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4,956 full-text articles. Page 7 of 177.

Root Coverage With Laterally Positioned Pedicle Flap And Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft On Localized Severely Denuded Root Surface After Surgical Orthodontic Treatment In Cleft Lip And Palate: A Case Report, Yuan-Min Wang, Yuh-Ren Ju, Ellen Wen-Ching Ko, Whei-Lin Pan, Chiu-Po Chan, Shiuan-Tang Jasmine Chang 2022 Department of Periodontics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

Root Coverage With Laterally Positioned Pedicle Flap And Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft On Localized Severely Denuded Root Surface After Surgical Orthodontic Treatment In Cleft Lip And Palate: A Case Report, Yuan-Min Wang, Yuh-Ren Ju, Ellen Wen-Ching Ko, Whei-Lin Pan, Chiu-Po Chan, Shiuan-Tang Jasmine Chang

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

A 27-year-old female patient with secondary cleft deformity and malocclusion was initially treated with reconstructive surgery. However, localized severely gingival recession on the upper right first premolar and massive scar tissue over the buccal vestibular area were formed after the surgical orthodontic treatment. The surgical technique of choice in this patient was laterally positioned pedicle flap (LPF) combined with subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) because of the area adjacent to the recession defect showed a great amount of attached gingiva and without interproximal bone loss. The complete root coverage in the surgical site was observed one year later. To the …


To Achieve An Ideal Functional Occlusion And Esthetical Outcome By Interdisciplinary Treatment – A Case Report, Nien-Chieh Lee, Pi-Lun Chen, Chien-Jung Pai, Whei-Lin Pan 2022 Department of General Dentistry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan

To Achieve An Ideal Functional Occlusion And Esthetical Outcome By Interdisciplinary Treatment – A Case Report, Nien-Chieh Lee, Pi-Lun Chen, Chien-Jung Pai, Whei-Lin Pan

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

A harmonious face may involve the proper skeletal and dental relationship, in combination with the color, contour, and position of surrounding soft tissue. A 51-year-old female patient complained about her protrusive teeth and asked for improvement of her facial profile. The clinical examination of the patient revealed bimaxillary protrusion, gummy smile, and several ill-fitted fixed partial dentures. The “surgery-first” approach was chosen to improve her facial esthetics and to achieve a normal occlusion by reducing orthodontic treatment time. Therewas still 2~3mm space remaining between upper left canine and second premolar after orthodontic treatment, and this problem was resolved by prosthetic …


Profile Angle Defines Soft Tissue Chin Position In Adults, Hui-Ling Chen, Yueh-Tse Lee, Yu-Ching Wang 2022 Department of Orthodontics and Craniofacial Dentistry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan

Profile Angle Defines Soft Tissue Chin Position In Adults, Hui-Ling Chen, Yueh-Tse Lee, Yu-Ching Wang

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

Objectives: To identify the soft tissue chin position relative to the upper part of the face wherein the Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane intersects the nasal bridge and to define a specific measurement that might benefit different racial groups and their treatment goals. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight Taiwanese adults (23 males and 25 females), selected based on criteria consisting of proper occlusion, skeletal Class I pattern, lip competence in repose, and within the Esthetic (E) line confined standard, were subjected to standard soft tissue facial analyses. The results were used to compare with those of the White norm. Results: Analyses revealed …


Dentofacial Morphology Of Skeletal Class Ii Malocclusion With Mandibular Retrusion, Yu-Chun Lin, Hong-Po Chang, Yi-Hsin Yang, Yu-Chuan Tseng, Chin-Yun Pan, Szu-Ting Chou 2022 Department of Orthodontics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital; Division of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital

Dentofacial Morphology Of Skeletal Class Ii Malocclusion With Mandibular Retrusion, Yu-Chun Lin, Hong-Po Chang, Yi-Hsin Yang, Yu-Chuan Tseng, Chin-Yun Pan, Szu-Ting Chou

