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Staphylococcus Aureus May Be Living In Your Nasal Cavity Right Now, Hannah Pedersen 2020 Concordia University St. Paul

Staphylococcus Aureus May Be Living In Your Nasal Cavity Right Now, Hannah Pedersen

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

Staphylococcus aureus is a dual role bacterium and is able to live commensally in some patients, but can cause disease in others. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) causes life threatening disease in patients and can be very hard to treat since it is resistant to many antibiotics. In order for S. aureus to wreak havoc on the body, it must be able to have specific genes expressed to secrete toxins. These toxins are what causes the patients to get a wide variety of symptoms like boils, scalded skin, toxic shock syndrome, pneumonia or sepsis. This study tested eleven different isolates ...


Hiv Treatment Failure; Art Toxicity & Complications, Morgan Younkin 2020 Lawrence Family Medicine Residency

Hiv Treatment Failure; Art Toxicity & Complications, Morgan Younkin

PEER Liberia Project

This is Session 2 in the PEER Liberia HIV/Viral Hepatitis Lecture Series. This presentation provides an overview of HIV antiretroviral therapy, treatment monitoring, failure and complications.


Focused Review Of Antiretroviral Treatment, Morgan Younkin 2020 Lawrence Family Medicine Residency

Focused Review Of Antiretroviral Treatment, Morgan Younkin

PEER Liberia Project

This presentation is a review of Sessions 1 and 2 in the PEER Liberia HIV/Viral Hepatitis Lecture Series and provides an overview of HIV antiretroviral therapy and complications.


Impact Of The Affordable Care Act On Referral To Care For People Living With Hiv In Appalachia, Cameron A. Wade, Timothy N. Crawford, Nicole Leedy, Alice C. Thornton 2020 University of Kentucky College of Medicine

Impact Of The Affordable Care Act On Referral To Care For People Living With Hiv In Appalachia, Cameron A. Wade, Timothy N. Crawford, Nicole Leedy, Alice C. Thornton

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) enacted on March 23, 2010 significantly impacted access to healthcare for people living with HIV (PLWH). Expansion of care was accomplished in three areas: eliminating exclusions for pre-existing conditions, elimination of lifetime caps on healthcare expenditures, and expansion of Medicaid eligibility.

Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of state implementation of the ACA Medicaid expansion on referral to HIV care at a Ryan White federally funded clinic in Kentucky (University of Kentucky Bluegrass Care Clinic [UK BCC]).

Methods: Retrospective chart review of all newly enrolled patients at the UK BCC between March 2010 and ...


Overview & History Of Hiv: Epidemiology, Art, 1st Line Treatment & Monitoring, Morgan Younkin 2020 Lawrence Family Medicine Residency

Overview & History Of Hiv: Epidemiology, Art, 1st Line Treatment & Monitoring, Morgan Younkin

PEER Liberia Project

This is Session 1 in the PEER Liberia HIV/Viral Hepatitis Lecture Series. This presentation provides an overview and history of HIV, including epidemiology, testing, treatment and monitoring.


Trim34 Restricts Hiv-1 And Siv Capsids In A Trim5alpha-Dependent Manner, Molly Ohainle, Kyusik Kim, Sevnur Komurlu Keceli, Abby Felton, Ed Campbell, Jeremy Luban, Michael Emerman 2020 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center

Trim34 Restricts Hiv-1 And Siv Capsids In A Trim5alpha-Dependent Manner, Molly Ohainle, Kyusik Kim, Sevnur Komurlu Keceli, Abby Felton, Ed Campbell, Jeremy Luban, Michael Emerman

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The HIV-1 capsid protein makes up the core of the virion and plays a critical role in early steps of HIV replication. Due to its exposure in the cytoplasm after entry, HIV capsid is a target for host cell factors that act directly to block infection such as TRIM5alpha and MxB. Several host proteins also play a role in facilitating infection, including in the protection of HIV-1 capsid from recognition by host cell restriction factors. Through an unbiased screening approach, called HIV-CRISPR, we show that the CPSF6-binding deficient, N74D HIV-1 capsid mutant is sensitive to restriction mediated by human TRIM34 ...


