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Microbiological Study In A Gneissic Cave From Sri Lanka, With Special Focus On Potential Antimicrobial Activities, Ethige Isuru P. Silva, Pathmakumara Jayasingha, Saman Senanayake, Anura Dandeniya, Dona Helani Munasinghe 2021 University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

Microbiological Study In A Gneissic Cave From Sri Lanka, With Special Focus On Potential Antimicrobial Activities, Ethige Isuru P. Silva, Pathmakumara Jayasingha, Saman Senanayake, Anura Dandeniya, Dona Helani Munasinghe

International Journal of Speleology

The emergence of antibiotic resistance is a global health crisis, thus the search for novel antimicrobial compounds has become a continuous necessity. Underexplored and extreme environments, such as cave ecosystems, have been identified as a promising potential source for the discovery of novel microorganisms with novel antimicrobial compounds (AMC). This study presents the first cave microbiological investigation in Sri Lanka, with a special preference for bioprospecting of novel AMC. The cave sediment characterization demonstrated the presence of close to strong acidic conditions (pH 3.1 – 3.3) and thus indicates the possibility of isolating acidophilic microorganisms. Eight cave wall/ceiling ...


When The Pandemic Opts For The Lockdown: Secretion System Evolution In The Cholera Bacterium, Francis J. Santoriello, Stefan Pukatzki 2021 CUNY City College

When The Pandemic Opts For The Lockdown: Secretion System Evolution In The Cholera Bacterium, Francis J. Santoriello, Stefan Pukatzki

Publications and Research

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, is a microbe capable of inhabiting two different ecosystems: chitinous surfaces in brackish, estuarine waters and the epithelial lining of the human gastrointestinal tract. V. cholerae defends against competitive microorganisms with a contact-dependent, contractile killing machine called the type VI secretion system (T6SS) in each of these niches. The T6SS resembles an inverted T4 bacteriophage tail and is used to deliver toxic effector proteins into neighboring cells. Pandemic strains of V. cholerae encode a unique set of T6SS effector proteins, which may play a role in pathogenesis or pandemic spread ...


Sociodemographic, Clinical Characteristics, And Outcomes Of Influenza Pneumonia Patients Admitted In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Karachi, Pakistan: Findings From A Cross-Sectional Study, Fazal Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arslan Ahmed, Kashif Aziz, Mahmooda Jabeen Ashraf, Tazein Amber, Sumera Aziz Ali 2021 Aga Khan University

Sociodemographic, Clinical Characteristics, And Outcomes Of Influenza Pneumonia Patients Admitted In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Karachi, Pakistan: Findings From A Cross-Sectional Study, Fazal Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arslan Ahmed, Kashif Aziz, Mahmooda Jabeen Ashraf, Tazein Amber, Sumera Aziz Ali

Section of Internal Medicine

Objective: To determine the sociodemographic, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of influenza pneumonia patients in tertiary care hospital, Karachi Pakistan.
Study design: A cross-sectional study.
Place and duration of study: The Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi Pakistan from January 2013 to December 2018. Methodology: All adult patients who were older than 18 years and suspected to have viral pneumonia were included in the study. Data were abstracted on 105 patients and were entered on preformed proforma after reviewing the files of patients.
Results: Ninety-four (89.5%) patients were influenza positive and 15.2% (n=16) had been vaccinated. Around 92.4 ...


Epidemiology And Outcomes Of Hospitalized Adults With Sars-Cov-2 Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Louisville, Kentucky, Julio A. Ramirez, T'shura Ali, Thomas Chandler, Stephen P. Furmanek, Daniya Sheikh, Vidyulata Salunkhe, Steven Gootee, Mohammad Tahboub, William A. Mattingly, Demetra Antimisiaris, Jiapeng Huang, Jose Bordon, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Paul Schulz, William P. McKinney, Dawn Balcom, Mark Burns, Ruth Carrico, Forest W. Arnold, CERID COVID-19 Study Group 2021 Division of Infectious Diseases, Center of Excellence for Research in Infectious Diseases (CERID), University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA

Epidemiology And Outcomes Of Hospitalized Adults With Sars-Cov-2 Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Louisville, Kentucky, Julio A. Ramirez, T'Shura Ali, Thomas Chandler, Stephen P. Furmanek, Daniya Sheikh, Vidyulata Salunkhe, Steven Gootee, Mohammad Tahboub, William A. Mattingly, Demetra Antimisiaris, Jiapeng Huang, Jose Bordon, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Paul Schulz, William P. Mckinney, Dawn Balcom, Mark Burns, Ruth Carrico, Forest W. Arnold, Cerid Covid-19 Study Group

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: During the ongoing pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), SARS-CoV-2 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been the primary cause of hospitalization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 1,013 patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 CAP from September 2020 through March 2021 in Louisville, Kentucky.