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological characteristics of the craniofacial pattern in skeletal Class II adults with mandibular retrusion. Materials and methods: Lateral cephalograms of 80 adults with skeletal Class II malocclusion with mandibular retrusion (∠ANB > 5°, ∠FNB < 86°) compared with 80 adults with normal occlusion (equal sexes in both groups). Thirty five landmarks were identified and digitized. Cephalometric analysis utilizing 30 linear, 29 angular and 4 ratio measurements were undertaken. Statistical comparison of the two groups was performed with Student’s t-test and 2 way-ANOVA. Results: (1) The skeletal Class II sample with mandibular retrusion had longer anterior cranial base length but the internal cranial base angle and the saddle angle were not different from the normal occlusion subject. (2) The sample with mandibular retrusion had longer maxillary length but the maxilla was in normal position related to the cranial base. The mandible was more retrusive and smaller but the ramus width was wider than normal occlusion subject due to compensatory growth. (3) The mandibular retrusion sample had more tilting maxillary plane, mandibular plane, ramus plane and occlusal plane. The sample had longer total anterior facial height, longer upper and lower anterior facial height and shorter posterior facial height (shorter ramus height) than normal occlusion subjects. Hyperdivergent facial pattern and the mandible rotated clockwisely were noted. (4) The mandibular retrusion sample had extrusive but normal inclined upper incisors, more inclined and extrusive lower incisors, smaller interincisal angle, larger overjet and deep overbite. (5) The mandibular retrusion group had more mesial tipping and more extrusive upper 1st molars. Besides, more mesial tipping, more retrusive, and more extrusive lower 1st molars were noted. Conclusion: Multiple variations of skeletodental features were found for skeletal Class II malocclusion with mandibular retrusion.


Treatment Of Angle Class Iii Malocclusion With Lateral Incisor Congenital Missing With Facemask – Case Report, Hsin-Yi Lo, Kwong-Wa Li, Lian-Ru Chen, Ming-Lun Hong, Jeng-Fen Liu 2022 Department of Orthodontics of Veterans General Hospital, Taichung

Treatment Of Angle Class Iii Malocclusion With Lateral Incisor Congenital Missing With Facemask – Case Report, Hsin-Yi Lo, Kwong-Wa Li, Lian-Ru Chen, Ming-Lun Hong, Jeng-Fen Liu

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

Protraction facemask is one of the common effective methods to treat the patient with maxillary deficiency in mixed dentition and adolescent patients. In this case report, we present the treatment of a 10-year-old female patient with skeletal class III with maxillary retrognathism, anterior crossbite, left lateral incisor congenital missing, right peg lateral incisor and midline discrepancy with class III malocclusion. Treatment plan included protraction facemask with rapid maxillary expansion therapy, extraction of right peg lateral incisor and canine substitution. We also used temporary anchorage device (TAD) for molar asymmetry and midline correction while using facemask protraction to reach the bilateral …


Orthodontic Treatment For A Class Iii Malocclusion Growing Patient By Using Rme And Chin-Cup Appliance – Case Report, Po-Yuan Hsueh, Li-Hsiang Lin 2022 Graduate Institute of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

Orthodontic Treatment For A Class Iii Malocclusion Growing Patient By Using Rme And Chin-Cup Appliance – Case Report, Po-Yuan Hsueh, Li-Hsiang Lin

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

The early treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion is one of the most challenging problems that orthodontists may encounter. These patients often combine maxillary deficiency with anterior crossbite. In this report, an 8-year-old female patient with Class III malocclusion, anterior crossbite and protrusive lower lip. (SNA: 83.5°, SNB: 83°, ANB: 0.5°, overjet: -1.5mm, overbite: +2.5mm, mandibular plane to SN: 26.7°), received orthodontic treatment with rapid maxillary expansion and chin cup appliance. We used RME 2 turns (0.5mm) per day, and wore the chin cup at least 21 hours per day, to force mouth closure and enhance nasal breathing. Active orthodontic …


