Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Organisms Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,471 Full-Text Articles 4,065 Authors 1,101,610 Downloads 137 Institutions

All Articles in Organisms

Faceted Search

1,471 full-text articles. Page 1 of 59.

From Bloom To Bust: Harmful Algae Blooms And Their Impacts On The Waterfront Economy, Sergio Alvarez 2021 University of Central Florida

From Bloom To Bust: Harmful Algae Blooms And Their Impacts On The Waterfront Economy, Sergio Alvarez

Rosen Research Review

The true costs of harmful algae blooms (HABs) and the mechanics that determine their socio-economic impacts are for the most part unknown. Florida’s 2017–2019 red tide (Karenia brevis) bloom is a historical case study of the ever-growing threats to coastal welfare posed by HABs. A new research project at Rosen College of Hospitality Management has this at its heart. The central objective of the project is the identification of direct, indirect, and induced socioeconomic impacts caused by the 2017–2019 K. brevis bloom in Florida.


Valuing The Negative Impacts Of Harmful Algae Blooms, Sergio Alvarez 2021 University of Central Florida

Valuing The Negative Impacts Of Harmful Algae Blooms, Sergio Alvarez

Rosen Research Review

Ecological disturbances can impact several ecosystem services, including cultural services such as outdoor recreation opportunities. In Florida, one ecological disturbance that is negatively impacting recreation is the occurrence of harmful algae blooms. In recent work, Dr. Sergio Alvarez at UCF Rosen College of Hospitality Management has assessed the impact that harmful algae blooms have on human wellbeing by using random utility models to estimate changes in the value of recreation in coastal ecosystems resulting from these blooms. The results indicate that harmful algae blooms, which reduced boating access between June and September 2018, may have resulted in losses of up ...


Influence Of Different Glycoproteins And Of The Virion Core On Serinc5 Antiviral Activity, William E. Diehl, Mehmet Hakan Guney, Teresa Vanzo, Pyae Phyo Kyawe, Judith M. White, Massimo Pizzato, Jeremy Luban 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Influence Of Different Glycoproteins And Of The Virion Core On Serinc5 Antiviral Activity, William E. Diehl, Mehmet Hakan Guney, Teresa Vanzo, Pyae Phyo Kyawe, Judith M. White, Massimo Pizzato, Jeremy Luban

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Host plasma membrane protein SERINC5 is incorporated into budding retrovirus particles where it blocks subsequent entry into susceptible target cells. Three structurally unrelated proteins encoded by diverse retroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) S2, and ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) GlycoGag, disrupt SERINC5 antiviral activity by redirecting SERINC5 from the site of virion assembly on the plasma membrane to an internal RAB7+ endosomal compartment. Pseudotyping retroviruses with particular glycoproteins, e.g., vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G), renders the infectivity of particles resistant to inhibition by virion-associated SERINC5. To better understand viral determinants ...


A Novel In Vitro Method For Pelvic Floor Dysfunction In Pcos Women, Ruben Vila 2021 Oregon Health & Science University

A Novel In Vitro Method For Pelvic Floor Dysfunction In Pcos Women, Ruben Vila

University Honors Theses

Background:

Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction are reproductive diseases with comorbidities whose novel relationship deserves further investigation.

Methods:

Levator Ani Muscle/Paravaginal Attachment was dissected from female Rhesus Macaque and subjected to tissue dissociation. Cells were treated with serum level hormones E2, T, and DHT. PCR, ICC, and IHC were used, followed by statistical analysis.

Results:

RNA analysis show differences in relative expression for endpoints ER, PR, AR, Ki-67, Col1A, and Vimentin. IHC along with ICC showed expression and localization in vivo.

Conclusions:

A novel in vitro model was created from macaque Levator Ani Muscle/Paravaginal Attachment ...


Clarification Of Human Blood Ilc Subtype Interrelatedness And Discovery Of Amphiregulin Production By Human Nk Cells Shed Light On Hiv-1 Pathogenesis [Preprint], Yetao Wang, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Noah J. Silverstein, Esther Mintzer, Kevin Luk, Pamela St. Louis, Michael A. Brehm, Scot A. Wolfe, Steven G. Deeks, Jeremy Luban 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Clarification Of Human Blood Ilc Subtype Interrelatedness And Discovery Of Amphiregulin Production By Human Nk Cells Shed Light On Hiv-1 Pathogenesis [Preprint], Yetao Wang, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Noah J. Silverstein, Esther Mintzer, Kevin Luk, Pamela St. Louis, Michael A. Brehm, Scot A. Wolfe, Steven G. Deeks, Jeremy Luban

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Human blood innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which include ILCs and natural killer (NK) cells, derive from a common CD117+ILC precursor (ILCP). Yet, the relationship among the ILC subsets remains unclear. Bulk and single cell RNA-Seq and ATAC-Seq showed that blood ILC subsets cluster into ILC2s, ILCPs, a mixed cluster of CD56dim and CD56 NK cells, and a separate cluster of CD56hiNK cells that share features with both ILCs and CD56dimNK cells. In surprising contrast to mice, tissue repair protein amphiregulin was produced by human NK cells, with higher levels in CD56hiNK cells ...


