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Characterization Of A Plasmid-Based Dna Vaccine For Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, Priya Sanipara 2020 University of Mississippi Main Campus

Characterization Of A Plasmid-Based Dna Vaccine For Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, Priya Sanipara

Honors Theses

Described as one of the world’s worst pandemics, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infects millions of people each year and is the cause for AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). Despite the development of vaccines for numerous infectious diseases such as polio, small pox, and influenza, a vaccine for HIV remains elusive due to the virus’s high mutation rate and ability to evade the immune system. HIV causes depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes, resulting in a weakened immune system. However, the development of a plasmid-based DNA vaccine approach may help revolutionize vaccine development for HIV due to its ability to confer cellular ...


Discovery Of Distinct Mechanisms Underlying The Relationship Between Drug Taking And Predisposing Behaviors, Tyler A. Roy 2020 The Jackson Laboratory

Discovery Of Distinct Mechanisms Underlying The Relationship Between Drug Taking And Predisposing Behaviors, Tyler A. Roy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Drug addiction is a heritable disease characterized by compulsive drug use. The biological mechanisms driving addiction remain largely unknown.1 Previous studies show shared genetic mechanisms underlying addiction risk phenotypes such as anxiety, depression, and novelty/sensation seeking.2,3 Therefore, high-throughput behavioral screening of these traits in single gene knockout mice can allow for the rapid detection of addiction risk candidate genes and mechanisms. Many of these traits are represented in the Knock-Out Mouse Program (KOMP) phenotyping pipeline. Of the initial two hundred twenty-one strains screened in this program, we tested nineteen phenodeviant knock-out mouse strains with C57BL/6NJ ...


Linearized Siderophore Products Secreted Via Macab Efflux Pump Protect Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium From Oxidative Stress, L M. Bogomolnaya, Ronak Tilvawala, J. R. Elfenbein, J. D. Cirillo, H. L. Andrews-Polymenis 2020 Texas A&M University

Linearized Siderophore Products Secreted Via Macab Efflux Pump Protect Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium From Oxidative Stress, L M. Bogomolnaya, Ronak Tilvawala, J. R. Elfenbein, J. D. Cirillo, H. L. Andrews-Polymenis

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Nontyphoidal salmonellae (NTS) are exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their residency in the gut. To survive oxidative stress encountered during infection, salmonellae employ several mechanisms. One of these mechanisms involves the multidrug efflux pump MacAB, although the natural substrate of this pump has not been identified. MacAB homologs in pseudomonads secrete products of nonribosomal peptide synthesis (NRPS). In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the siderophore enterobactin is produced by NRPS in response to iron starvation and this molecule can be processed into salmochelin and several linear metabolites. We found that Salmonella mutants lacking the key NRPS enzyme EntF are ...


Life During A Pandemic, Srinivasan Ragothaman 2020 Srini.Ragothaman@usd.edu

Life During A Pandemic, Srinivasan Ragothaman

Creative Work

This is a short poem (6 stanzas) about the current pandemic and the trials and tribulations people are going through. This describes the heroic efforts by the doctors, nurses, and other frontline warriors in tackling the virus related illnesses and pays a rich tribute to all heroes from every walk of life who are in the front fighting this disease. It hopes for a plan, a vaccine, and a cure soon. This poem also describes the switchover to remote instruction at a reginal University, student and faculty adjustments to the pandemic and pokes gentle fun at the opportunity to watch ...