Management Of Occlusal Plane Canting By Yin-Yan Archwire – A Case Report, Chia-Ni Lin, Szu-Ting Chou 2022 Department of Orthodontics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital

Management Of Occlusal Plane Canting By Yin-Yan Archwire – A Case Report, Chia-Ni Lin, Szu-Ting Chou

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

It is important to diagnose the underlying cause of an occlusal plane canting so that an appropriate treatment plan can be efficiently implemented. Burstone1said the patient treated surgically should have the occlusal plane parallel to facial structure. In nonsurgical patient, there may be a cant to the plane of occlusion relative to the face. In the past, this cant was not easily treated because of mechanical difficulties in intruding entire posterior segments. With skeletal anchorage device, we can solve the problem today, but can we do it in a different way? This case report presents a young male suffered from …


A Case Report Of Non-Extraction Treatment For Maxillary Canine Transposition, Ting-Fang Cheng, Shou-Hsin Kuang, Jenny Hwai-Jen Fong, Tzu-Ying Wu 2022 Dentistry Department, Taipei Veterans General Hospital

A Case Report Of Non-Extraction Treatment For Maxillary Canine Transposition, Ting-Fang Cheng, Shou-Hsin Kuang, Jenny Hwai-Jen Fong, Tzu-Ying Wu

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

Tooth transposition is a rare but disturbing problem for patients in esthetic and functional aspects. In this report, we describe a case with unilateral transposition of the maxillary canine and premolar. The patient received full mouth non-extraction orthodontic treatment with upper 1st premolar substitution for upper canine. Crown morphology modification and gingival plastic surgery for harmonious anterior esthetics and function were performed. Patient was satisfied with the treatment outcome.


Bite Force And Maximum Mouth Opening After Orthognathic Surgery, Hsiang-Ling Hu, Sheng-Chin Lin, Yun-Yun Wu, Yuan-Yi Tun, Man-Ching Cheng, Chung-Chen Jane Yao, Wen-Chung Chang 2022 Orthodontic Department, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

Bite Force And Maximum Mouth Opening After Orthognathic Surgery, Hsiang-Ling Hu, Sheng-Chin Lin, Yun-Yun Wu, Yuan-Yi Tun, Man-Ching Cheng, Chung-Chen Jane Yao, Wen-Chung Chang

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

In order to achieve better facial esthetics, functional occlusion, maintaining tissue health and stable treatment results, orthognathic surgery is required in certain orthodontic patients. While planning orthognathic surgery, we should inform patients benefits and risks associated in this treatment modality. Possible side effects including the post-operational temporary physiological influences to the patient should be mentioned.Thus, patients will be less anxious and deal with those problems more comfortably. The most common post-operation influences of orthognathic surgery is hypomobility. The objective measurements for mandibular function are maximum mouth opening (MMO), maximum bite force, and muscle fatigability. We summarize and compare the literatures …


A Paradigm Shift In Lingual Orthodontics – Literature Review, Yu-Ching Huang, Li-Hsiang Lin 2022 Sijhih Cathay General Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan

A Paradigm Shift In Lingual Orthodontics – Literature Review, Yu-Ching Huang, Li-Hsiang Lin

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

During the past decades, environments surrounding orthodontics have dramatically been changed. Demands for esthetics from patients are becoming more and more, and the number of patients who want to have invisible treatment has been increasing, especially in Europe and Asian countries. The lingual orthodontic therapy though started in 1972, could not be popular until the beginning of 1990. So far, the biggest changes in technical aspects of lingual orthodontics include development of patient and orthodontist friendly lingual treatment system with new appliances and digital technology for computerized treatment plan modeling and wire bending. Lingual orthodontics is no longer difficult nor …


Surgical Orthodontic Treatment For A Class Iii Patient With Anterior Openbite And Multiple Idiopathic Root Resorption – A Case Report, Shao-Chun Lu, Shu-Yin Chao, Yao-Der Huang, Sang-Heng Kok, Yi-Jane Chen 2022 Orthodontic Division, Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University Hospital; Graduate Institute of Clinical Dentistry, School of Dentistry, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University