Methods: This was a retrospective observational study of 1,013 patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 CAP at eight of the adult hospitals in the city of Louisville from September 2020 through March 2021. Patients with 1) a positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2, 2) fever ...


Streptococcus Cristatus – An Oral Bacterium Causing A Case Of Mild Bacteremia And “Possible Endocarditis”, Camilo Guzman, Adi Zaclli, John Molinari 2021 Wayne State University

Streptococcus Cristatus – An Oral Bacterium Causing A Case Of Mild Bacteremia And “Possible Endocarditis”, Camilo Guzman, Adi Zaclli, John Molinari

Medical Student Research Symposium

Streptococcus cristatus is a member of the Mitis streptococcus group. Like other members of this group, it resides in mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity but rarely causes disease. We present a case of S. cristatus bacteremia and “possible endocarditis” (per the modified Duke criteria) in a 59-year-old male suffering from end- stage cryptogenic cirrhosis. To date, it is the fifth reported case of disease caused by the microbe, and the first adult case in which S. cristatus was the sole microbe identified. Our patient had a history of dental caries and poor dentition, which were likely the source of ...


Functional Influence Of 14-3-3 (Ywha) Proteins In Mammals, Elizabeth Barley, Santanu De 2021 Nova Southeastern University

Functional Influence Of 14-3-3 (Ywha) Proteins In Mammals, Elizabeth Barley, Santanu De

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The 14-3-3 (YWHA) proteins are homologous, ubiquitous, and conserved in most organisms ranging from plants to animals and play important roles in regulating key cellular events such as cell signaling, development, apoptosis, etc. These proteins consist of seven isoforms in mammals, termed under Greek alphabetization: beta (β), gamma (γ), epsilon (ε), eta (η), tau/theta (τ), sigma (σ), and zeta (ζ). Each of these isoforms can interact with a plethora of binding partners and has been shown to serve a distinct role in molecular crosstalk, biological processes, and disease susceptibility. Protein 14-3-3 isoforms are scaffolding proteins capable of forming homodimers ...


Bacterial Association Networks From Healthy And Cancer-Associated Gut Microbiomes, Mark Loftus 2021 University of Central Florida

Bacterial Association Networks From Healthy And Cancer-Associated Gut Microbiomes, Mark Loftus

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized by a diverse community of symbiotic microorganisms, mainly bacteria, that are known to play essential roles in maintaining the health of their human host. Disruption of this bacterial community has been associated with numerous diseases, including Colorectal Cancer (CRC). CRC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. As such, focus has been placed on the modulation of the bacterial community within the cancer-associated gut microbiome as the next step in possible CRC treatment and prevention strategies. To use the bacterial community for these purposes, a better understanding of the associations that ...


Lyme Disease Essentials For Healthcare Workers, Donita Blanken-Little 2021 Southern Adventist University

Lyme Disease Essentials For Healthcare Workers, Donita Blanken-Little

DNP Research Projects

No abstract provided.


Novel Mammalian Models For Understanding And Treating Spinal Cord Injury, Michael B. Orr 2021 University of Kentucky

Novel Mammalian Models For Understanding And Treating Spinal Cord Injury, Michael B. Orr

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is devastating and often leaves the injured individual with persistent dysfunction. The injury persists because humans have poor wound repair and there are no pharmacologic treatments to induce wound repair after SCI. The continued efforts to discover therapeutic targets and develop treatments heavily relies on animal models. The purpose of this project is to develop and study novel mammalian models of SCI to provide insights for the development and effective implementation of SCI therapies.

Lab mice (Mus musculus) are a powerful tool for recapitulating the progression and persistent damage evident in human SCI, but our insight ...


Covid-19 Presenting With Spontaneous Pneumothorax, Intisar Ahmed, Hunaina Shahab, Muhammad Arslan Ahmed, Muhammad Sohaib 2021 Aga Khan University

Covid-19 Presenting With Spontaneous Pneumothorax, Intisar Ahmed, Hunaina Shahab, Muhammad Arslan Ahmed, Muhammad Sohaib

Section of Cardiology

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease mainly affects respiratory system. Its common clinical findings include fever, cough and shortness of breath. Characteristic radiological features of the disease include peripherally distributed, bilateral ground-glass opacities, predominantly involving the lower lung zones. In this report, we present a case of COVID-19 disease presenting with spontaneous pneumothorax. A 26-year male patient was admitted to the Emergency Department with fever, dry cough, shortness of breath and right-sided chest pain. Radiographic imaging of the patient revealed pneumothorax on the right and peripherally distributed non-homogenous opacification ...