Smrt Sequencing Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 Reveals Diverse Methylation Stability In Adenines Targeted By Restriction Modification Systems, Samantha R. Coy, Eric R. Gann, Spiridon E. Papoulis, Michael E. Holder, Nadim J. Ajami, Joseph F. Petrosino, Erik R. Zinser, James L. Van Etten, Steven W. Wilhelm 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville & Rice University

Smrt Sequencing Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 Reveals Diverse Methylation Stability In Adenines Targeted By Restriction Modification Systems, Samantha R. Coy, Eric R. Gann, Spiridon E. Papoulis, Michael E. Holder, Nadim J. Ajami, Joseph F. Petrosino, Erik R. Zinser, James L. Van Etten, Steven W. Wilhelm

James Van Etten Publications

Chloroviruses (family Phycodnaviridae) infect eukaryotic, freshwater, unicellular green algae. A unique feature of these viruses is an abundance of DNA methyltransferases, with isolates dedicating up to 4.5% of their protein coding potential to these genes. This diversity highlights just one of the long-standing values of the chlorovirus model system; where group-wide epigenomic characterization might begin to elucidate the function(s) of DNA methylation in large dsDNA viruses. We characterized DNA modifications in the prototype chlorovirus, PBCV-1, using single-molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing (aka PacBio). Results were compared to total available sites predicted in silico based on DNA sequence alone ...


Subcellular Localization Of Tobacco Sabp2 Under Normal And Stress Conditions, Sanjeev Das 2020 East Tennessee State University

Subcellular Localization Of Tobacco Sabp2 Under Normal And Stress Conditions, Sanjeev Das

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Subcellular Localization of Tobacco SABP2 under Normal and Stress Conditions

Salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone, plays an important role in plant physiology. SA mediated innate immune pathway is an important pathway for plant immunity against pathogens. Plants resisting pathogen infection synthesize higher levels of Methyl Salicylate (MeSA), which is then converted to SA by the esterase activity of Salicylic Acid Binding Protein 2 (SABP2). The high level of the converted SA leads to enhanced pathogen resistance. The study of subcellular localization of a protein is critical in explaining its potential biochemical functions. SABP2 tagged with eGFP was expressed transiently in ...


Second Messenger Cyclic-Di-Gmp Regulation In Acinetobacter Baumannii, Justin Deal 2020 East Tennessee State University

Second Messenger Cyclic-Di-Gmp Regulation In Acinetobacter Baumannii, Justin Deal

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Over time, “superbugs,” or bacteria that have become resistant to antibiotics, have become a great concern in modern medicine. Viable alternates are currently being looked into as effective and safe ways to prevent or treat infections caused by these superbugs. One such method is through the utilization of the second messenger molecule cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) that has been shown to regulate phenotypes within other bacteria that may control surface colonization in Acinetobacter baumannii. Through a series of experiments, the active enzymes that create c-di-GMP - diguanylate cyclases - and break down c-di- GMP - phosphodiesterases - have been inactivated in mutants to test phenotypes including ...


The Effect Of Alcaligenes Faecalis On Inhibition Of Candida Albicans Biofilm And Planktonic Growth, Nausheen A. Siddiqui 2020 East Tennessee State University

The Effect Of Alcaligenes Faecalis On Inhibition Of Candida Albicans Biofilm And Planktonic Growth, Nausheen A. Siddiqui

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Candida albicans is a fungal microorganism found on the human body and in the environment. An opportunistic pathogen causing local and systemic infection, this fungus is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. More alarming is its growing resistance against the limited number of antifungals we have for treatment Candida infections. An area of current research, termed polymicrobial interactions, focuses on how different microorganisms interact with each other for limited space, nutrients, and survival. The current study focuses on attempting to inhibit planktonic and biofilm growth stages by using the benign bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis, previously shown in our lab ...


A Study Of The Polymicrobial Inhibitory Interactions Between Alcaligenes Faecalis And Staphylococcus Aureus, Blakeley Griffin 2020 East Tennessee State University

A Study Of The Polymicrobial Inhibitory Interactions Between Alcaligenes Faecalis And Staphylococcus Aureus, Blakeley Griffin

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Members of the Staphylococcus genus are found as a part of normal microflora in humans and can commonly be found on the skin or in the nasal cavity. However, these microorganisms can cause serious and life-threatening opportunistic infections when there is a break in the physical barrier of skin. These infections have become difficult to treat as resistant strains emerge, particularly Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA has become a commonly acquired nosocomial infection which is difficult to treat with conventional antibiotics of the blactam class. Even Vancomycin, a last resort antibiotic, has been ineffective on some infections. Furthermore, S ...