Surgical Orthodontic Treatment For A Class Iii Patient With Anterior Openbite And Multiple Idiopathic Root Resorption – A Case Report, Shao-Chun Lu, Shu-Yin Chao, Yao-Der Huang, Sang-Heng Kok, Yi-Jane Chen

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

Severe root resorption with excessive tooth mobility may compromise the capability of the teeth to sustain occlusal loading, and possibly lead to extraction. Apical external root resorption (AERR) is considered as one of the risks associated with orthodontic treatment. Some clinical factors have been shown to correlate with orthodontic treatment, whereas the determinants for predicting AERR consistently were not found. Therefore, orthodontists must monitor the amount of root resorption during the course of orthodontic treatment. Multiple idiopathic root resorption (MIRR) is a rare condition. If MIRR is present, the severity of tooth mobility may get worsen during orthodontic treatment. The …


Maxillary Molar Distalization With Introral Fixed Appliances And Miniscrew Anchorage — Case Report, Tung-Yu Li, Fang-Chin Chen, Hwai-Jen Fong, Tzu-Ying Wu, Sou-Hsin Kuang 2022 Orthodontic Department, Taipei Veterans General Hospital; Zuoying Branch of Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital

Maxillary Molar Distalization With Introral Fixed Appliances And Miniscrew Anchorage — Case Report, Tung-Yu Li, Fang-Chin Chen, Hwai-Jen Fong, Tzu-Ying Wu, Sou-Hsin Kuang

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

Fixed maxillary molar distalization appliance is an effective and noncompliance way for space regain. But with the increased confidence on skeletal anchorage, maximum anchorage preparation was planned with miniscrew in recent years. In this article, we cited two clinical cases to introduce an intraoral noncompliance appliance for maxillary molar distalization. RAMDA (rapid molar distalizing appliance) assist with skeletal anchorage is our modified technique used in these cases. From superimposition, we found that average rate of distalization was 1-2 mm per month. However, distal tipping of molar and anterior anchorage loss were also noted when using miniscrew as indirect anchorage.


Severe Skeletal Class Ii With Unilateral Crossbite Treated With Tads: A Case Report, Shih-Chin Chen, Yu-Cheng Liaw, Shou-Hsin Kuang, Mayling Lee, Fang-Chin Chen 2022 Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

Severe Skeletal Class Ii With Unilateral Crossbite Treated With Tads: A Case Report, Shih-Chin Chen, Yu-Cheng Liaw, Shou-Hsin Kuang, Mayling Lee, Fang-Chin Chen

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

Unilateral posterior crossbite case is quite complicated and difficult for orthodontist. The etiology may include any combination of dental, skeletal and neuromuscular functional components. This case is a 23 years old female with severe class II skeletal pattern and right side posterior teeth complete buccal crossbite. With the aid of TADs (temporary anchorage device) and full coverage biting plate, unilateral posterior buccal crossbite was corrected in an efficient way. Without an orthognathic surgery, the results of good dentition control in vertical direction and large amount of overjet reduction can still be obtained.


Using Rapid Maxillary Expander Plus Chin Cap To Correct Complete Anterior Cross Bite Followed By Fixed Appliance With Facial Mask – A Case Report, Yuen-Yung Tsang, Chia-Yi Pan, Ming-Juean Su, Yu-Ling Cheng 2022 Dr. Su's Orthodontic Center

Using Rapid Maxillary Expander Plus Chin Cap To Correct Complete Anterior Cross Bite Followed By Fixed Appliance With Facial Mask – A Case Report, Yuen-Yung Tsang, Chia-Yi Pan, Ming-Juean Su, Yu-Ling Cheng

