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Ephemeroptera Culturing Methods: Development Of Culturing And Rearing Methodology And High Sulfate Simulated Mine Effluent Toxicity Test Using Field Collected Water, Daniel Edward Brady 2022 Marshall University

Ephemeroptera Culturing Methods: Development Of Culturing And Rearing Methodology And High Sulfate Simulated Mine Effluent Toxicity Test Using Field Collected Water, Daniel Edward Brady

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Ephemeroptera taxa are not frequently used in toxicity testing; however, some mayfly taxa may be more sensitive to aquatic pollutants than standard test organisms used to determine anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems. Additionally, some standard test organisms are not native to the Appalachian region and may not be truly reflective of the effects on native organisms. With mayflies not being the typical test organism, there is not a great deal of literature on culturing methods for this organism. For a standard acute toxicity test, there must be 80% survival within the control organisms for the test to be considered viable. …


Fish And Invertebrate Use Of Restored Vs. Natural Oyster Reefs In A Shallow Temperate Latitude Estuary, Jonathan H. Grabowski, Christopher J. Baillie, Adam Baukus, Rachael Carlyle, F. Joel Fodrie, Rachel K. Gittman, A. Randall Hughes, David L. Kimbro, Juhyung Lee, Hunter S. Lenihan, Sean P. Powers, Kevin Sullivan 2022 Northeastern University

Fish And Invertebrate Use Of Restored Vs. Natural Oyster Reefs In A Shallow Temperate Latitude Estuary, Jonathan H. Grabowski, Christopher J. Baillie, Adam Baukus, Rachael Carlyle, F. Joel Fodrie, Rachel K. Gittman, A. Randall Hughes, David L. Kimbro, Juhyung Lee, Hunter S. Lenihan, Sean P. Powers, Kevin Sullivan

University Faculty and Staff Publications

Coastal marine habitats continue to be degraded, thereby compelling largescale restoration in many parts of the world. Whether restored habitats function similarly to natural habitats and fully recover lost ecosystem services is unclear. In estuaries, oyster reefs have been degraded by multiple anthropogenic activities including destructive fishing practices and reduced water quality, motivating restoration to maintain oyster fisheries and other ecosystem services, often at relatively high cost. We compared fish and invertebrate communities on recently restored (0–1 year post-restoration), older restored (3–4 years post-restoration), and natural oyster reefs to determine if and when restored reefs support functionally similar faunal communities. …


Population Dynamics, Relative Abundance, And Habitat Suitability Of Adult Red Drum (Sciaenops Ocellatus) In Nearshore Waters Of The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Crystal Hightower, J. Marcus Drymon, Amanda E. Jefferson, Matthew B. Jargowsky, Emily A. Seubert, Simon Dedman, John Mareska, Sean P. Powers 2022 University of South Alabama

Population Dynamics, Relative Abundance, And Habitat Suitability Of Adult Red Drum (Sciaenops Ocellatus) In Nearshore Waters Of The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Crystal Hightower, J. Marcus Drymon, Amanda E. Jefferson, Matthew B. Jargowsky, Emily A. Seubert, Simon Dedman, John Mareska, Sean P. Powers

University Faculty and Staff Publications

In the Gulf of Mexico, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) is an immensely popular sportfish, yet the Gulf of Mexico stock is currently managed as data-limited in federal waters. The results of the federal stock assessment conducted in 2016 for Gulf of Mexico red drum were not recommended for providing management advice. Consequently, we sought to address data gaps highlighted in the assessment by producing up-to- date overall and sex-specific growth models, standardized indices of relative abundance, and predictions of habitat suitability and by updating estimates of natural mortality. Using a time series for the period of 2006–2018, we assigned …


The Effects Of D2 Receptor Modulation On Locomotor Development In Danio Rerio, Isaiah Thomas McRoberts 2022 Bard College

The Effects Of D2 Receptor Modulation On Locomotor Development In Danio Rerio, Isaiah Thomas Mcroberts

