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Education Of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Prevention In Adult Intensive Care Patients, Carlin Morgan 2024 Murray State University

Education Of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Prevention In Adult Intensive Care Patients, Carlin Morgan

Scholars Week

The purpose of this project was to improve knowledge related to evidence-based ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) preventative measures that decrease the prevalence of VAP in adult patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). An educational presentation was provided to twelve critical care nurses at a 349-bed hospital in western Kentucky. A pretest was obtained to measure the nurse’s knowledge prior to the presentation. A PowerPoint and pamphlet containing VAP prevention techniques were presented to the twelve critical care nurses during each meeting. A posttest was then administered after the presentation to measure the efficacy of the educational presentation. The mean of …


Development Of Solitary Keratoacanthoma From A Cutaneous Wart, Joshua M. Ninan, Veronica Salazar 2024 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley School of Medicine

Development Of Solitary Keratoacanthoma From A Cutaneous Wart, Joshua M. Ninan, Veronica Salazar

Research Symposium

Background: Common cutaneous warts, referred to in medicine as verrucae vulgaris, are proliferative lesions caused by human papillomavirus. These lesions are mostly benign and usually resolve without incident, except in the case of the patient mentioned in this report. Our patient developed a solitary keratoacanthoma, currently accepted as a clinical variant of squamous cell carcinoma, as a result of several risk factors and traumatic exposure. The current literature does not have an established association of HPV with solitary keratoacanthomas. This case report explores the presentation and pathogenesis of solitary keratoacanthomas within the setting of HPV.

Case Presentation: 48-year-old Caucasian female …


Convolutional Neural Network Based Analysis - An Aid To Diagnose Bacterial And Fungal Osteomyelitis, Saiprasad Alva, Dominic Augustine, Sowmya SV, Mukul Saini, Sanjana Shetty 2024 Faculty of Dental Sciences, Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Convolutional Neural Network Based Analysis - An Aid To Diagnose Bacterial And Fungal Osteomyelitis, Saiprasad Alva, Dominic Augustine, Sowmya Sv, Mukul Saini, Sanjana Shetty

Annual Research Symposium

Osteomyelitis may be classified as Bacterial (Actinomycotic), Fungal (Mucormycotic), or combined based on the etiological agent. During histopathological examination, there is a high chance that bacterial colonies or fungal hyphae may be missed by the human eye, especially when there is a paucity of organisms. This may lead to a faulty diagnosis of the type of osteomyelitis which along with an improper treatment plan would cause further progression of the disease and various other complications. Therefore, the diagnosis of the exact etiological variant of osteomyelitis is of prime importance to design an appropriate treatment plan. In the present study, bone …


A Rare Case Of Iga Vasculitis In An Adult Patient With Mssa Bacteremia And Prostate Abscess, Maria E Mesalles, Erinolaoluwa F Araoye, Anees Siddiqi, Adrien Janvier 2024 Department of Medicine, MedStar Union Memorial Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

A Rare Case Of Iga Vasculitis In An Adult Patient With Mssa Bacteremia And Prostate Abscess, Maria E Mesalles, Erinolaoluwa F Araoye, Anees Siddiqi, Adrien Janvier

Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives

IgA vasculitis, previously known as Henoch Schönlein Purpura (HSP), is a disease more common in children and occurs when IgA1 immune complexes attach to the walls of small blood vessels causing inflammation. This case report is of an adult male who presented with a purpuric rash affecting both legs, microhematuria, and knee pain. Blood cultures were positive for Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Computed tomography of the pelvis revealed a prostate abscess. Skin biopsy demonstrated IgA and C3 in the dermal vessels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IgA vasculitis associated with MSSA bacteremia due to a prostate …


Tail-Tape-Fused Virion And Non-Virion Rna Polymerases Of A Thermophilic Virus With An Extremely Long Tail, Anastasiia Chaban, Leonid Minakhin, Ekaterina Goldobina, Brain Bae, Yue Hao, Sergei Borukhov, Leena Putzeys, Maarten Boon, Florian Kabinger, Rob Lavigne, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Satish K Nair, Shunsuke Tagami, Konstantin Severinov, Maria L Sokolova 2024 Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow

Tail-Tape-Fused Virion And Non-Virion Rna Polymerases Of A Thermophilic Virus With An Extremely Long Tail, Anastasiia Chaban, Leonid Minakhin, Ekaterina Goldobina, Brain Bae, Yue Hao, Sergei Borukhov, Leena Putzeys, Maarten Boon, Florian Kabinger, Rob Lavigne, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Satish K Nair, Shunsuke Tagami, Konstantin Severinov, Maria L Sokolova