Non-Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting The Immunogenic Regions Of Hiv-1 Envelope Reduce Mucosal Infection And Virus Burden In Humanized Mice [Preprint], Catarina E. Hioe, Guangnan Hu, Shixia Wang, Shan Lu 2021 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Non-Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting The Immunogenic Regions Of Hiv-1 Envelope Reduce Mucosal Infection And Virus Burden In Humanized Mice [Preprint], Catarina E. Hioe, Guangnan Hu, Shixia Wang, Shan Lu

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Antibodies are principal immune components elicited by vaccines to induce protection from microbial pathogens. In the Thai RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial, vaccine efficacy was 31% and the sole primary correlate of reduced risk was shown to be vigorous antibody response targeting the V1V2 region of HIV-1 envelope. Antibodies against V3 also were inversely correlated with infection risk in subsets of vaccinees. Antibodies recognizing these regions, however, do not exhibit potent neutralizing activity. Therefore, we examined the antiviral potential of poorly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against immunodominant V1V2 and V3 sites by passive administration of human mAbs to humanized mice engrafted ...


Understanding How Temperature Influences European Starling’S Reproductive Success, Grace Fatoyinbo, Sarah Guindre-Parker 2021 Kennesaw State University

Understanding How Temperature Influences European Starling’S Reproductive Success, Grace Fatoyinbo, Sarah Guindre-Parker

Symposium of Student Scholars

Many habitats face fluctuating temperatures year round. The animals that live there are typically able to adjust their behaviors to match these conditions. When temperatures become too extreme, however, it could potentially start having a negative effect on the animal’s reproductive success. In birds, for example, severe climate can affect their eggs and nestlings due to nestlings lacking the ability to thermoregulate. The parents then have to bear the responsibility of thermoregulation for their young, through a behavior called incubation or brooding. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are a species of birds common across the United States where both parents ...


Refining The Optimal First Treatment For Pediatric Breast Abscesses, Kayla B. Briggs 2021 Children's Mercy Hospital

Refining The Optimal First Treatment For Pediatric Breast Abscesses, Kayla B. Briggs

Research Days

Background: We previously reported treatment and outcomes of children with untreated, not spontaneously draining (UTND) breast abscesses. What has not been well defined however are those with previously treated, not spontaneously draining (PTND) pediatric breast abscesses. In general, a more conservative approach is favored in children with breast abscesses to avoid damage to the developing breast bud.

Objectives/Goal: We sought to determine if care at a pediatric tertiary referral center impacts disease persistence rate.

Methods/Design: Following IRB approval, patientstherapy.

Results: In all, 114 patients met inclusion criteria, 96 in the UTND group and 18 in the PTND group ...


Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Benefit To Climate-Displaced And Host Communities, Gül Aktürk, Martha B. Lerski 2021 Delft University of Technology

Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Benefit To Climate-Displaced And Host Communities, Gül Aktürk, Martha B. Lerski

Publications and Research

Climate change is borderless, and its impacts are not shared equally by all communities. It causes an imbalance between people by creating a more desirable living environment for some societies while erasing settlements and shelters of some others. Due to floods, sea level rise, destructive storms, drought, and slow-onset factors such as salinization of water and soil, people lose their lands, homes, and natural resources. Catastrophic events force people to move voluntarily or involuntarily. The relocation of communities is a debatable climate adaptation measure which requires utmost care with human rights, ethics, and psychological well-being of individuals upon the issues ...


Affiliative Social Interactions Activate Vasopressin-Responsive Neurons In The Mouse Dorsal Raphe, Tirth Patel, Hanna O. Caiola, Olivia Mallari, Benjamin D. Rood 2021 Rowan University

Affiliative Social Interactions Activate Vasopressin-Responsive Neurons In The Mouse Dorsal Raphe, Tirth Patel, Hanna O. Caiola, Olivia Mallari, Benjamin D. Rood

Stratford Campus Research Day

Social behavior is inextricably linked to human health, shaping both our susceptibility and resilience to disease and stress. Positive interactions as simple as maternal contact or friendships among children and adults can protect against emotional distress and improve treatment outcomes, whereas negative interactions such as abuse, social isolation, or bullying can increase aggression and precipitate mood disorders. Discovering the structure and function of neural circuits underlying social behavior is critical to understanding the link between social interaction and health. The neuropeptide vasopressin has been implicated in the regulation of multiple social interactions including social memory, aggression, mating, pair-bonding, and parental ...