Senior Projects Spring 2022

This study utilized a novel design to investigate the sensitivity of D2 dopamine receptors to modulating compounds through multiple exposures over early development of zebrafish larvae. Zebrafish were dosed for 30 minutes from 5-8 days post fertilization (dpf) with 16µ/mol of either a D2 antagonist, haloperidol, or a D2 agonist, quinpirole hydrochloride. Two other groups were then dosed with these compounds from 9-12dpf. The effects of D2 receptor modulation were measured by analyzing motor activity on measures of movement distance, frequency, and velocity. Results indicated that larvae dosed with haloperidol on 5dpf had increased activity after the first dosage, but …


Screening Ocean Samples From Georgia For The Presence Of Msx And Dermo Using Pcr And Qpcr Methods, Olivia Michelle Williams 2022 University of New Hampshire

Screening Ocean Samples From Georgia For The Presence Of Msx And Dermo Using Pcr And Qpcr Methods, Olivia Michelle Williams

Honors Theses and Capstones

This Senior Thesis project aimed to be able to screen samples that came in from a PhD student in Georgia for the presence of two oyster diseases, MSX and Dermo. This study was done using PCR followed by visualizing on E-gels for initial presence of disease. These were then followed by qPCR and visualization on Criterion gels. These Criterion gels were able to be analyzed in order to calculate the pg/uL of MSX and Dermo in the original ocean samples. Since the samples were sent in over the course of February-August ‘21 the presence over time was also able to …


Investigating The Genetic Diversity Of Immune Genes In Non-Native Populations Of American Bullfrogs (Rana Catesbeiana), Luisa Nereyda Segovia 2022 Humboldt State University

Investigating The Genetic Diversity Of Immune Genes In Non-Native Populations Of American Bullfrogs (Rana Catesbeiana), Luisa Nereyda Segovia

Cal Poly Humboldt theses and projects

The American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) is a highly invasive species that has successfully colonized habitats around the world. The genetic variability of immune genes within invasive populations, like that of bullfrogs, may contribute to how resistant a population is to pathogens. The objective of this project was to characterize the genetic diversity of an immune gene in invasive bullfrog populations in California to better understand how persistent these populations might be over time. To characterize immune gene variability, I isolated exon 2 of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class II Beta chain gene and a neutral mitochondrial marker, …


Increasing Detection Sensitivity For Rare And Endangered Species In Kansas Through Development Of An Aquatic Environmental Dna Sampling Protocol, Sarah Hallyburton 2022 Fort Hays State University

Increasing Detection Sensitivity For Rare And Endangered Species In Kansas Through Development Of An Aquatic Environmental Dna Sampling Protocol, Sarah Hallyburton

Master's Theses

Anthropogenic global climate change is forcing the mass extinction of wildlife across the globe. Humans depend on freshwater ecosystems for many aspects of life including agricultural production, sanitation, and recreation. Healthy levels of biodiversity in freshwater environments ensure economically beneficial ecosystem services are maintained. Freshwater ecosystems are hotspots for biodiversity and have higher levels of imperiled organisms compared to terrestrial and marine systems. Within freshwater systems, freshwater mussels (Family: Unionidae) are the most imperiled with over 70% of North American species assigned to a conservation class as judged by state or federal management agencies. The objective of this study was …


Development Of Novel Pyridazine Derivatives And Drug Delivery Systems Against Dengue, Janae A. Culmer 2022 Georgia Southern University

Development Of Novel Pyridazine Derivatives And Drug Delivery Systems Against Dengue, Janae A. Culmer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The lack of approved vaccines, medications and treatment regimens has significantly contributed to the rapid spread of mosquito-borne viruses such as Dengue and Zika virus. The complex immunopathology of these viruses presents limitations for the development and implementation of a definitive, safe and effective approach to combat infections.Previous research has demonstrated that vector control strategies such as the elimination of larval habitats, larviciding with insecticides, the use of biological agents and the application of adulticides have been unsuccessful in the reduction of viral transmission leading to the need for the continued development of antivirals. This research proposes an approach for …


