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The High Prevalence Of Clostridioides Difficile Among Nursing Home Elders Associates With A Dysbiotic Microbiome, John P. Haran, Doyle V. Ward, Shakti K. Bhattarai, Ethan Loew, Protiva Dutta, Amanda Higgins, Beth A. McCormick, Vanni Bucci 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The High Prevalence Of Clostridioides Difficile Among Nursing Home Elders Associates With A Dysbiotic Microbiome, John P. Haran, Doyle V. Ward, Shakti K. Bhattarai, Ethan Loew, Protiva Dutta, Amanda Higgins, Beth A. Mccormick, Vanni Bucci

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Clostridioides difficile disproportionally affects the elderly living in nursing homes (NHs). Our objective was to explore the prevalence of C. difficile in NH elders, over time and to determine whether the microbiome or other clinical factors are associated with C. difficile colonization. We collected serial stool samples from NH residents. C. difficile prevalence was determined by quantitative polymerase-chain reaction detection of Toxin genes tcdA and tcdB; microbiome composition was determined by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We used mixed-effect random forest modeling machine to determine bacterial taxa whose abundance is associated with C. difficile prevalence while controlling for clinical covariates including demographics ...


Cranberry Proanthocyanidins And Dietary Oligosaccharides Synergistically Modulate Lactobacillus Plantarum Physiology, Ezgi Ozcan, Michelle R. Rozycki, David A. Sela 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Cranberry Proanthocyanidins And Dietary Oligosaccharides Synergistically Modulate Lactobacillus Plantarum Physiology, Ezgi Ozcan, Michelle R. Rozycki, David A. Sela

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Plant-based foods contain bioactive compounds such as polyphenols that resist digestion and potentially benefit the host through interactions with their resident microbiota. Based on previous observations, we hypothesized that the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum interacts with cranberry polyphenols and dietary oligosaccharides to synergistically impact its physiology. In this study, L. plantarum ATCC BAA-793 was grown on dietary oligosaccharides, including cranberry xyloglucans, fructooligosaccharides, and human milk oligosaccharides, in conjunction with proanthocyanidins (PACs) extracted from cranberries. As a result, L. plantarum exhibits a differential physiological response to cranberry PACs dependent on the carbohydrate source and polyphenol fraction introduced. Of the two PAC extracts ...


Non-Neutralizing Antibodies May Contribute To Suppression Of Sivmac239 Viremia In Indian Rhesus Macaques, Nuria Pedreno-Lopez, Brandon C. Rosen, Walter J. Flores, Matthew J. Gorman, Thomas B. Voigt, Michael J. Ricciardi, Kristin Crosno, Kim L. Weisgrau, Christopher L. Parks, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Galit Alter, Eva G. Rakasz, Diogo Magnani, Mauricio A. Martins, David I. Watkins 2021 George Washington University

Non-Neutralizing Antibodies May Contribute To Suppression Of Sivmac239 Viremia In Indian Rhesus Macaques, Nuria Pedreno-Lopez, Brandon C. Rosen, Walter J. Flores, Matthew J. Gorman, Thomas B. Voigt, Michael J. Ricciardi, Kristin Crosno, Kim L. Weisgrau, Christopher L. Parks, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Galit Alter, Eva G. Rakasz, Diogo Magnani, Mauricio A. Martins, David I. Watkins

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The antiviral properties of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV are well-documented but no vaccine is currently able to elicit protective titers of these responses in primates. While current vaccine modalities can readily induce non-neutralizing antibodies against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and HIV, the ability of these responses to restrict lentivirus transmission and replication remains controversial. Here, we investigated the antiviral properties of non-neutralizing antibodies in a group of Indian rhesus macaques (RMs) that were vaccinated with vif, rev, tat, nef, and env, as part of a previous study conducted by our group. These animals manifested rapid and durable control of ...