Utilizing The Coughing Rat Model Of Pertussis To Improve Vaccine Efficacy, Jesse M. Hall 2021 West Virginia University

Utilizing The Coughing Rat Model Of Pertussis To Improve Vaccine Efficacy, Jesse M. Hall

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a respiratory disease caused by the highly contagious, Gram-negative pathogen Bordetella pertussis (Bp). Infection occurs through inhalation of aerosolized droplets containing Bp, which then colonizes ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. Here, Bp expresses toxins and virulence factors that lead to leukocyte recruitment, paroxysmal cough, and impairment of host innate responses. Currently, in developed countries, acellular pertussis vaccines (aP; DTaP; Tdap) are used to prevent Bp infection and whooping cough disease. However, we currently realize that the aP vaccine efficacy quickly wanes resulting in a reemergence of pertussis. Recent work performed by ...


Cellular Bioenergetics Regulates Cell Proliferation During Mammalian Regeneration, Sandeep Saxena 2021 University of Kentucky

Cellular Bioenergetics Regulates Cell Proliferation During Mammalian Regeneration, Sandeep Saxena

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Mammalian system consists of stress-sensing molecules that regulates their cellular response against damage, injury and oncogenic stress. During vertebrate regeneration, cells responding to injury re-enter the cell cycle and proliferate to form new tissue. Cell cycle re-entry or arrest is at least partly regulated by cellular senescence which negatively impacts the proliferative pool of cells during regeneration. What remains unclear is whether cells in regenerating systems possess an increased propensity to proliferate and are refractory to signals that induce senescence. My thesis work has focused on how fibroblasts from the ear pinna differentially regulate healing in highly regenerative mammals (e ...


Covid19 Disease Map, A Computational Knowledge Repository Of Virus–Host Interaction Mechanisms, Marek Ostaszewski, Tomáš Helikar, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, A Host of co-authors, COVID-19 Disease Map Community 2021 University of Luxembourg

Covid19 Disease Map, A Computational Knowledge Repository Of Virus–Host Interaction Mechanisms, Marek Ostaszewski, Tomáš Helikar, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, A Host Of Co-Authors, Covid-19 Disease Map Community

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

We need to effectively combine the knowledge from surging literature with complex datasets to propose mechanistic models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, improving data interpretation and predicting key targets of intervention. Here, we describe a large-scale community effort to build an open access, interoperable and computable repository of COVID-19 molecular mechanisms. The COVID-19 Disease Map (C19DMap) is a graphical, interactive representation of disease-relevant molecular mechanisms linking many knowledge sources. Notably, it is a computational resource for graph-based analyses and disease modelling. To this end, we established a framework of tools, platforms and guidelines necessary for a multifaceted community of biocurators, domain experts ...


Dendrimer-Based Antibiotics For The Treatment Of Bacterial Biofilm In Cystic Fibrosis (Cf), YOUNAN MA 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Dendrimer-Based Antibiotics For The Treatment Of Bacterial Biofilm In Cystic Fibrosis (Cf), Younan Ma

Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the predominant pathogen in chronic lung infections of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The most important mechanism of adaptation of PA to host defense and antibiotic treatment is the formation of biofilms within the mucus layer covering the lung bronchi. The effectiveness of antibiotics such as aminoglycosides is significantly attenuated by their limited penetration through thick mucus and embedded biofilm matrix in patients’ lung. Inhaled tobramycin (Tobra), which is the most commonly used antibiotics in the treatment of PA infections for CF patients, is usually found to be in very high concentration in patients’ lung, and yet ...


Evolution, Ecology, And Zoonotic Transmission Of Betacoronaviruses: A Review, Herbert F. Jelinek, Mira Mousa, Eman Alefishat, Wael Osman, Ian Spence, Dengpan Bu, Samuel F. Feng, Jason Byrd, Paola A. Magni, Shafi Sahibzada, Guan K. Tay, Habiba S. Alsafar 2021 Edith Cowan University

Evolution, Ecology, And Zoonotic Transmission Of Betacoronaviruses: A Review, Herbert F. Jelinek, Mira Mousa, Eman Alefishat, Wael Osman, Ian Spence, Dengpan Bu, Samuel F. Feng, Jason Byrd, Paola A. Magni, Shafi Sahibzada, Guan K. Tay, Habiba S. Alsafar

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Coronavirus infections have been a part of the animal kingdom for millennia. The difference emerging in the twenty-first century is that a greater number of novel coronaviruses are being discovered primarily due to more advanced technology and that a greater number can be transmitted to humans, either directly or via an intermediate host. This has a range of effects from annual infections that are mild to full-blown pandemics. This review compares the zoonotic potential and relationship between MERS, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. The role of bats as possible host species and possible intermediate hosts including pangolins, civets, mink, birds, and other ...