Biologic Tnf-Α Inhibitors Reduce Microgliosis, Neuronal Loss, And Tau Phosphorylation In A Transgenic Mouse Model Of Tauopathy, Weijun Ou, Joshua Yang, Juste Simanauskaite, Matthew Choi, Demi M. Castellanos, Rudy Chang, Jiahong Sun, Nataraj Jagadeesan, Karen D. Parfitt, David H. Cribbs, Rachita K. Sumbria 2021 Chapman University

Biologic Tnf-Α Inhibitors Reduce Microgliosis, Neuronal Loss, And Tau Phosphorylation In A Transgenic Mouse Model Of Tauopathy, Weijun Ou, Joshua Yang, Juste Simanauskaite, Matthew Choi, Demi M. Castellanos, Rudy Chang, Jiahong Sun, Nataraj Jagadeesan, Karen D. Parfitt, David H. Cribbs, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a central role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, making biologic TNF-α inhibitors (TNFIs), including etanercept, viable therapeutics for AD. The protective effects of biologic TNFIs on AD hallmark pathology (Aβ deposition and tau pathology) have been demonstrated. However, the effects of biologic TNFIs on Aβ-independent tau pathology have not been reported. Existing biologic TNFIs do not cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), therefore we engineered a BBB-penetrating biologic TNFI by fusing the extracellular domain of the type-II human TNF-α receptor (TNFR) to a transferrin receptor antibody (TfRMAb) that ferries the TNFR into the brain via …


Pushing It To The Limit: Determining Asian Elephant (Elephas Maximus) Olfactory Sensitivity And Discrimination Through A Behavioral Choice Task, Matthew S. Rudolph 2021 CUNY Hunter College

Pushing It To The Limit: Determining Asian Elephant (Elephas Maximus) Olfactory Sensitivity And Discrimination Through A Behavioral Choice Task, Matthew S. Rudolph

Theses and Dissertations

Elephants have shown remarkable olfactory capabilities. Their sense of smell impacts their foraging choices, behavior, and ultimately, survival. Being able to detect a target odor can allow elephants to locate specific resources, identify threats, and find receptive conspecifics. Previous studies have shown that elephants can consistently detect target odors, but have not identified the limits of this detection. Thus, to investigate the extent of elephants’ odor detection capabilities, we tested Asian elephants in a two-step odor discrimination task. First, we investigated whether elephants could detect odors at varying levels of dilution after a training procedure, and then whether they could …


The Art Of Amphibian Conservation: Linking In-Situ And Ex-Situ Populations Of Endangered Species Through Genome Banking, Isabella JoAnn Burger 2021 Mississippi State University

The Art Of Amphibian Conservation: Linking In-Situ And Ex-Situ Populations Of Endangered Species Through Genome Banking, Isabella Joann Burger

Theses and Dissertations

Limited breeding success in captive breeding programs has necessitated the development of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to preserve and increase genetic variation and population numbers of both captive and wild amphibian groups. ART has been shown to be successful in numerous anuran species, and current studies focus on the application of ART in ex-situ populations. The focus of this project is to show that linking in-situ and ex-situ amphibian populations through sperm cryopreservation, genome banking, and in-vitro fertilization is possible, with the goal of increasing gene diversity throughout groups in order to produce self-sustaining, wild populations in the future. Specific …


American Bullfrog (Lithobates Catesbeianus) Diet In Uruguay Compared With Other Invasive Populations In Southern South America, Gabriel Laufer, Noelia Gobel, Mauro Berazategui, Matías Zarucki, Sofía Cortizas, Alvaro Soutullo, Claudio Martinez Debat, Rafael O. de Sá 2021 University of Richmond

American Bullfrog (Lithobates Catesbeianus) Diet In Uruguay Compared With Other Invasive Populations In Southern South America, Gabriel Laufer, Noelia Gobel, Mauro Berazategui, Matías Zarucki, Sofía Cortizas, Alvaro Soutullo, Claudio Martinez Debat, Rafael O. De Sá