The Effects Of Farnesol, A Quorum Sensing Molecule From Candida Albicans, On Alcaligenes Faecalis, Savannah Hutson 2020 East Tennessee State University

The Effects Of Farnesol, A Quorum Sensing Molecule From Candida Albicans, On Alcaligenes Faecalis, Savannah Hutson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Quorum sensing molecules have become a recent focus of study to learn if and how they can be used, both on their own and in conjecture with current antimicrobial methods, as a means of bacterial control. One such quorum sensing molecule is the sesquiterpene alcohol, Farnesol, which is synthesized and released by the fungus, Candida albicans. In most in-vivo cases, our laboratory has shown that Alcaligenes faecalis overtakes C. albicans, preventing its growth. However, as a way to counteract this inhibitory effect, Farnesol may be one way that Candida has found to fight back. In this study, we focused on ...


Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) urges alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) are more efficacious when used with other dewormers and little is known on efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) to control gastrointestinal parasites. The objective was to examine the effects of DE and COWP on GIN control. Katahdin lambs (n = 32; ~150 d of age; 25.0 ± 1.8 kg) were randomly assigned to receive: 1) DE fed at an estimated 2% dry matter intake (with the assumption of moderate consumption of bermudagrass forage and provided supplement), 2) 1g COWP, 3) both 2% DE and ...


A Biogeographical Assessment Of Arctic Marine Fungi, Bentley E. Simpson 2020 University of Maine

A Biogeographical Assessment Of Arctic Marine Fungi, Bentley E. Simpson

Honors College

Marine fungi play a crucial role in recycling nutrients and channeling energy to higher trophic levels in the world oceans. Despite their critical role, their distributions and community composition, particularly in the Arctic, are largely unknown. This study reveals depth-related trends of abundance, diversity, and community composition of Arctic marine fungi through analysis of data obtained in the Tara Oceans expedition. With samples from surface (0-50 m), deep chlorophyll max (50-200 m), and mesopelagic (200-1000 m) depths, relative abundance, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness, and diversity were found to increase as a function of depth. Basidiomycota and Ascomycota were found ...


The Discovery Of Metarhizium Anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin Isolates From Arkansas And Their Pathogenicity To Amblyomma Americanum L., Austin Goldsmith 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Discovery Of Metarhizium Anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin Isolates From Arkansas And Their Pathogenicity To Amblyomma Americanum L., Austin Goldsmith

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The lone star tick Amblyomma americanum L. is the most abundant tick in Arkansas and has been implicated as a vector of many important disease-causing pathogens. Many species of entomopathogenic fungi have been isolated from several species of ticks, with some of these fungi being utilized for tick biocontrol. However, few studies have assessed the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi to A. americanum. The objectives of this study were to: isolate and identify native Arkansas isolates of entomopathogenic fungi from wild A. americanum ticks exposed to soil and to compare the pathogenicity of one isolate (Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin isolate Savoy ...


Hexadecane Petroleum, And Biofuel Utilization In Marine Bacteria Isolated From Ballast Tanks, Alex Yashchenko 2020 University of Texas Permian Basin

Hexadecane Petroleum, And Biofuel Utilization In Marine Bacteria Isolated From Ballast Tanks, Alex Yashchenko

College of Arts & Sciences

This study characterized the growth of bacteria isolated from ballast tank fluids in hexadecane, petroleum, plant, and algae-derived fuels. The study was performed to explore the capacity of ballast tank isolates to survive and grow within fuels that may be stored within ballast tanks. Results of the hexadecane analysis indicated that most isolates had higher viable cell counts in media supplemented with hexadecane. Members of Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas, and a single Brevundimonas species had viable cell counts that were one or several orders ofmagnitude greater than that of controls. Results offuel analysis indicated higher viable cell counts in pure JP-5 and ...


Can Technology Help Improve Diarrhoea Management?, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta 2020 Aga Khan University

Can Technology Help Improve Diarrhoea Management?, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Woman and Child Health

No abstract provided.