Covid-19: Race For Vaccine, L. Hayley Burgess, Jason J. Braithwaite, Emily Singleton, Aaron M. Young, Mandelin K. Cooper 2020 HCA Healthcare

Covid-19: Race For Vaccine, L. Hayley Burgess, Jason J. Braithwaite, Emily Singleton, Aaron M. Young, Mandelin K. Cooper

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

The world is in the midst of a pandemic from COVID-19, a disease caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. Despite broad mitigation efforts, new cases continue with 74 million cases and 1.6 million deaths worldwide. Regardless of previous research efforts, there is no commercially available vaccine for any coronavirus. Novel vaccine development has historically taken at least 10 years from discovery to availability with only a 6% market entry probability.

With the global impact, there is an urgency to expedite a vaccine to protect the population. The U.S. government launched Operation Warp Speed with the goal to produce and ...


A Crisis Of Kelp, Rachel L. Sherman 2020 Craig Newmark Graduate School of Journalism at CUNY

A Crisis Of Kelp, Rachel L. Sherman

Capstones

Along with insects and lab-grown meat, for years seaweed has been lauded as a sustainable “food of the future” by the U.N. Food and Agricultural Organization. As the world increasingly turns to alternative foods in pursuit of a healthier Earth, seaweed has all the makings of an ecological savior. It’s plentiful — seaweeds and ocean algae make up roughly nine tenths of all the plant life on Earth — it’s cheap to harvest and get to market, packed with nutrition, and keeps oceans clean, absorbing more carbon dioxide and releasing more oxygen than the world’s rainforests.

But outside ...


Valley Fever: Education For Primary Care Providers And Allied Health Care Professionals, Michelle Elizabeth Bergen 2020 University of San Francisco

Valley Fever: Education For Primary Care Providers And Allied Health Care Professionals, Michelle Elizabeth Bergen

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

Valley Fever: Educating Primary Care Providers and Allied Healthcare Professionals

Abstract

Problem: Coccidioidomycosis (cocci), informally Valley Fever (VF), infects the lungs with the fungal spore coccidioides. It is prevalent in areas where soil disturbance occurs. Currently, there are no related educational or standardized guidelines exist for primary care providers (PCPs) in California’s Central Valley, where VF is highly endemic (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018).

Context: A Doctor of Nursing Practice project educational program for PCPs and allied healthcare workers (AHWs) at the Adventist Health Central Valley Network (AHCVN) clinics. The project aimed to educate PCPs to recognize ...


Site Tolerance Of The Rada Intein, Chase Taul, Christopher Lennon Dr 2020 Murray State University

Site Tolerance Of The Rada Intein, Chase Taul, Christopher Lennon Dr

Honors College Theses

Inteins (intervening proteins) invade genes at the DNA level and splice out at the protein level. Once thought of as only a parasitic type of a mobile genetic element, recent work suggests a mutualistic relationship has formed in some cases within bacterial and archaeal hosts. After translation, a precursor protein is formed with the intein between two exteins. The intein is catalytic and can excise itself out through protein splicing. Intein insertion is biased towards the active site of the protein and is thought to cause inactivation of the host protein prior to splicing. Intein splicing is responsive to a ...


Eelgrass (Zostera Marina) Population Decline In Morro Bay, Ca: A Meta-Analysis Of Herbicide Application In San Luis Obispo County And Morro Bay Watershed, Tyler King Sinnott 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Eelgrass (Zostera Marina) Population Decline In Morro Bay, Ca: A Meta-Analysis Of Herbicide Application In San Luis Obispo County And Morro Bay Watershed, Tyler King Sinnott

Master's Theses

The endemic eelgrass (Zostera marina) community of Morro Bay Estuary, located on the central coast of California, has experienced an estimated decline of 95% in occupied area (reduction of 344 acres to 20 acres) from 2008 to 2017 for reasons that are not yet definitively clear. One possible driver of degradation that has yet to be investigated is the role of herbicides from agricultural fields in the watershed that feeds into the estuary. Thus, the primary research goal of this project was to better understand temporal and spatial trends of herbicide use within the context of San Luis Obispo (SLO ...


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