Biology Faculty Publications

Between 2000-2020, more than ten new populations of the invasive American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) have been reported in the southern cone of South America. We studied the stomach contents of 126 bullfrogs from a population at an early invasion stage in Uruguay (Acegua, Cerro Largo Department). We observed a rich diet, with extensive prey volume range (1 mm3 to more than 7 000 mm(3)); the most frequent items were Hymenoptera (19.6%), Coleoptera (16.4%), Amphipoda (13.3%), Anura (8.9%) and Heteroptera (8.7%). Despite some overlap, differences were observed in volume (chi(2) = 54.6, p <0.001, d.f. = 2) and prey quantity (F = 8.1, p <0.001, d.f. = 79) between males, females, and juveniles. Juveniles showed significantly higher consumption of terrestrial prey by count (82% of their total ingestion) than adults (29% for males and 32% for females) (chi(2) = 28.5, p <0.001, d.f. = 2). Adults, especially females, showed a high frequency of cannibalism (33% of their total ingestion; chi(2) = 20.9, p <0.001, d.f. = 2). Comparing our data with other bullfrog regional studies, we found great plasticity in trophic habits and differences in the incidence of cannibalism (higher incidence in the populations of Acegua, Uruguay, and Buenos Aires, Argentina). These differences could be related to local biodiversity, but also could be affected by the invasion phase. Cannibalism frequency was higher in small bullfrog populations, where it could be favoring the establishment success. This shift in foraging strategies during the invasion process had been insufficiently evaluated in amphibians. Knowing the ecological determinants for the invasion by bullfrogs can be useful to the development of management strategies.


Pets And Problems: Exploring Community Patterns In Calls For Animal Services, Paige DeJarnett 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Pets And Problems: Exploring Community Patterns In Calls For Animal Services, Paige Dejarnett

Sociology and Criminology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Pets have historically been viewed as family members, children, property, or economic resources. However, research surrounding animal maltreatment has expressed this issue as an individually-based problem, rather than a community-based phenomenon. Correlations have been found between animal cruelty, antisocial behaviors, and future interpersonal violence, whether this correlation be a predictive relationship, or a resultant relationship. Past research has also found correlations between animal treatment practices and the rural/urban differences of this behavior. However, there are many community-based indicators that have not been explored to understand the distribution of animal maltreatment. This study aims to explore these ideas by analyzing the …


Forest Disturbance And Occupancy Patterns Of Carnivores: Results Of A Large-Scale Field Study In Maine, Usa, Bryn E. Evans 2021 University of Maine

Forest Disturbance And Occupancy Patterns Of Carnivores: Results Of A Large-Scale Field Study In Maine, Usa, Bryn E. Evans

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding trends in the abundance and distribution of carnivores is important at global, regional and local scales due to their ecological role, their aesthetic and economic value, and the numerous threats to their populations. Carnivores in Maine range from the American black bear (Ursus americanus), to numerous native mesocarnivore species, such as American marten (Martes americana), fisher (Pekania pennanti), coyote (Canis latrans), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), bobcat (Lynx rufus), Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and to two small weasel species (Mustela erminea and Neogale frenata). …


Canine Microwear In Relation To Diet In Sumatran Primates And African Great Apes, Putu Pujiantari 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Canine Microwear In Relation To Diet In Sumatran Primates And African Great Apes, Putu Pujiantari

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis considers canine microwear in relation to diet in five Sumatran primates (Pongo abelii, Hylobates lar, Hylobates agilis, Presbytis thomasi, and Macaca fascicularis) and two African great apes (Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) using both microwear texture analysis and microwear feature analysis techniques. Statistical results for texture analysis show that there are significant differences in scale of maximum and heterogeneity. This indicates that some species have large pits on their canine surfaces, having these dominated by deep features at coarse scale yet have a slight microwear heterogeneity. For feature analysis, all variables show statistically significant variation. Variance in …


Arrhythmogenic Hearts In Pkd2 Mutant Mice Are Characterized By Cardiac Fibrosis, Systolic, And Diastolic Dysfunctions, Farideh Amirrad, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Kiumars Shamloo, Brian S. Muntean, Surya M. Nauli 2021 Chapman University