Bacterial Processing Of Glucose Modulates C. Elegans Lifespan And Healthspan, Samuel F. Kingsley, Yonghak Seo, Calista Allen, Krishna S. Ghanta, Steven Finkel, Heidi A. Tissenbaum 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Bacterial Processing Of Glucose Modulates C. Elegans Lifespan And Healthspan, Samuel F. Kingsley, Yonghak Seo, Calista Allen, Krishna S. Ghanta, Steven Finkel, Heidi A. Tissenbaum

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Intestinal microbiota play an essential role in the health of a host organism. Here, we define how commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) alters its host after long term exposure to glucose using a Caenorhabditis elegans-E. coli system where only the bacteria have direct contact with glucose. Our data reveal that bacterial processing of glucose results in reduced lifespan and healthspan including reduced locomotion, oxidative stress resistance, and heat stress resistance in C. elegans. With chronic exposure to glucose, E. coli exhibits growth defects and increased advanced glycation end products. These negative effects are abrogated when the E. coli is not ...


Microbiological Study In A Gneissic Cave From Sri Lanka, With Special Focus On Potential Antimicrobial Activities, Ethige Isuru P. Silva, Pathmakumara Jayasingha, Saman Senanayake, Anura Dandeniya, Dona Helani Munasinghe 2021 University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

Microbiological Study In A Gneissic Cave From Sri Lanka, With Special Focus On Potential Antimicrobial Activities, Ethige Isuru P. Silva, Pathmakumara Jayasingha, Saman Senanayake, Anura Dandeniya, Dona Helani Munasinghe

International Journal of Speleology

The emergence of antibiotic resistance is a global health crisis, thus the search for novel antimicrobial compounds has become a continuous necessity. Underexplored and extreme environments, such as cave ecosystems, have been identified as a promising potential source for the discovery of novel microorganisms with novel antimicrobial compounds (AMC). This study presents the first cave microbiological investigation in Sri Lanka, with a special preference for bioprospecting of novel AMC. The cave sediment characterization demonstrated the presence of close to strong acidic conditions (pH 3.1 – 3.3) and thus indicates the possibility of isolating acidophilic microorganisms. Eight cave wall/ceiling ...


The Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Transposon Sequencing Database (Mtbtndb): A Large-Scale Guide To Genetic Conditional Essentiality [Preprint], Adrian Jinich, Anisha Zaveri, Michael A. DeJesus, Emanuel Flores-Bautista, Clare M. Smith, Christopher M. Sassetti, Jeremy M. Rock, Sabine Ehrt, Dirk Schnappinger, Thomas R. Ioerger, Kyu Rhee 2021 Weill-Cornell Medical College

The Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Transposon Sequencing Database (Mtbtndb): A Large-Scale Guide To Genetic Conditional Essentiality [Preprint], Adrian Jinich, Anisha Zaveri, Michael A. Dejesus, Emanuel Flores-Bautista, Clare M. Smith, Christopher M. Sassetti, Jeremy M. Rock, Sabine Ehrt, Dirk Schnappinger, Thomas R. Ioerger, Kyu Rhee

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Characterization of gene essentiality across different conditions is a useful approach for predicting gene function. Transposon sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful means of generating genome-wide profiles of essentiality and has been used extensively in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genetic research. Over the past two decades, dozens of TnSeq screens have been published, yielding valuable insights into the biology of Mtb in vitro, inside macrophages, and in model host organisms. However, these Mtb TnSeq profiles are distributed across dozens of research papers within supplementary materials, which makes querying them cumbersome and assembling a complete and consistent synthesis of existing data challenging. Here ...


Swi/Snf Senses Carbon Starvation With A Ph-Sensitive Low Complexity Sequence [Preprint], J. Ignacio Gutiérrez, Gregory P. Brittingham, Yonca Karadeniz, Kathleen D. Tran, Arnob Dutta, Alex S. Holehouse, Craig L. Peterson, Liam J. Holt 2021 University of California - Berkeley

Swi/Snf Senses Carbon Starvation With A Ph-Sensitive Low Complexity Sequence [Preprint], J. Ignacio Gutiérrez, Gregory P. Brittingham, Yonca Karadeniz, Kathleen D. Tran, Arnob Dutta, Alex S. Holehouse, Craig L. Peterson, Liam J. Holt

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

It is increasingly appreciated that intracellular pH changes are important biological signals. This motivates the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of pH-sensing. We determined that a nucleocytoplasmic pH oscillation was required for the transcriptional response to carbon starvation in S. cerevisiae. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is a key mediator of this transcriptional response. We found that a glutamine-rich low complexity sequence (QLC) in the SNF5 subunit of this complex, and histidines within this sequence, were required for efficient transcriptional reprogramming during carbon starvation. Furthermore, the SNF5 QLC mediated pH-dependent recruitment of SWI/SNF to a model promoter in vitro ...