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Thermus thermophilus bacteriophage P23-45 encodes a giant 5,002-residue tail tape measure protein (TMP) that defines the length of its extraordinarily long tail. Here, we show that the N-terminal portion of P23-45 TMP is an unusual RNA polymerase (RNAP) homologous to cellular RNAPs. The TMP-fused virion RNAP transcribes pre-early phage genes, including a gene that encodes another, non-virion RNAP, that transcribes early and some middle phage genes. We report the crystal structures of both P23-45 RNAPs. The non-virion RNAP has a crab-claw-like architecture. By contrast, the virion RNAP adopts a unique flat structure without a clamp. Structure and sequence comparisons of …


Resilience And Associated Factors In Orphaned And Separated Adolescents In Kenya: Understanding The Relationship With Care Environment And Hiv Risks., Sarah Sutherland, Harry Shannon, David Ayuku, David Kleiner, Olli Saarela, Lukoye Atwoli, Joseph Hogan, Paula Braitstein 2024 University of Toronto, Canada

Resilience And Associated Factors In Orphaned And Separated Adolescents In Kenya: Understanding The Relationship With Care Environment And Hiv Risks., Sarah Sutherland, Harry Shannon, David Ayuku, David Kleiner, Olli Saarela, Lukoye Atwoli, Joseph Hogan, Paula Braitstein

Internal Medicine, East Africa

Orphans are at higher risk of HIV infection and several important HIV risk factors than non-orphans; however, this may be due to a combination of related social, psychological, and economic factors, as well as care environment, rather than orphan status alone. Understanding these complex relationships may aid policy makers in supporting evidence-based, cost-effective programming for this vulnerable population. This longitudinal study uses a causal effect model to examine, through decomposition, the relationship between care environment and HIV risk factors in orphaned and separated adolescents and youths (OSAY) in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya; considering resilience, social, peer, or family support, volunteering, …


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Increase Antibiotic Susceptibility In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Alexandra E. Chittams-Miles, Areej Malik, Erin B. Purcell, Claudia Muratori 2024 Old Dominion University

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Increase Antibiotic Susceptibility In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Alexandra E. Chittams-Miles, Areej Malik, Erin B. Purcell, Claudia Muratori

Bioelectrics Publications

Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). SSTIs caused by bacteria resistant to antimicrobials, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), are increasing in incidence and have led to higher rates of hospitalization. In this study, we measured MRSA inactivation by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF), a promising new cell ablation technology. Our results show that treatment with 120 pulses of 600 ns duration (28 kV/cm, 1 Hz), caused modest inactivation, indicating cellular damage. We anticipated that the perturbation created by nsPEF could increase antibiotic efficacy if nsPEF were applied as a co-treatment. To test this …


Genome-Based Pathogenicity Potential Of Salmonella Isolated From Diverse Sources, Jared MR Crocco 2024 Wilfrid Laurier University

Genome-Based Pathogenicity Potential Of Salmonella Isolated From Diverse Sources, Jared Mr Crocco

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Bacterial human pathogens are among the leading causes of death around the world, especially in low income and developing countries. One important element in a bacterium’s ability to cause disease are genes that directly contribute to pathogenicity called virulence factors. A second significant aspect are antimicrobial resistance genes which allow microorganisms to persist in the presence of antimicrobial agents. In this project I aimed to determine if Salmonella isolated from different sources differed in pathogenicity profiles based on the complement of genes identified through genomic analysis. Accordingly, Salmonella genomes were organized into 8 groups: animal, clinical, human, environmental, food, water …


Harnessing Antagonistic Pleiotropy: Tolc-Dependent Coliphages Can Drive Reduced Antibiotic Resistance In E. Coli, Cooper McKenna 2024 Claremont Colleges

Harnessing Antagonistic Pleiotropy: Tolc-Dependent Coliphages Can Drive Reduced Antibiotic Resistance In E. Coli, Cooper Mckenna

CMC Senior Theses

The rise of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens has been a growing concern in healthcare around the world, and bacteriophage (phage) therapy is a promising method to combat MDR infections. One defense mechanism of E. coli against antibiotics is the TolC-AcrAB efflux pump. At the same time, some phages use TolC as a surface receptor to infect the cell. This puts TolC at a crossroads in which it is beneficial to the bacteria to protect against antibiotics but harmful by allowing phage infection, creating the potential for evolutionary trade-offs. Previous research has identified only three TolC-dependent phages and shown phage-resistant E. …


Gut Dysbiosis Correlates With Covid-19 Severity, Ednita Escobar 2024 Claremont Colleges

Gut Dysbiosis Correlates With Covid-19 Severity, Ednita Escobar

CMC Senior Theses

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) impacts not only respiratory but also gut and oral microbiomes, influencing the manifestations of COVID-19. Each person’s unique microbiome consists of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, some of which are symbiotic and others potentially harmful. Alterations in the gut microbiome, specifically, can affect the severity and symptoms of COVID-19. A review of studies indicate a pattern of gut dysbiosis in COVID-19 patients characterized by a decrease in beneficial microbiota and/or an increase in opportunistic pathogens. This gut imbalance correlates with disease severity, suggesting that the gut microbiome plays a significant role …


Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia 2023 Brigham Young University

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


Determinants Of Immunization In Polio Super High-Risk Union Councils Of Pakistan, Ahmad Khan, Imtiaz Hussain, Dale A. Rhoda, Muhammad Umer, Uzair Ansari, Imran Ahmed, Caitlin Clary, Rana Muhammad Safdar, Sajid Bashir Soofi 2023 Aga Khan University

Determinants Of Immunization In Polio Super High-Risk Union Councils Of Pakistan, Ahmad Khan, Imtiaz Hussain, Dale A. Rhoda, Muhammad Umer, Uzair Ansari, Imran Ahmed, Caitlin Clary, Rana Muhammad Safdar, Sajid Bashir Soofi

Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health

Background: The current polio epidemiology in Pakistan poses a unique challenge for global eradication as the country is affected by ongoing endemic poliovirus transmission. Across the country, 40 union councils (UCs) which serve as core reservoirs for poliovirus with continuous incidences of polio cases are categorized as super-high-risk union councils (SHRUCs).
Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 39 SHRUCs using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. 6,976 children aged 12-23 months were covered. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using STATA version 17.
Results: Based on both vaccination records and recall, 48.3% of children …


Prevalence, Faunal Composition, And Vertical Distribution Of Bioluminescence In The Pelagic Gulf Of Mexico: Fishes, Crustaceans, Cephalopods And Gelatinous Megaplankton, Devynne M. Brown 2023 Nova Southeastern University

Prevalence, Faunal Composition, And Vertical Distribution Of Bioluminescence In The Pelagic Gulf Of Mexico: Fishes, Crustaceans, Cephalopods And Gelatinous Megaplankton, Devynne M. Brown

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Bioluminescence is the phenomenon of light emission by living organisms. It occurs through a chemical reaction within an organism and serves various purposes. The diversity of bioluminescent capabilities and occurrence in unrelated taxa suggest that bioluminescence has evolved independently numerous times amongst taxa thriving in certain environments. One such environment is the deep ocean, where little to no sunlight penetrates the water column, specifically in the mesopelagic (200-1000 m depth) and bathypelagic (> 1000 m) zones. The mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones have been extensively sampled and well documented in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), one of the few places globally …


How Megadrought Causes Extensive Mortality In A Deep-Rooted Shrub Species Normally Resistant To Drought-Induced Dieback: The Role Of A Biotic Mortality Agent, Natalie M. Aguirre, Marissa E. Ochoa, Helen I. Holmlund, Gabriella N. Palmeri, Emily R. Lancaster, Gina S. Gilderman, Shaquetta R. Taylor, Kaitlyn E. Sauer, Adriana J. Borges, Avery N.D. Lamb, Sarah B. Jacques, Frank W. Ewers, Stephen D. Davis 2023 Texas A&M University

How Megadrought Causes Extensive Mortality In A Deep-Rooted Shrub Species Normally Resistant To Drought-Induced Dieback: The Role Of A Biotic Mortality Agent, Natalie M. Aguirre, Marissa E. Ochoa, Helen I. Holmlund, Gabriella N. Palmeri, Emily R. Lancaster, Gina S. Gilderman, Shaquetta R. Taylor, Kaitlyn E. Sauer, Adriana J. Borges, Avery N.D. Lamb, Sarah B. Jacques, Frank W. Ewers, Stephen D. Davis

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Southern California experienced unprecedented megadrought between 2012 and 2018. During this time, Malosma laurina, a chaparral species normally resilient to single-year intense drought, developed extensive mortality exceeding 60% throughout low-elevation coastal populations of the Santa Monica Mountains. We assessed the physiological mechanisms by which the advent of megadrought predisposed M. laurina to extensive shoot dieback and whole-plant death. We found that hydraulic conductance of stem xylem (Ks, native) was reduced seven to 11-fold in dieback adult and resprout branches, respectively. Staining of stem xylem vessels revealed that dieback plants experienced 68% solid-blockage, explaining the reduction in water transport. Following Koch's …


Genomic Diversity And Carbohydrate Utilisation In Human-Associated Bifidobacterial Isolates, Ortensia Catalano Gonzaga 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland; APC Microbiome Ireland and School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Ireland.