Declines In Lung Function After Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation In Adults With Human Immunodeficiency Virus And Tuberculosis: A Potential Manifestation Of Respiratory Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome, Sara C. Auld, Pholo Maenetje, Shruthi Ravimohan, Drew Weissman, Itai Ncube, Mandla Mlotshwa, Nelly Ratsela, William Chase, Mboyo-Di-Tamba Vangu, Robert Wallis, Gavin Churchyard, Hardy Kornfeld, Gregory P. Bisson 2020 Emory University

Declines In Lung Function After Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation In Adults With Human Immunodeficiency Virus And Tuberculosis: A Potential Manifestation Of Respiratory Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome, Sara C. Auld, Pholo Maenetje, Shruthi Ravimohan, Drew Weissman, Itai Ncube, Mandla Mlotshwa, Nelly Ratsela, William Chase, Mboyo-Di-Tamba Vangu, Robert Wallis, Gavin Churchyard, Hardy Kornfeld, Gregory P. Bisson

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

End-organ impairment has received relatively little research attention as a possible manifestation of tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS). In this prospective cohort study, one-half of adults with human immunodeficiency virus and pulmonary tuberculosis experienced meaningful declines in lung function on antiretroviral therapy, suggesting a role for lung function in TB-IRIS definitions.


Biological Sex Influences Susceptibility To Acinetobacter Baumannii Pneumonia In Mice, Sílvia Pires, Adeline Peignier, Jeremy Seto, Davida S. Smyth, Dane Parker 2020 Rutgers University - Newark

Biological Sex Influences Susceptibility To Acinetobacter Baumannii Pneumonia In Mice, Sílvia Pires, Adeline Peignier, Jeremy Seto, Davida S. Smyth, Dane Parker

Publications and Research

Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is an extremely versatile multidrug-resistant pathogen with a very high mortality rate; therefore, it has become crucial to understand the host response during its infection. Given the importance of mice for modeling infection and their role in preclinical drug development, equal emphasis should be placed on the use of both sexes. Through our studies using a murine model of acute pneumonia with A. baumannii, we observed that female mice were more susceptible to infection. Likewise, treatment of male mice with estradiol increased their susceptibility to infection. Analysis of the airway compartment revealed enhanced inflammation and reduced ...


Epidemic To Endemic Or Pandemic Infectious Diseases: Commonalities And Distinctions Between Malaria, Ebola And Covid19, Ann M. Moormann 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Epidemic To Endemic Or Pandemic Infectious Diseases: Commonalities And Distinctions Between Malaria, Ebola And Covid19, Ann M. Moormann

PEER Liberia Project

This presentation provides an overview of epidemics by discussing malaria, Ebola and COVID-19: definition of terms; examples of diseases, transmission and health impact; diagnostics versus presumptive diagnosis –how to make strategic decisions with limited resources and specific context; how strategies are modified by what we learn -- how fast can we adapt; control, elimination, eradication -- modeling the end game.


Welcome To The Peer Covid-19 Seminar, Patricia A. McQuilkin 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Welcome To The Peer Covid-19 Seminar, Patricia A. Mcquilkin

PEER Liberia Project

This presentation welcomes attendees and provides the agenda for the online PEER Liberia COVID-19 Seminar.


Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Betaine lipids are a class of membrane lipids with betaine head groups. Three betaine lipids are known - diacylglyceryltrimethylhomoserine (DGTS), diacylglycerylhydroxymethylalanine (DGTA), and diacylglycerylcarboxymethylcholine (DGCC). Betaine lipids are most common in algae, although DGTS, the most common betaine lipid, is also found in many bacteria and fungi. Organisms which produce betaine lipids (especially DGTS) often don’t produce phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), and DGTS structure resembles PtdCho structure without any phosphorous, leading to the hypothesis that betaine lipids may substitute for phospholipids in some organisms. This has been confirmed by discoveries that some organisms are capable of switching their membrane composition from PtdCho ...