Ifnγ And Inos-Mediated Alterations In The Bone Marrow And Thymus And Its Impact On Mycobacterium Avium-Induced Thymic Atrophy [Preprint], Palmira Barreira-Silva, Rita Melo-Miranda, Claudia Nobrega, Susana Roque, Cláudia Serre-Miranda, Margarida Borges, Daniela de Sá Calçada, Samuel M. Behar, Rui Appelberg, Margarida Correia-Neves 2021 University of Minho

Ifnγ And Inos-Mediated Alterations In The Bone Marrow And Thymus And Its Impact On Mycobacterium Avium-Induced Thymic Atrophy [Preprint], Palmira Barreira-Silva, Rita Melo-Miranda, Claudia Nobrega, Susana Roque, Cláudia Serre-Miranda, Margarida Borges, Daniela De Sá Calçada, Samuel M. Behar, Rui Appelberg, Margarida Correia-Neves

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Disseminated infection with the high virulence strain of Mycobacterium avium 25291 lead to progressive thymic atrophy. We previously uncovered that M. avium-induced thymic atrophy is due to increased levels of glucocorticoids synergizing with nitric oxide (NO) produced by interferon gamma (IFNγ) activated macrophages. Where and how these mediators are playing, was yet to be understood. We hypothesized that IFNγ and NO might be affecting bone marrow (BM) T cell precursors and/or T cell differentiation in the thymus. We show that M. avium infection causes a reduction on the percentage of lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors (LMPP) and common lymphoid progenitors ...


All You Need To Know And More About The Diagnosis And Management Of Rare Mold Infections, Martin Hoenigl, Stuart M. Levitz, Audrey N. Schuetz, Sean X. Zhang, Oliver A. Cornely 2021 Medical University of Graz

All You Need To Know And More About The Diagnosis And Management Of Rare Mold Infections, Martin Hoenigl, Stuart M. Levitz, Audrey N. Schuetz, Sean X. Zhang, Oliver A. Cornely

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Invasive mold infections caused by molds other than Aspergillus spp. or Mucorales are emerging. The reported prevalences of infection due to these rare fungal pathogens vary among geographic regions, driven by differences in climatic conditions, susceptible hosts, and diagnostic capabilities. These rare molds-Fusarium, Lomentospora, and Scedosporium species and others-are difficult to detect and often show intrinsic antifungal resistance. Now, international societies of medical mycology and microbiology have joined forces and created the "Global guideline for the diagnosis and management of rare mould infections: an initiative of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology in cooperation with the International Society for Human ...


Cd4 T Cell Help Prevents Cd8 T Cell Exhaustion And Promotes Control Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection [Preprint], Yu-Jung Lu, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Shayla Boyce, Jennifer Powers, Kelly Cavallo, Samuel M. Behar 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cd4 T Cell Help Prevents Cd8 T Cell Exhaustion And Promotes Control Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection [Preprint], Yu-Jung Lu, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Shayla Boyce, Jennifer Powers, Kelly Cavallo, Samuel M. Behar

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

CD4 T cells are essential for immunity to tuberculosis because they produce cytokines including interferon-γ. Whether CD4 T cells act as “helper” cells to promote optimal CD8 T cell responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis is unknown. Using two independent models, we show that CD4 T cell help enhances CD8 effector functions and prevents CD8 T cell exhaustion. We demonstrate synergy between CD4 and CD8 T cells in promoting the survival of infected mice. Purified helped, but not helpless, CD8 T cells efficiently restrict intracellular bacterial growth in vitro. Thus, CD4 T cell help plays an essential role in generating protective CD8 ...