Identification And Characterization Of Butyrate-Producing Species In The Human Gut Microbiome, Grace Maline 2021 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Identification And Characterization Of Butyrate-Producing Species In The Human Gut Microbiome, Grace Maline

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis, indeterminate colitis, and Crohn’s disease are increasingly common conditions that places a high physical and financial burden on individuals and global healthcare systems. Though many treatments exist for these conditions, their unpredictable nature and causation make them difficult to manage across the variety of IBD patients. Additionally, many of these treatments come with undesirable side effects or modes of delivery. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore the use of Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate whose affects in the human gut include decreased inflammation and decreased risk of colorectal cancer ...


Using Citizen Science To Determine The Age Of Alewife Fish, Rodchill-Paul Jules 2021 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Using Citizen Science To Determine The Age Of Alewife Fish, Rodchill-Paul Jules

Honors Scholar Theses

Aging scales of economically important fish like the Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) is a critical task in the fisheries industry, which can benefit from the help that citizen science offers. In order for those benefits to take effect, common people should be comfortable and fairly knowledgeable about what is expected of them in the study. Then, results can be generated in a way that gives all types of citizens a good opportunity to participate and produces reliable data that can be used for scientific purposes. This experiment studied the effects of simple word instructions versus diagramed instructions on the ability of ...


The Migration Of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii From The Battlefields Of Iraq And Afghanistan To The Healthcare Facilities Of The Veterans Health Administration, Jeffery Rogers 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Migration Of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii From The Battlefields Of Iraq And Afghanistan To The Healthcare Facilities Of The Veterans Health Administration, Jeffery Rogers

Capstone Experience

Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) pose a great threat to health across the globe. That threat is also felt in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Wounded warriors returning home from the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan may have brought with them MDROs, such as the bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii, as they have transitioned from military service into the VHA facilities. This study investigates the interconnectedness of military service in the Department of Defense (DoD) and a lifetime of care at VHA through a longitudinal tracking of a linked cohort of combat veterans with battlefield injuries and subsequent MDR infections of A. baumannii. This ...


Hemin Utilization In Rhizobium Leguminosarum Atcc 14479, John Lusby 2021 East Tennessee State University

Hemin Utilization In Rhizobium Leguminosarum Atcc 14479, John Lusby

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rhizobium leguminosarum is a Gram negative, motile, nitrogen-fixing soil bacterium. Due to the scarcity of iron in the soil bacteria have developed a wide range of iron scavenging systems. The two types of iron scavenging systems used are indirect and direct. In-silico analysis of the genome identified a unique direct iron scavenging system the Hmu operon. This system has been identified in other closely related rhizobium species and is believed to be involved in utilizing heme compounds as a sole source of iron. We have attempted to characterize the role of the Hmu operon in iron utilization by monitoring the ...


Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pa14 Produces R-Bodies, Extendable Protein Polymers With Roles In Host Colonization And Virulence [Preprint], Bryan Wang, Yu-Cheng Lin, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Jeanyoung Jo, Alexa Price-Whelan, Shujuan Tao McDonald, Lewis M. Brown, Christian Sieben, Lars E.P. Dietrich 2021 Columbia University

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pa14 Produces R-Bodies, Extendable Protein Polymers With Roles In Host Colonization And Virulence [Preprint], Bryan Wang, Yu-Cheng Lin, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Jeanyoung Jo, Alexa Price-Whelan, Shujuan Tao Mcdonald, Lewis M. Brown, Christian Sieben, Lars E.P. Dietrich

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, an opportunistic pathogen of diverse hosts, contains genes with the potential to confer production of R-bodies (i.e., a “reb cluster”). R-bodies are large, extendable protein polymers best known for their role in killing of paramecia by the bacterium Caedibacter taeniospiralis, and genes in the reb cluster have been implicated in PA14 virulence. Here, we present evidence that PA14 expresses reb cluster genes during colonization of plant and nematode hosts. We identify products of the reb cluster that are R-body-associated and that control stochastic expression of R-body structural genes. We also show that R-body production is required ...