Impacts On Fitness Associated With Acquisition Of Gut Microbiota In Drosophila, Corinne Topolski 2020 Grand Valley State University

Impacts On Fitness Associated With Acquisition Of Gut Microbiota In Drosophila, Corinne Topolski

Honors Projects

Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism that has been studied to demonstrate the role of gut microbiota in fitness. It has already been established the gut microbiota is extremely important for the health of the organism, but the source of the microbiota has not been studied as thoroughly. In order to test if the source of microbiota affects the fitness of the individual, adult male and female flies were placed onto plates to defecate after being raised on standard food and food with carbenicillin. Stock eggs were washed in either water or a bleach solution, then placed on the defecation ...


The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl 2020 Trinity College

The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl

Senior Theses and Projects

Oxygen levels tend to remain at a steady state concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, yet in some bodies of water, they can fluctuate and decrease drastically. Many organisms that inhabit the swamps, lakes, streams, and parts of the ocean where this occurs have evolved adaptations to manage this environmental uncertainty and continue normal oxygen consumption. The Lwamunda swamp in Uganda is chronically hypoxic, yet it is home to many species, including the electric fish Petrocephalus degeni. P. degeni are unusual by nature of their immense brain, and the Lwamunda swamp appears ill-suited for maintaining this large, metabolically active organ ...


The Current State Of Migrant Health In Morocco: Pre-And Peri-Covid-19 Pandemic, Layla Babahaji 2020 SIT Study Abroad

The Current State Of Migrant Health In Morocco: Pre-And Peri-Covid-19 Pandemic, Layla Babahaji

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In the early 21st century, Morocco transitioned from being a predominantly transit migration country into both a transit and destination country for migrants. In 2013, the Moroccan government took significant steps to adapt the healthcare system in better integrating migrants in its policies. The government implemented the National Strategy on Immigration and Asylum that improved access to public health care for migrants. Recently, in March of 2020, Morocco declared a state of medical emergency due to the current COVID-19 pandemic that continues today. This paper addresses the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the current state of migrant health in ...


Cd44 Receptor Mediates Urate Crystal Phagocytosis By Macrophages And Regulates Inflammation In A Murine Peritoneal Model Of Acute Gout, Emira Bousoik, Marwa Qadri, Khaled A. Elsaid 2020 Chapman University

Cd44 Receptor Mediates Urate Crystal Phagocytosis By Macrophages And Regulates Inflammation In A Murine Peritoneal Model Of Acute Gout, Emira Bousoik, Marwa Qadri, Khaled A. Elsaid

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Gout is a chronic arthritis caused by the deposition of poorly soluble monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals in peripheral joints. Resident macrophages initiate inflammation in response to MSU mediated by NF-κB nuclear translocation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We investigated the role of CD44, a transmembrane receptor, in mediating MSU phagocytosis by macrophages. We used an antibody that sheds the extracellular domain (ECD) of CD44 to study the role of the receptor and its associated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in macrophage activation. We also studied the significance of CD44 in mediating MSU inflammation in-vivo. Cd44−/− BMDMs showed reduced MSU phagocytosis, LDH ...


On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, Joseph D. Chipperfield, Blas M. Benito, Robert B. O'Hara, Richard J. Telford, Colin J. Carlson 2020 Norwegian Institute for Nature Research

On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, Joseph D. Chipperfield, Blas M. Benito, Robert B. O'Hara, Richard J. Telford, Colin J. Carlson

Public Health Resources

The ongoing pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing significant damage to public health and economic livelihoods, and is putting significant strains on healthcare services globally. This unfolding emergency has prompted the preparation and dissemination of the article “Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus likely to be constrained by climate” by Araújo and Naimi (2020). The authors present the results of an ensemble forecast made from a suite of species distribution models (SDMs), where they attempt to predict the suitability of the climate for the spread of SARS-CoV-2 over the coming months. They argue that climate is ...


Scalable Profiling And Visualization For Characterizing Microbiomes, Camilo Valdes 2020 Florida International University

Scalable Profiling And Visualization For Characterizing Microbiomes, Camilo Valdes

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metagenomics is the study of the combined genetic material found in microbiome samples, and it serves as an instrument for studying microbial communities, their biodiversities, and the relationships to their host environments. Creating, interpreting, and understanding microbial community profiles produced from microbiome samples is a challenging task as it requires large computational resources along with innovative techniques to process and analyze datasets that can contain terabytes of information.