Host Tropism Determination By Convergent Evolution Of Immunological Evasion In The Lyme Disease System [Preprint], Thomas M. Hart, Alan P. Dupuis, II, Danielle M. Tufts, Anna M. Blom, Simon Starkey, Ryan O. M. Rego, Sanjay Ram, Peter Kraiczy, Laura D. Kramer, Maria A. Diuk-Wasser, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Yi-Pin Lin 2021 SUNY Albany

Host Tropism Determination By Convergent Evolution Of Immunological Evasion In The Lyme Disease System [Preprint], Thomas M. Hart, Alan P. Dupuis, Ii, Danielle M. Tufts, Anna M. Blom, Simon Starkey, Ryan O. M. Rego, Sanjay Ram, Peter Kraiczy, Laura D. Kramer, Maria A. Diuk-Wasser, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Yi-Pin Lin

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Microparasites selectively adapt in some hosts, known as host tropism. Transmitted through ticks and carried mainly by mammals and birds, the Lyme disease (LD) bacterium is a well-suited model to study such tropism. LD bacteria species vary in host ranges through mechanisms eluding characterization. By feeding ticks infected with different LD bacteria species, utilizing feeding chambers and live mice and quail, we found species-level differences of bacterial transmission. These differences localize on the tick blood meal, and complement, a defense in vertebrate blood, and a bacterial polymorphic protein, CspA, which inactivates complement by binding to a host complement inhibitor, FH ...


Sirtuin 3 Downregulation In Mycobacterium Tuberculosis-Infected Macrophages Reprograms Mitochondrial Metabolism And Promotes Cell Death, Lorissa J. Smulan, Nuria M. Martinez, Michael C. Kiritsy, Chido L. Kativhu, Kelly Cavallo, Christopher M. Sassetti, Amit Singhal, Heinz G. Remold, Hardy Kornfeld 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sirtuin 3 Downregulation In Mycobacterium Tuberculosis-Infected Macrophages Reprograms Mitochondrial Metabolism And Promotes Cell Death, Lorissa J. Smulan, Nuria M. Martinez, Michael C. Kiritsy, Chido L. Kativhu, Kelly Cavallo, Christopher M. Sassetti, Amit Singhal, Heinz G. Remold, Hardy Kornfeld

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces metabolic reprogramming in macrophages like the Warburg effect. This enhances antimicrobial performance at the expense of increased inflammation, which may promote a pathogen-permissive host environment. Since the NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is an important regulator of mitochondrial metabolism and cellular redox homeostasis, we hypothesized that SIRT3 modulation mediates M. tuberculosis-induced metabolic reprogramming. Infection of immortalized and primary murine macrophages resulted in reduced levels of SIRT3 mRNA and protein and perturbation of SIRT3-regulated enzymes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport chain, and glycolytic pathway. These changes were associated with increased reactive oxygen species and ...


Sociodemographic, Clinical Characteristics, And Outcomes Of Influenza Pneumonia Patients Admitted In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Karachi, Pakistan: Findings From A Cross-Sectional Study, Fazal Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arslan Ahmed, Kashif Aziz, Mahmooda Jabeen Ashraf, Tazein Amber, Sumera Aziz Ali 2021 Aga Khan University

Sociodemographic, Clinical Characteristics, And Outcomes Of Influenza Pneumonia Patients Admitted In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Karachi, Pakistan: Findings From A Cross-Sectional Study, Fazal Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arslan Ahmed, Kashif Aziz, Mahmooda Jabeen Ashraf, Tazein Amber, Sumera Aziz Ali

Section of Internal Medicine

Objective: To determine the sociodemographic, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of influenza pneumonia patients in tertiary care hospital, Karachi Pakistan.
Study design: A cross-sectional study.
Place and duration of study: The Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi Pakistan from January 2013 to December 2018. Methodology: All adult patients who were older than 18 years and suspected to have viral pneumonia were included in the study. Data were abstracted on 105 patients and were entered on preformed proforma after reviewing the files of patients.
Results: Ninety-four (89.5%) patients were influenza positive and 15.2% (n=16) had been vaccinated. Around 92.4 ...