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

Anterior cross bite is not rare and is one of the characteristics of class III malocclusion. The prevalence rate is about 4-14% in Chinese children. Rapid Maxillary Expander (RME) has been successfully used for many years because it is not only used for correction of vertical, transverse and sagittal dimension of maxilla but also exert on reduction in nasal airway resistance. A 10 years 4 months old Chinese girl came with a chief complaint of anterior cross-bite and severe crowding. She had allergy history with nasal congestion. Complete anterior crossbite and mid-face deficiency with severe dento-alveolar discrepancy on upper arch …


Literature Review: Low Level Laser Therapy In Orthodontics, Meng-Huan Tsai, Hsuan-Yu Shih, Hui-Chen Tsai, Hsuan-Yi Hsiao, Chung-Chen Jane Yao 2022 Department of Dentistry and Graduate Institute of Clinical Dentistry, School of Dentistry, National Taiwan University; Department of Orthodontics, National Taiwan University Hospital

Literature Review: Low Level Laser Therapy In Orthodontics, Meng-Huan Tsai, Hsuan-Yu Shih, Hui-Chen Tsai, Hsuan-Yi Hsiao, Chung-Chen Jane Yao

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

Treatment duration is one of the major determinants for patients receiving orthodontic treatment. To avoid long treatment time, orthodontists have to design sound mechanics meeting the anchorage demands and delivering appropriate force system to the tooth and its supporting tissues. However, the more crucial factors related to the treatment efficiency may lie in the individual biological response which is still largely unknown, to the force system which orthodontists regularly delivered. Low level laser with specific power setting has been shown as a non-invasive adjunctive treatment without obvious side effect for facilitating orthodontic movement in some clinical studies. This article reviews …


The Prevalence And Patterns Of Permanent Teeth Agenesis In Bilateral Cleft Lip And Palate Children Of Southern Taiwan, Te-Ju Wu, Shiu-Shiung Lin, Jui-Pin Lai, Wen-Ching Tsai, Ren-Jye Chen, Yu-Jen Chang 2022 Department of Orthodontics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital,Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

The Prevalence And Patterns Of Permanent Teeth Agenesis In Bilateral Cleft Lip And Palate Children Of Southern Taiwan, Te-Ju Wu, Shiu-Shiung Lin, Jui-Pin Lai, Wen-Ching Tsai, Ren-Jye Chen, Yu-Jen Chang

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

Objective: To retrospectively investigate the prevalence and patterns of tooth agenesis in permanent dentition of bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) children in Southern Taiwan. Patients: 156 Taiwan children (99 males and 57 females) with BCLP aged from 4 to18 years were selected from the craniofacial records between July, 1983 and June, 2008 in the Department of Orthodontics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Materials and methods: Dental records including the panoramic radiographs, periapical films of anterior teeth, upper occlusal films and dental models of the selected patients were examined. Results: The prevalence of tooth agenesis of permanent dentition is 78.8%. …


Forced Eruption Of Multiple Impacted Teeth With Dentigerous Cyst – A Case Report, Tzu-Ying Wu, Chia-Chen Li, Cheng-Hisen Wu, Shih-Yun Wu, Shou-Hsin Kuang 2022 Dentistry Department, Taipei Veterans General Hospital; School of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University

Forced Eruption Of Multiple Impacted Teeth With Dentigerous Cyst – A Case Report, Tzu-Ying Wu, Chia-Chen Li, Cheng-Hisen Wu, Shih-Yun Wu, Shou-Hsin Kuang

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

This case report presented a11 y/o Chinese female with Class I skeletal pattern and normal mandibular plane angle.Multiple teeth were impacteddue to a dentigerous cyst over anterior region in the maxilla. After the enucleation of the cyst, the crown portion of 11 was exposed but with improper position and angulation. Our treatment plan was described as below: (1) Forced eruption of tooth 11-13 and align with the upper dentition, (2) Follow up the permanent teeth eruption in mandible. Total treatment duration was 31 months, the dentition was finished at Angle Class I canine and molar relationships, normal overjet and overbite …