The community profiles are critical because they provide information about what microorganisms are present in the sample, and in what proportions. This is particularly important as many human diseases and environmental disasters ...


Comparisons Of Antibody Populations In Different Pre-Fusion F Vlp-Immunized Cotton Rat Dams And Their Offspring, Lori McGinnes Cullen, Marina S. Boukhvalova, Jorge C. G. Blanco, Trudy G. Morrison 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Comparisons Of Antibody Populations In Different Pre-Fusion F Vlp-Immunized Cotton Rat Dams And Their Offspring, Lori Mcginnes Cullen, Marina S. Boukhvalova, Jorge C. G. Blanco, Trudy G. Morrison

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection poses a significant risk for infants. Since the direct vaccination of infants is problematic, maternal vaccination may provide a safer, more effective approach to their protection. In the cotton rat (CR) model, we have compared the immunization of pregnant CR dams with virus-like particles assembled with the prototype mutation stabilized pre-fusion F protein, DS-Cav1, as well two alternative mutation stabilized pre-fusion proteins (UC-2 F, UC-3 F) and showed that the alternative pre-fusion F VLPs protected the offspring of immunized dams significantly better than DS-Cav1 F VLPs (Blanco, et al. J. Virol. 93: e00914). Here, we ...


Epstein-Barr Virus Epitope-Major Histocompatibility Complex Interaction Combined With Convergent Recombination Drives Selection Of Diverse T Cell Receptor Alpha And Beta Repertoires, Anna Gil, Larisa Kamga, Ramakanth Chirravuri-Venkata, Nuray Aslan, Fransenio G. Clark, Dario Ghersi, Katherine Luzuriaga, Liisa K. Selin 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Epstein-Barr Virus Epitope-Major Histocompatibility Complex Interaction Combined With Convergent Recombination Drives Selection Of Diverse T Cell Receptor Alpha And Beta Repertoires, Anna Gil, Larisa Kamga, Ramakanth Chirravuri-Venkata, Nuray Aslan, Fransenio G. Clark, Dario Ghersi, Katherine Luzuriaga, Liisa K. Selin

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Recognition modes of individual T cell receptors (TCRs) are well studied, but factors driving the selection of TCR repertoires from primary through persistent human virus infections are less well understood. Using deep sequencing, we demonstrate a high degree of diversity of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific clonotypes in acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM). Only 9% of unique clonotypes detected in AIM persisted into convalescence; the majority (91%) of unique clonotypes detected in AIM were not detected in convalescence and were seeming replaced by equally diverse "de novo" clonotypes. The persistent clonotypes had a greater probability of being generated than nonpersistent clonotypes due ...


Liver-Directed But Not Muscle-Directed Aav-Antibody Gene Transfer Limits Humoral Immune Responses In Rhesus Monkeys, Sebastian P. Fuchs, Jose M. Martinez-Navio, Eva G. Rakasz, Guangping Gao, Ronald C. Desrosiers 2020 University of Miami

Liver-Directed But Not Muscle-Directed Aav-Antibody Gene Transfer Limits Humoral Immune Responses In Rhesus Monkeys, Sebastian P. Fuchs, Jose M. Martinez-Navio, Eva G. Rakasz, Guangping Gao, Ronald C. Desrosiers

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

A number of publications have described the use of adeno-associated virus (AAV) for the delivery of anti-HIV and anti-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to rhesus monkeys. Anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) have been frequently observed, and long-term AAV-mediated delivery has been inconsistent. Here, we investigated different AAV vector strategies and delivery schemes to rhesus monkeys using the rhesus monkey mAb 4L6. We compared 4L6 immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) delivery using the AAV1 versus the AAV8 serotype with a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter and the use of a muscle-specific versus a liver-specific promoter. Long-term expression levels of 4L6 IgG1 following AAV8-mediated gene transfer ...


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