bacteremia.

Clinical Findings

A 57-year-old male presented to the emergency department with unrelenting right-sided lower back pain and an “itchy and painful” rash of four to five day duration. The patient had an extensive history of intravenous …


A Research Framework For Evaluating Next Generation Sequencing In Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Ashley M. Wilde, Elena Swingler, Sarah E. Moore PharmD, Brian C. Bohn PharmD, Matthew Song PharmD, BCIDP, Ruth Carrico, Julio A. Ramirez 2021 Norton Healthcare

A Research Framework For Evaluating Next Generation Sequencing In Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Ashley M. Wilde, Elena Swingler, Sarah E. Moore Pharmd, Brian C. Bohn Pharmd, Matthew Song Pharmd, Bcidp, Ruth Carrico, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Investigating The Developmental Impacts Of 3,3’-Dichlorobiphenyl (Pcb-11) In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Monika A. Roy 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Investigating The Developmental Impacts Of 3,3’-Dichlorobiphenyl (Pcb-11) In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Monika A. Roy

Doctoral Dissertations

The environmental pollutant 3,3’-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) is a lower-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener present in air and water samples. Both PCB-11 and its metabolite, 4-PCB-11-Sulfate, are detected in humans, including in pregnant women. The work conducted for this dissertation takes a developmental toxicology approach and uses zebrafish (Danio rerio) to investigate PCB-11’s potential impacts to the liver and pancreas. Chapter 1 introduces PCBs and the current knowledge gaps. Chapter 2 investigates PCB-11 interactions in short-term 4-day exposures with the Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) pathway in both 0-20 mM individual and mixture exposures with other Ahr agonists. In Chapter 3, …


University Of Louisville International Travel Clinic: Pivoting During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Dawn Balcom, Subathra Marimuthu, Leslie A Wolf, Luanne Didelot, Sarah Tan, Daniel Hall, Ruth Carrico 2021 University of Louisville

University Of Louisville International Travel Clinic: Pivoting During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Dawn Balcom, Subathra Marimuthu, Leslie A Wolf, Luanne Didelot, Sarah Tan, Daniel Hall, Ruth Carrico

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Association Of Lung Cancer With Pneumonia And Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection, Johnny Zakhour MD, Daniel Muller, Alex Glynn, Jose Bordon 2021 Washington Health Institute

Association Of Lung Cancer With Pneumonia And Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection, Johnny Zakhour Md, Daniel Muller, Alex Glynn, Jose Bordon

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: The degree of association and type of causal versus non-causal relationship between pneumonia and lung cancer (LC) are evolving discussions. We reviewed English publications on the degree of association between pneumonia and subsequent LC.

Methods: We searched the PubMed database using key words for pneumonia, LC, and chlamydia infection. We selected peer-reviewed studies of patients with pneumonia and LC. Case reports and other literature reviews were excluded from this review.

Results: Five studies examined the incidence and/or risk of LC for a total of 415,750 patients, and four studies examined cases with Chlamydia pneumoniae chronic infection at the time …


Disruption Of Insertion Sequence 200 (Is200) Leads To A Premature Induction Of The Cysteine Regulon In Salmonella Typhimurium, Naomi-Jean Q. Scherba 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Disruption Of Insertion Sequence 200 (Is200) Leads To A Premature Induction Of The Cysteine Regulon In Salmonella Typhimurium, Naomi-Jean Q. Scherba

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Salmonella Typhimurium is a leading contributor to non-typhoid diseases with complex regulatory networks that are key to understanding its pathogenicity and virulence. I explore the role of the sRNA IS200, where its deletion in Salmonellaleads to premature induction of the Cys regulon. The premature induction in ∆IS200 was validated through qRT-PCR and GFP transcriptional fusions and occurs at late exponential to early stationary phase. In addition, ∆IS200 leads to increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. The focus of this work has been to understand how ∆IS200 leads to premature Cys regulon induction, and I present three models: the futile import/export, …


An Evaluation Of The Organic Carbon Content Found In Fucus Vesiculosus And Ascophyllum Nodosum From Skutulsfjörður And Eyjafjörður, Iceland, Sylvie Alexander 2021 SIT Study Abroad

An Evaluation Of The Organic Carbon Content Found In Fucus Vesiculosus And Ascophyllum Nodosum From Skutulsfjörður And Eyjafjörður, Iceland, Sylvie Alexander

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In response to global warming and changing climate, carbon sequestration through macroalgal cultivation has emerged as a possible climate change mitigation technique. Macroalgal cultivation’s relationship to carbon sequestration however is still not well understood. It is imperative to understand macroalgae’s connection to carbon sequestration to evaluate if macroalgal cultivation can help combat climate change. There is a gap in literature regarding the carbon content of Icelandic macroalgae and therefore the contribution of Icelandic macroalgae to national and global carbon sequestration estimates. This paper aims to address this knowledge gap by evaluating organic carbon content of Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum …


Impact Of Pulse Oximetry On Hospital Referral Acceptance In Children Under 5 With Severe Pneumonia In Rural Pakistan (District Jamshoro): Protocol For A Cluster Randomised Trial, Fatima Mir, Apsara Ali, Suhail Chanar, Amjad Hussain, Arjumand Rizvi, Imran Ahmed, Zahid Memon, Atif Habib, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta 2021 Aga Khan University

Impact Of Pulse Oximetry On Hospital Referral Acceptance In Children Under 5 With Severe Pneumonia In Rural Pakistan (District Jamshoro): Protocol For A Cluster Randomised Trial, Fatima Mir, Apsara Ali, Suhail Chanar, Amjad Hussain, Arjumand Rizvi, Imran Ahmed, Zahid Memon, Atif Habib, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of death among children under 5 specifically in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Hypoxaemia is a life-threatening complication among children under 5 with pneumonia. Hypoxaemia increases risk of mortality by 4.3 times in children with pneumonia than those without hypoxaemia. Prevalence of hypoxaemia varies with geography, altitude and severity (9%-39% Asia, 3%-10% African countries). In this protocol paper, we describe research methods for assessing impact of Lady Health Workers (LHWs) identifying hypoxaemia in children with signs of pneumonia during household visits on acceptance of hospital referral in district Jamshoro, Sindh.
Methods and analysis: A …


Pulmonary Inflammation And Injury Triggered By Spine Surgery In Recovered Covid-19 Patients Demand Consideration, Luciano Rodrigo Lopes, Silvana Kertzer Kasinski 2021 Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp)

Pulmonary Inflammation And Injury Triggered By Spine Surgery In Recovered Covid-19 Patients Demand Consideration, Luciano Rodrigo Lopes, Silvana Kertzer Kasinski

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Editorial: Pathogens, Pathobionts, And Autoimmunity, Linda A. Spatz, Gregg J. Silverman, Judith A. James 2021 CUNY City College

Editorial: Pathogens, Pathobionts, And Autoimmunity, Linda A. Spatz, Gregg J. Silverman, Judith A. James

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


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