Bacterial Load In Virtual Reality Headsets, Benjamin Creel 2020 University of Mississippi

Bacterial Load In Virtual Reality Headsets, Benjamin Creel

Honors Theses

Virtual reality technology is a rapidly growing field of computer science. Virtual reality utilizes headsets which cover the user’s eyes, nose, and forehead. In this study, I analyzed the potential for these headsets to become contaminated with bacteria. The nosepieces and foreheads of two HTC Vive VR headsets of the Department of Computer Science of the University of Mississippi were sampled over the course of a seven-week Immersive Media (CSCI 447) course. Serial dilutions were performed, and samples were plated on various culture media. Following incubation, counts of bacteria were determined. DNA was extracted from bacterial growth on plates ...


The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, Cassandra M. Leech, Mackenzie J. Flynn, Heather E. Arsenault, Jianhong Ou, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jennifer A. Benanti 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, Cassandra M. Leech, Mackenzie J. Flynn, Heather E. Arsenault, Jianhong Ou, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jennifer A. Benanti

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Upon exposure to environmental stressors, cells transiently arrest the cell cycle while they adapt and restore homeostasis. A challenge for all cells is to distinguish between stress signals and coordinate the appropriate adaptive response with cell cycle arrest. Here we investigate the role of the phosphatase calcineurin (CN) in the stress response and demonstrate that CN activates the Hog1/p38 pathway in both yeast and human cells. In yeast, the MAPK Hog1 is transiently activated in response to several well-studied osmostressors. We show that when a stressor simultaneously activates CN and Hog1, CN disrupts Hog1-stimulated negative feedback to prolong Hog1 ...


Epidemiologic Survey Of Legionella Urine Antigen Testing Within A Large Wisconsin-Based Health Care System, Caroline P. Toberna, Hannah M. William, Jessica J. F. Kram, Kayla Heslin, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2020 Aurora Research Institute; Center for Urban Population Health; Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Epidemiologic Survey Of Legionella Urine Antigen Testing Within A Large Wisconsin-Based Health Care System, Caroline P. Toberna, Hannah M. William, Jessica J. F. Kram, Kayla Heslin, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Legionella pneumophila pneumonia is a life-threatening, environmentally acquired infection identifiable via Legionella urine antigen tests (LUAT). We aimed to identify cumulative incidence, demographic distribution, and undetected disease outbreaks of Legionella pneumonia via positive LUAT in a single eastern Wisconsin health system, with a focus on urban Milwaukee County.

Methods: A multilevel descriptive ecologic study was conducted utilizing electronic medical record data from a large integrated health care system of patients who underwent LUAT from 2013 to 2017. A random sample inclusive of all positive tests was reviewed to investigate geodemographic differences among patients testing positive versus negative. Statistical comparisons ...


How Immune T-Cell Augmentation Can Help Prevent Covid-19: A Possible Nutritional Solution Using Ketogenic Lifestyle, Ravi k. Kamepalli MD,FIDSA,CWSP 2020 Regional Infectious diseases and infusion ctr,Inc

How Immune T-Cell Augmentation Can Help Prevent Covid-19: A Possible Nutritional Solution Using Ketogenic Lifestyle, Ravi K. Kamepalli Md,Fidsa,Cwsp

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of Nasal Isolates Of Staphylococcus Aureus From Concordia's Campus, Jeenue Vang 2020 Concordia University St. Paul

Characterization Of Nasal Isolates Of Staphylococcus Aureus From Concordia's Campus, Jeenue Vang

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

Research students from the Concordia University, St. Paul Science Department has collected over 1,000 nasal swabs over the past 5 years in an attempt to characterize nasal isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from healthy individuals. S. aureus is a common commensal bacterium found on the skin, in the nares, or in the vaginal tract of approximately 30% of the population. While S. aureus is typically harmless when it is growing in those areas, it can also pose a public health risk as it can act as an opportunistic pathogen to cause a variety of infections, such as toxic shock syndrome ...


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