Streptococcus Cristatus – An Oral Bacterium Causing A Case Of Mild Bacteremia And “Possible Endocarditis”, Camilo Guzman, Adi Zaclli, John Molinari 2021 Wayne State University

Streptococcus Cristatus – An Oral Bacterium Causing A Case Of Mild Bacteremia And “Possible Endocarditis”, Camilo Guzman, Adi Zaclli, John Molinari

Medical Student Research Symposium

Streptococcus cristatus is a member of the Mitis streptococcus group. Like other members of this group, it resides in mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity but rarely causes disease. We present a case of S. cristatus bacteremia and “possible endocarditis” (per the modified Duke criteria) in a 59-year-old male suffering from end- stage cryptogenic cirrhosis. To date, it is the fifth reported case of disease caused by the microbe, and the first adult case in which S. cristatus was the sole microbe identified. Our patient had a history of dental caries and poor dentition, which were likely the source of ...


Functional Influence Of 14-3-3 (Ywha) Proteins In Mammals, Elizabeth Barley, Santanu De 2021 Nova Southeastern University

Functional Influence Of 14-3-3 (Ywha) Proteins In Mammals, Elizabeth Barley, Santanu De

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The 14-3-3 (YWHA) proteins are homologous, ubiquitous, and conserved in most organisms ranging from plants to animals and play important roles in regulating key cellular events such as cell signaling, development, apoptosis, etc. These proteins consist of seven isoforms in mammals, termed under Greek alphabetization: beta (β), gamma (γ), epsilon (ε), eta (η), tau/theta (τ), sigma (σ), and zeta (ζ). Each of these isoforms can interact with a plethora of binding partners and has been shown to serve a distinct role in molecular crosstalk, biological processes, and disease susceptibility. Protein 14-3-3 isoforms are scaffolding proteins capable of forming homodimers ...


Single-Cell Rna-Seq Reveals Transcriptomic Heterogeneity Mediated By Host-Pathogen Dynamics In Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines, Elliott D. SoRelle, Joanne Dai, Emmanuela N. Bonglack, Emma M. Heckenberg, Jeffrey Y. Zhou, Stephanie N. Giamberardino, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Simon G. Gregory, Cliburn Chan, Micah A. Luftig 2021 Duke University

Single-Cell Rna-Seq Reveals Transcriptomic Heterogeneity Mediated By Host-Pathogen Dynamics In Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines, Elliott D. Sorelle, Joanne Dai, Emmanuela N. Bonglack, Emma M. Heckenberg, Jeffrey Y. Zhou, Stephanie N. Giamberardino, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Simon G. Gregory, Cliburn Chan, Micah A. Luftig

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) are generated by transforming primary B cells with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and are used extensively as model systems in viral oncology, immunology, and human genetics research. In this study, we characterized single-cell transcriptomic profiles of five LCLs and present a simple discrete-time simulation to explore the influence of stochasticity on LCL clonal evolution. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) revealed substantial phenotypic heterogeneity within and across LCLs with respect to immunoglobulin isotype; virus-modulated host pathways involved in survival, activation, and differentiation; viral replication state; and oxidative stress. This heterogeneity is likely attributable to intrinsic variance in primary B ...


Unique Structural Solution From A Vh3-30 Antibody Targeting The Hemagglutinin Stem Of Influenza A Viruses, Wayne D. Harshbarger, Derrick Deming, Gordon J. Lockbaum, Nattapol Attatippaholkun, Maliwan Kamkaew, Shurong Hou, Mohan Somasundaran, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Quan Karen Zhu, Celia A. Schiffer, Wayne A Marasco 2021 Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Unique Structural Solution From A Vh3-30 Antibody Targeting The Hemagglutinin Stem Of Influenza A Viruses, Wayne D. Harshbarger, Derrick Deming, Gordon J. Lockbaum, Nattapol Attatippaholkun, Maliwan Kamkaew, Shurong Hou, Mohan Somasundaran, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Quan Karen Zhu, Celia A. Schiffer, Wayne A Marasco

Schiffer Lab Publications

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeting conserved influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) epitopes can provide valuable information for accelerating universal vaccine designs. Here, we report structural details for heterosubtypic recognition of HA from circulating and emerging IAVs by the human antibody 3I14. Somatic hypermutations play a critical role in shaping the HCDR3, which alone and uniquely among VH3-30 derived antibodies, forms contacts with five sub-pockets within the HA-stem hydrophobic groove. 3I14 light-chain interactions are also key for binding HA and contribute a large buried surface area spanning two HA protomers. Comparison of 3I14 to bnAbs from several defined ...