Literature Review : How To Accelerate Orthodontic Tooth Movement ?, Shun-Hsin Chen, Pei-Wen Liao, Hui-Jen Tsai, Ming-Hsien Lan, Pei-Chuan Hung, Wen-Pei Wong, Chung-Chen Jane Yao, Hsuan-Yi Hsiao 2022 Department of Dentistry and Graduate Institute of Clinical Dentistry, School of Dentistry, National Taiwan University; Department of Orthodontics, National Taiwan University Hospital

Literature Review : How To Accelerate Orthodontic Tooth Movement ?, Shun-Hsin Chen, Pei-Wen Liao, Hui-Jen Tsai, Ming-Hsien Lan, Pei-Chuan Hung, Wen-Pei Wong, Chung-Chen Jane Yao, Hsuan-Yi Hsiao

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

How to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement has been an interesting issue to orthodontists and researchers. Ways being proposed to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) include medication, mechanical stimulation, low level laser, corticotomy, periodontal accelerated osteogenic orthodontics, and surgery-first orthognathic surgery. Those invasive surgical procedures are used successfully on orthodontic patients for acceleration of OTM. Other non-invasive procedures, though with promising results obtained from animal experiments, await further clinical confirmations. This article reviewed recent clinical and animal studies, and the mechanism of medication, mechanical stimulation and surgical approaches for their effectiveness on OTM.


The Application Of Computer-Aided Three-Dimensional Simulation And Prediction In Orthognathic Surgery (Caspos) For Treating Dento-Skeletal Patients, Yu-Jen Chang, Shiu-Shiun Lin, Te-Ju Wu, Wen-Ching Tsai, Wei-Yung Hsu, Jui-Pin Lai 2022 Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

The Application Of Computer-Aided Three-Dimensional Simulation And Prediction In Orthognathic Surgery (Caspos) For Treating Dento-Skeletal Patients, Yu-Jen Chang, Shiu-Shiun Lin, Te-Ju Wu, Wen-Ching Tsai, Wei-Yung Hsu, Jui-Pin Lai

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

AIM: Computer-aided craniofacial reconstructions have been developed to allow surgeons to accurately simulate and predict the surgical outcome on complicated 3-D craniofacial structures. We have developed a new computerized method of 3-D simulation and prediction in orthognathic surgery (CASPOS) that not only enables clinicians to plan and simulate the surgical procedures, but also provides a bony "guiding splint" to allow surgeons to precisely position the bony segments into the planned location. This study is aimed for assessing the accuracy of simulation and prediction of our CASPOS protocol. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Fifteen adult patients with severe dento-skeletal discrepancies treated with orthodontics …


Optimizing Facial Esthetics In Ogs Patients, Meng-Huan Tsai, Shao-Chun Lu, Joung-Lin Liaw, Ming-Zen Su, Ya-Ting Wang, Hsin-Fu Frank Chang, Chung-Chen Jane Yao, Stella Ya-Hui Yang 2022 Department of Dentistry and Graduate Institute of Clinical Dentistry,School of Dentistry, National Taiwan University; Department of Orthodontics, National Taiwan University Hospital

Optimizing Facial Esthetics In Ogs Patients, Meng-Huan Tsai, Shao-Chun Lu, Joung-Lin Liaw, Ming-Zen Su, Ya-Ting Wang, Hsin-Fu Frank Chang, Chung-Chen Jane Yao, Stella Ya-Hui Yang

Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics

At present, even if the orthognathic surgical procedure had been improved and the acceptance of surgery increased, the patients and dentists could not be satisfied with simply the recovery of masticatory function. Facial esthetics has become a marked issue. However, everything has its own limitation. There is no single treatment could fulfill all the facial esthetics requirements, not even the orthognathic surgery. If the orthognathic surgery could be combined with other cosmetic surgical procedure, the patients would be more likely to receive relatively compre-hensive treatment. First, this article reviewed the fundamental definition of facial esthetic in psychology. In addition, we …


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