Genomic Diversity And Carbohydrate Utilisation In Human-Associated Bifidobacterial Isolates, Ortensia Catalano Gonzaga

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Bifidobacteria are beneficial commensals of the human gastrointestinal tract and their presence in the gut has been associated with positive health effects on the host. They account for a vast proportion of the infant gut microbiota, when the infant is fed on a milk-based diet, with their number progressively decreasing in adult and elderly. The gut microbiota and associated metabolic activities significantly impact on human health by promoting appropriate development of the infant immune system and contributing to the maintenance of the intestinal homeostasis. In recent years it has become clear that microbial colonization of the gut immediately following birth …


Urobiome Screening For Antimicrobial Peptides Against Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Jennifer Jones 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Bishopstown, Cork, Ireland

Urobiome Screening For Antimicrobial Peptides Against Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Jennifer Jones

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide. As global incidences of UTIs caused by multidrug resistant bacteria continue to increase, so too does the demand for novel antimicrobial therapies.

Due to its relatively understudied nature, the urinary microbiome represents a niche with an untapped source of potentially novel antimicrobials (e.g., bacteriocins). Improvements to bacterial culturing and sequencing techniques have highlighted these potential alternative treatments and control strategies to target antibiotic resistant uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC).

METHODS: Expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) was used to culture bacterial isolates from mid-stream urine samples. Urinary isolates …


Diagnosis And Management Of A Patient With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Conjunctivitis, Michael Chocky OD 2023 VA New Jersey Healthcare System

Diagnosis And Management Of A Patient With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Conjunctivitis, Michael Chocky Od

Optometric Clinical Practice

Background : Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are becoming more common. These infections can cause various ocular conditions including conjunctivitis. Conjunctival cultures are an important tool to assist with proper diagnosis and treatment of these infections. Case Report : A 61-year-old African American male presented with the complaint of redness and drainage from his eyes. With the assistance of conjunctival cultures, he was diagnosed with MRSA conjunctivitis. Treatment with vancomycin ultimately led to resolution of the condition. Conclusion : MRSA conjunctivitis should always be considered when a conjunctivitis is not responding to empirical therapy. Eye care professionals should be aware …


Bilateral Interstitial Keratitis Following Covid-19: A Case Report, Nathalie D. Daher, Zeba A. Syed 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Bilateral Interstitial Keratitis Following Covid-19: A Case Report, Nathalie D. Daher, Zeba A. Syed

Wills Eye Hospital Papers

BACKGROUND: Although the primary target of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is the respiratory tract, the expression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in other tissues facilitates viral entry in others parts of the body, including ocular structures. Ocular manifestations may occur before, during, or after systemic infection.

CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 60-year-old male who presented with bilateral interstitial keratitis after the onset of COVID-19, with ocular symptoms starting within 7 days after systemic symptoms. Laboratory investigation did not identify any alternative etiology for his disease, although the possibility of Epstein-Barr virus or herpes simpex …


Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Patient Characteristics, Treatment, And Clinical Outcomes In One South Texas Acute Care Hospital, Kimberly A. Ambrosini, Jose Campo Maldonado 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Patient Characteristics, Treatment, And Clinical Outcomes In One South Texas Acute Care Hospital, Kimberly A. Ambrosini, Jose Campo Maldonado

Research Colloquium

Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs) account for 40 percent of nosocomial infections worldwide. Their elimination is at the forefront of quality improvement in one South Texas acute care hospital.

Methods: Over a period of 6 months, five CA-UTIs occurred in one South Texas acute care hospital. These cases were identified via regular surveillance by Infection Prevention staff and the Laboratory Department of the hospital. This research reviews patient age, sex, length of stay, bacteria contracted, appropriate antibiotic use, patient characteristics, and overall outcomes.

Results: Between the months of July and December 2021, 5 CAUTIs were contracted. Patients ranged in …


Whole Genome Sequence Data Implicate Rbfox1 In Epilepsy Risk In Baboons, Mark Z. Kos, Melanie A. Carless, Lucy Blondell, Mary M. Leland, Koyle D. Knape, Harald H. H. Goring, Charles A. Szabo 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Whole Genome Sequence Data Implicate Rbfox1 In Epilepsy Risk In Baboons, Mark Z. Kos, Melanie A. Carless, Lucy Blondell, Mary M. Leland, Koyle D. Knape, Harald H. H. Goring, Charles A. Szabo

Research Symposium

Background: Baboons exhibit a genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) that resembles juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and may represent a suitable genetic model for human epilepsy. The genetic underpinnings of epilepsy were investigated in a baboon colony at the Southwest National Primate Research Center (San Antonio, TX) through the analysis of whole-genome sequence (WGS) data.

Methods: Baboon WGS data were obtained for 38 cases and 19 healthy controls from the NCBI Sequence Read Archive and, after standard QC filtering, two subsets of variants were examined: (1) 20,881 SNPs from baboon homologs of 19 candidate GGE genes; and (2) 36,169 protein-altering SNPs. Association tests …


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