Exploring The Impact Of Ketodeoxynonulosonic Acid In Host-Pathogen Interactions Using Uptake And Surface Display By Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae, Sudeshna Saha, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki 2021 University of California - San Diego

Exploring The Impact Of Ketodeoxynonulosonic Acid In Host-Pathogen Interactions Using Uptake And Surface Display By Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae, Sudeshna Saha, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Surface expression of the common vertebrate sialic acid (Sia) N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) by commensal and pathogenic microbes appears structurally to represent "molecular mimicry" of host sialoglycans, facilitating multiple mechanisms of host immune evasion. In contrast, ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (Kdn) is a more ancestral Sia also present in prokaryotic glycoconjugates that are structurally quite distinct from vertebrate sialoglycans. We detected human antibodies against Kdn-terminated glycans, and sialoglycan microarray studies found these anti-Kdn antibodies to be directed against Kdn-sialoglycans structurally similar to those on human cell surface Neu5Ac-sialoglycans. Anti-Kdn-glycan antibodies appear during infancy in a pattern similar to those generated following incorporation of ...


Investigation Of A Monoclonal Antibody Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli, Expressed As Secretory Iga1 And Iga2 In Plants, Audrey Y-H. Teh, Lisa A. Cavacini, Yue Hu, Ozan S. Kumru, Jian Xiong, David T. Bolick, Sangeeta B. Joshi, Clemens Grunwald-Gruber, Friedrich Altmann, Mark S. Klempner, Richard L. Guerrant, David B. Volkin, Yang Wang, Julian K-C. Ma 2021 St. George's University of London

Investigation Of A Monoclonal Antibody Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli, Expressed As Secretory Iga1 And Iga2 In Plants, Audrey Y-H. Teh, Lisa A. Cavacini, Yue Hu, Ozan S. Kumru, Jian Xiong, David T. Bolick, Sangeeta B. Joshi, Clemens Grunwald-Gruber, Friedrich Altmann, Mark S. Klempner, Richard L. Guerrant, David B. Volkin, Yang Wang, Julian K-C. Ma

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Passive immunization with antibodies is a promising approach against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea, a prevalent disease in LMICs. The objective of this study was to investigate expression of a monoclonal anti-ETEC CfaE secretory IgA antibody in N. benthamiana plants, with a view to facilitating access to ETEC passive immunotherapy. SIgA1 and SIgA2 forms of mAb 68-81 were produced by co-expressing the light and engineered heavy chains with J chain and secretory component in N. benthamiana. Antibody expression and assembly were compared with CHO-derived antibodies by SDS-PAGE, western blotting, size-exclusion chromatography and LC-MS peptide mapping. N-linked glycosylation was assessed by rapid ...


Pulmonary Restriction Predicts Long-Term Pulmonary Impairment In People With Hiv And Tuberculosis, Sara C. Auld, Hardy Kornfeld, Pholo Maenetje, Mandla Mlotshwa, William Chase, Mboyo di-Tamba Vangu, Drew A. Torigian, Robert S. Wallis, Gavin Churchyard, Gregory P. Bisson 2021 Emory University

Pulmonary Restriction Predicts Long-Term Pulmonary Impairment In People With Hiv And Tuberculosis, Sara C. Auld, Hardy Kornfeld, Pholo Maenetje, Mandla Mlotshwa, William Chase, Mboyo Di-Tamba Vangu, Drew A. Torigian, Robert S. Wallis, Gavin Churchyard, Gregory P. Bisson

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: While tuberculosis is considered a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a restrictive pattern of pulmonary impairment may actually be more common among tuberculosis survivors. We aimed to determine the nature of pulmonary impairment before and after treatment among people with HIV and tuberculosis and identify risk factors for long-term impairment.

METHODS: In this prospective cohort study conducted in South Africa, we enrolled adults newly diagnosed with HIV and tuberculosis who were initiating antiretroviral therapy and tuberculosis treatment. We measured lung function and symptoms at baseline, 6, and 12 months. We compared participants with and without pulmonary impairment ...


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