Arrhythmogenic Hearts In Pkd2 Mutant Mice Are Characterized By Cardiac Fibrosis, Systolic, And Diastolic Dysfunctions, Farideh Amirrad, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Kiumars Shamloo, Brian S. Muntean, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a hereditary disorder affecting multiple organs, including the heart. PKD has been associated with many cardiac abnormalities including the arrhythmogenic remodeling in clinical evaluations. In our current study, we hypothesized that Pkd2 gene mutation results in structural and functional defects in the myocardium. The structural and functional changes of Pkd2 mutant hearts were analyzed in the myocardial-specific Pkd2 knockout (KO) mouse. We further assessed a potential role of TGF-b1 signaling in the pathology of Pkd2-KO hearts. Hearts from age-matched 6-month-old MyH6Pkd2wt/wt (control or wild-type) and MyH6 …


The Concentration Of Brain Homogenates With The Amicon Ultra Centrifugal Filters, Joshua Yang, Rachita K. Sumbria 2021 Keck Graduate Institute

The Concentration Of Brain Homogenates With The Amicon Ultra Centrifugal Filters, Joshua Yang, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Accurately measuring the brain concentration of a neurotherapeutic is critical in determining its pharmacokinetic profile in vivo. Biologics are potential therapeutics for neurologic diseases and biologics fused to an antibody targeting a transcytosis receptor at the Blood-Brain Barrier, designated as antibody-biologic fusion proteins, are Blood-Brain Barrier penetrating neurotherapeutics. The use of sandwich immunosorbent assays to measure concentrations of antibody-biologic fusion proteins in brain homogenates has become increasingly popular. The raw brain homogenate contains many proteins and other macromolecules that can cause a matrix effect, potentially interfering with the limit of detection of such assays and reduce the overall sample …


Monitoring Mammals At Multiple Scales: Case Studies From Carnivore Communities, Kadambari Devarajan 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Monitoring Mammals At Multiple Scales: Case Studies From Carnivore Communities, Kadambari Devarajan

Doctoral Dissertations

Carnivores are distributed widely and threatened by habitat loss, poaching, climate change, and disease. They are considered integral to ecosystem function through their direct and indirect interactions with species at different trophic levels. Given the importance of carnivores, it is of high conservation priority to understand the processes driving carnivore assemblages in different systems. It is thus essential to determine the abiotic and biotic drivers of carnivore community composition at different spatial scales and address the following questions: (i) What factors influence carnivore community composition and diversity? (ii) How do the factors influencing carnivore communities vary across spatial and temporal …


Systematic Review Of Polyherbal Combinations Used In Metabolic Syndrome, Amber Hanif Palla, Faridah Amin, Bilqees Fatima, Arooj Shafiq, Najeeb Ur Rehman, Ikram Ul Haq, Anwar-Ul-Hassan Gilani 2021 Aga Khan University

Systematic Review Of Polyherbal Combinations Used In Metabolic Syndrome, Amber Hanif Palla, Faridah Amin, Bilqees Fatima, Arooj Shafiq, Najeeb Ur Rehman, Ikram Ul Haq, Anwar-Ul-Hassan Gilani

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multifactorial disease, whose main stay of prevention and management is life-style modification which is difficult to attain. Combination of herbs have proven more efficacious in multi-targeted diseases, as compared to individual herbs owing to the "effect enhancing and side-effect neutralizing" properties of herbs, which forms the basis of polyherbal therapies This led us to review literature on the efficacy of herbal combinations in MetS.
Methods: Electronic search of literature was conducted by using Cinnahl, Pubmed central, Cochrane and Web of Science, whereas, Google scholar was used as secondary search tool. The key words used …


Exogenous Surfactant As A Delivery Vehicle For Intrapulmonary Therapeutics, Brandon J. Baer 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Exogenous Surfactant As A Delivery Vehicle For Intrapulmonary Therapeutics, Brandon J. Baer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As an organ system, the lung has unique advantages and disadvantages for direct drug delivery. Its contact with the external environment allows for the airways to be easily accessible to intrapulmonary delivery. However, its complex structure, which divides into more narrow airways with each branch, can make direct delivery to the remote alveoli challenging. The objective of this thesis was to overcome this issue by using exogenous surfactant, a lipoprotein complex used to treat neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, as a carrier for pulmonary therapeutics. It was hypothesized that therapeutics administered with a surfactant vehicle would display enhanced delivery to the …


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