Interrogating The Functions Of The Histone H2a Repression Domain In Relation To Cell-Cycle Progression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Taylor Nattress 2021 Susquehanna University

Interrogating The Functions Of The Histone H2a Repression Domain In Relation To Cell-Cycle Progression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Taylor Nattress

Senior Scholars Day

In eukaryotic cells, DNA is wrapped around histone proteins to form the basic repeating unit of chromatin, the nucleosome core particle. Most nucleosomes consist of two copies each of histones: H2A and H2B in a heterodimer and histones H3 and H4 in a heterotetramer. Because of their intimate association with DNA, histones regulate all DNA-templated processes such as transcription, DNA replication, and DNA damage response and repair. Several studies have illustrated the importance of a small portion of the histone H2A amino terminal domain which regulates global transcription. This domain is responsible for the repression of ~4% of the yeast ...


Selection For Thermophilic Bacteria With Antibacterial Potential Along Fire-Affected Soils In Centralia, Pa, Lanie Urbanski 2021 Susquehanna University

Selection For Thermophilic Bacteria With Antibacterial Potential Along Fire-Affected Soils In Centralia, Pa, Lanie Urbanski

Senior Scholars Day

In this study, bacteria were analyzed from a near-surface environment impacted by the anthracite coal mine fire in Centralia, Pennsylvania. We hypothesized that the elevated soil temperatures created by the spread of the underground fire would provide an ideal environment for previously unstudied thermophilic bacteria. With nearly 3 million cases of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections annually, the identification of novel bacteria is critical to make new antibiotics. Surface soil samples were taken from boreholes across eight fire-impacted locations. Bacteria were isolated from these samples on actinomycetes isolation agar at an increased temperature of 50°C to mimic the soil environment ...


289— Phenotypic Characterization Of Neurospora Crassa Fsd-1 Overexpression Strains, Hannah Smith 2021 SUNY Geneseo

289— Phenotypic Characterization Of Neurospora Crassa Fsd-1 Overexpression Strains, Hannah Smith

GREAT Day

Neurospora crassa is a model filamentous fungal organism that can reproduce both asexually and sexually. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the N. crassa female sexual development cycle. The transcription factor fsd-1 is necessary for sexual development, and fsd-1 deletion strains show delayed development of female reproductive structures and are sterile. Through previous experiments, we have been able to determine that there are three different transcripts of the fsd-1 gene, which differ by the length and intron/exon structure of their 5’ untranslated region. This project focuses on phenotypically characterizing the reproductive ability of strains overexpressing fsd-1 ...


Locating Macromolecular Assemblies In Cells By 2d Template Matching With Cistem [Preprint], Bronwyn Lucas, Benjamin A. Himes, Liang Xue, Timothy Grant, Julia Mahamid, Nikolaus Grigorieff 2021 Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Locating Macromolecular Assemblies In Cells By 2d Template Matching With Cistem [Preprint], Bronwyn Lucas, Benjamin A. Himes, Liang Xue, Timothy Grant, Julia Mahamid, Nikolaus Grigorieff

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Over the last decade, single-particle electron cryo-microscopy has become one of the main techniques contributing to the growing library of high-resolution structures of macromolecules and their assemblies. For a full understanding of molecular mechanisms, however, it is important to place them into the broader context of a cell. Traditionally, this context can be visualized in 3D by electron cryo-tomography, and more recently, has also been studied by template matching of 2D images of cells and viruses. A current limitation of the latter approach is the high computational cost that limits the throughput and widespread adoption of this method. We describe ...


Mechanism Of Lolcde As A Molecular Extruder Of Bacterial Triacylated Lipoproteins [Preprint], Stuti Sharma, Ruoyu Zhou, Li Wan, KangKang Song, Chen Xu, Yanyan Li, Maofu Liao 2021 Harvard Medical School

Mechanism Of Lolcde As A Molecular Extruder Of Bacterial Triacylated Lipoproteins [Preprint], Stuti Sharma, Ruoyu Zhou, Li Wan, Kangkang Song, Chen Xu, Yanyan Li, Maofu Liao

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Present in all bacteria, lipoproteins are central in bacterial growth and antibiotic resistance. These proteins use lipid acyl chains attached to the N-terminal cysteine residue to anchor on the outer surface of cytoplasmic membrane. In Gram-negative bacteria, many lipoproteins are transported to the outer membrane (OM), a process dependent on the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter LolCDE which extracts the OM-targeted lipoproteins from the cytoplasmic membrane for subsequent trafficking across the periplasm. Lipid-anchored proteins pose a unique challenge for transport machinery as they have both hydrophobic lipid moieties and soluble protein component, and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress