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Prenatal Choline Supplementation During Maternal Obesity Alters Offspring Response To Western Diets, Hunter W. Korsmo 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Prenatal Choline Supplementation During Maternal Obesity Alters Offspring Response To Western Diets, Hunter W. Korsmo

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Maternal obesity has led to an increase in adverse offspring developmental outcomes and a greater risk for long-term metabolic diseases. Choline, a semi-essential nutrient, can be incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) as well as sphingomyelin (SM) and donate its labile methyl group for the remethylation of homocysteine after choline is oxidized to betaine. Prenatal choline insufficiency has been related to maternal obesity and metabolic diseases, such as metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Choline may interact with maternal obesity to influence the programming offspring.

Chapter 1 presents an introduction of choline and the various clinical outcomes associated with choline supplementation during ...


The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The only curative option for patients is surgery, but over 80% of patients are not surgical candidates. Unfortunately, PDAC is resistant to the three remaining options. PDAC is characterized by a profoundly hypoxic and immunosuppressive stroma, which contributes to its therapeutic recalcitrance. Alpha-smooth muscle actin+ (αSMA+) cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant stromal component, as well as mediators of stromal deposition. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF1 and HIF2) coordinate responses to hypoxia, yet, despite their known association to poor patient outcomes, their functions within the PDAC tumor microenvironment (TME ...


Early-Exercise Effects On Mice Tendon Remodeling, Miles Valencia 2022 California State University, San Bernardino

Early-Exercise Effects On Mice Tendon Remodeling, Miles Valencia

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Tendons connect and transmit energy between muscles and bones and play a key role in movement. Tendon remodels by breaking down and absorbing tendon components including collagen fibers and elastin while replacing them with newly formed tendon. These processes can be influenced by short- and long-term factors such as exercise and aging; the magnitude of influence on tendon remodeling remains unclear. I researched the effects of maturation and exercise on tendon remodeling using a mice colony artificially selected for high voluntary wheel running called high-runner mice. Control and high-runner linetype mice were separated into 2 age cohorts that started training ...


Online Privacy Challenges And Their Forensic Solutions, Bandr Fakiha 2022 Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia

Online Privacy Challenges And Their Forensic Solutions, Bandr Fakiha

Journal of the Arab American University مجلة الجامعة العربية الامريكية للبحوث

In the digital age, internet users are exposed to privacy issues online. Few rarely know when someone else is eavesdropping or about to scam them. Companies, governments, and individual internet users are all vulnerable to security breaches due to the challenges of online privacy ranging from trust and hierarchical control to financial losses. As systems advance, people are optimistic that forensic science will provide long-term interventions that surpass the current solutions, including setting stronger passwords and firewall protection. The future of online privacy is changing, and more practical interventions, such as email, malware, mobile, and network forensics, must be integrated ...


Female Presence Does Not Increase Testosterone But Still Ameliorates Sickness Behaviours In Male Japanese Quail, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Kaelyn Bridgette, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Patricia C. Lopes 2022 Chapman University

Female Presence Does Not Increase Testosterone But Still Ameliorates Sickness Behaviours In Male Japanese Quail, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Kaelyn Bridgette, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Patricia C. Lopes

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Infections can dramatically modify animal behaviour. The extent of these changes depends on an animal's environment. It has been proposed that testosterone modulates the suppression of behavioural symptoms of sickness under certain reproductive contexts. To further understand the role played by testosterone in modulating sickness behaviours under reproductive contexts, we studied a species, the Japanese quail, in which female exposure rapidly decreases circulating testosterone in males. Males received either an immune challenge (lipopolysaccharide – LPS) or a control injection and their behaviours, mass change and testosterone levels were quantified in the presence or absence of a female. Both the presence ...


Monitoring The Abundance Of Microplastics In Mussels And Marine Ecosystems May Indicate Human Health Risks., Puja Kaur Janda 2022 University of San Francisco

Monitoring The Abundance Of Microplastics In Mussels And Marine Ecosystems May Indicate Human Health Risks., Puja Kaur Janda

Master's Projects and Capstones

The numerous scientific methodologies and procedures used in marine research on microplastic pollution restrict our present understanding of this severe environmental issue threatening marine organisms and human health. The abundance and bioaccumulation of microplastic in the food web is causing adverse implications for marine wildlife and potentially human health via seafood consumption. The absence of standardized methods for quantifying and characterizing microplastics is a major limiting factor in comparing current research. To evaluate the issue of monitoring microplastics in the marine environment, I conducted a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis on mussels as a biomonitoring tool. Because mussels ...


Full- Versus Sub-Regional Quantification Of Amyloid-Beta Load On Mouse Brain Sections, Yuu Ohno, Riley Murphy, Matthew Choi, Weijun Ou, Rachita K. Sumbria 2022 Keck Graduate Institute

Full- Versus Sub-Regional Quantification Of Amyloid-Beta Load On Mouse Brain Sections, Yuu Ohno, Riley Murphy, Matthew Choi, Weijun Ou, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques is one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is the target of the only FDA-approved disease-modifying treatment for AD. Accordingly, the use of transgenic mouse models that overexpress the amyloid precursor protein and thereby accumulate cerebral Aβ plaques are widely used to model human AD in mice. Therefore, immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunostaining, commonly measure the Aβ load in brain tissues derived from AD transgenic mice. Though the methods for Aβ detection and quantification have been well established and documented, the impact of the size of ...


Developing A Novel Place Preference Assay To Compare Drosophila Species Over Time, Martha M. Brinson 2022 University of Mississippi

Developing A Novel Place Preference Assay To Compare Drosophila Species Over Time, Martha M. Brinson

Honors Theses

Across phylogeny, integration of external factors, memory, and internal states of the organism dictate organismal behavior and mechanisms. The underlying genetic components can affect these behaviors such as in genomic changes arising from speciation. In this thesis, a new place preference assay was evaluated in the analysis and investigation of two species of Drosophila flies (D. melanogaster and D. simulans) to measure similarities and differences and their attraction to two different food substrates. Sleep and circadian measurements were also recorded during experimentation. The Drosophila Activity Monitor 5M (DAM5M) System and Sleep Circadian Analysis MATLAB Program (SCAMP) analysis were used in ...


The Role Of Foxd1 In Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma, Kyle H. Bond 2022 University of Maine

The Role Of Foxd1 In Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma, Kyle H. Bond

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the 8th most common cancer in the United States, with the clear cell variant (ccRCC) being the most prevalent. Over 14,000 people die every year to RCC, with rates continuing to increase with an aging general population. Patients suffering from metastatic RCC (mRCC) have extremely poor prognoses, with a 5-year survival of only 11.2%. Current treatment options include resection of primary lesions, tyrosine kinase inhibition (Sunitinib, Pazopanib), mTOR inhibition (Temsirolimus, Everolimus), and immune checkpoint inhibition (Nivolumab, Atezolizumab). Recent attention has been drawn to inhibition of transcription factors like HIF2α (Belzutifan). There is ...


Characterizing The Roles Of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 & 2 In Zebrafish Behavior, Metabolism, And Seizure-Induced Activity, Kayci Kimmons 2022 University of Mississippi

Characterizing The Roles Of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 & 2 In Zebrafish Behavior, Metabolism, And Seizure-Induced Activity, Kayci Kimmons

Honors Theses

Epileptic disorders like Dravet Syndrome require novel studies to determine the most ideal treatment. New research linking the endocannabinoid system (ECS) to epileptic disorders is arising, but there is still much to be discovered about the function and regulatory impact of the endocannabinoid system and its receptors in epilepsies like Dravet. In this study, knockout models of larval and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to investigate the roles of cannabinoid receptors 1 & 2 in behavior, brain mitochondrial metabolism, and seizure-induced activity following exposure to THC and CBD. Larval zebrafish which lacked cannabinoid receptor 1 exhibited increased locomotion compared to ...


Comparing Two Non-Invasive Methods For Assessing Marine Mammal Genetic Diversity: Environmental Dna Vs. Fecal Dna, Sydney Jackson 2022 University of Maine - Main

Comparing Two Non-Invasive Methods For Assessing Marine Mammal Genetic Diversity: Environmental Dna Vs. Fecal Dna, Sydney Jackson

Honors College

As technology and science progresses, the methodology behind observing, monitoring, and sampling marine mammals advances as well. One such technique is environmental DNA or eDNA, which entails extracting organismal DNA from water samples without ever handling or disturbing the organism. It is a cost-efficient and non-invasive method that can be utilized in the sampling of seal haulout sites as is its purpose for this research. Another method, using the DNA analysis of seal fecal samples, is a less invasive method that can also be utilized to monitor and assess marine mammals. Through collecting both fecal and water samples from gray ...


Investigating Molecular Mechanisms Behind Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis (Bco) Pathogenesis In Modern Broilers, Alison Ramser 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating Molecular Mechanisms Behind Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis (Bco) Pathogenesis In Modern Broilers, Alison Ramser

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO), a leading cause of lameness in broiler chickens, is characterized by infection, inflammation, and bone attrition. There are currently no effective treatments and positive diagnosis is only possible through necropsy evaluations. Lameness is also a rising animal welfare and economic concern, making prevention and detection of BCO all the more critical. These challenges are exacerbated by a lack of mechanistic understanding of BCO’s etiology. The question I asked during my dissertation was how bacteria induce bone attrition in BCO pathology. My research has shown that mitochondrial dysfunction is characteristic of BCO conditions along with ...


Characterizing Rat Lateral Amygdala Interneurons By Colocalization Of Calcium-Binding Proteins Via Serial Multiplex Immunohistochemistry, Ethan Gasteyer 2022 University of Connecticut

Characterizing Rat Lateral Amygdala Interneurons By Colocalization Of Calcium-Binding Proteins Via Serial Multiplex Immunohistochemistry, Ethan Gasteyer

Honors Scholar Theses

The lateral amygdala is a brain structure that plays an important role in regulating fear and anxiety. Some anxiety disorders are hypothesized to develop from failures in this local inhibitory circuit. Distinct populations of these inhibitory neurons express patterns of calcium- binding proteins and neuropeptides that suggest differences in functionality within the lateral amygdala. Furthermore, these patterns of expression are compared between male and female rats to identify sex differences in the lateral amygdala. Previous studies have reported sex differences in amygdala activation and connectivity, but very little is known about the sexual dimorphism of calcium-binding protein and neuropeptide expression ...


Development Of The Ark Assay For Quantitating Dna- Protein Crosslink Accumulation And Fanconi Anemia Pathway Involvement In The Repair Process, Naeh Klages-Mundt 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Development Of The Ark Assay For Quantitating Dna- Protein Crosslink Accumulation And Fanconi Anemia Pathway Involvement In The Repair Process, Naeh Klages-Mundt

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) are a common DNA lesion naturally arising in cells, wherein protein becomes covalently and irreversibly bound to the DNA. Given their excessive size, these adducts present a significant challenge to replication and transcription, thus requiring timely and efficient repair. However, the precise mechanisms involved with processing DPC removal remain unclear. Moreover, current methodologies to quantitate DPC accumulation and removal are restrained by a range of limitations. Here, we describe and discuss a new DPC detection assay – the ARK assay – capable of overcoming the limitations incurred by prior assays. The design, which uses dual chaotropic lysis and anionic ...


Macronutrient Availability Shapes Host Response To Infection And Feeding Behavior, Weston Gerald Perrine 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Macronutrient Availability Shapes Host Response To Infection And Feeding Behavior, Weston Gerald Perrine

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Macronutrients in the diet are vital to the physiological processes necessary for an organism to effectively clear a pathogen. Diet can be important to a host’s susceptibility to infection and severity of pathology, though results can vary across host-pathogen systems (Sen et al. 2016). Manipulating the ratio of specific macronutrients in the diet is an effective method to begin understanding how individual macronutrients, rather than food types, have on immune responses. Using an avian host-pathogen system, I explored the effects of dietary macronutrient composition, specifically lipid and protein content, on disease pathology and behavior of canaries (Serinus canaria) infected ...


Growth Differentiation Factor 5 Is A Paracrine Regulator Of Sarcopenic Obesity, Landen W. Saling 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Growth Differentiation Factor 5 Is A Paracrine Regulator Of Sarcopenic Obesity, Landen W. Saling

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sarcopenic obesity attributes to skeletal muscle loss more than sarcopenia and obesity alone. Individuals with SO suffer from the comorbidity of excess body fat and concurrent muscle mass loss due to aging. Growth differentiation factors (Gdfs) have never been recognized as playing a role in skeletal muscle maintenance in those with SO. Specifically, Gdf5, has been recognized as playing a part in Bone Morphogenic Protein signaling to activate protein synthesis and deactivate protein degradation via SMAD 1/5/8 and SMAD 4 complex. Using RNA sequencing, Gdf5 was identified as being significantly upregulated in SO mice. Purpose: To determine the ...


Evaluation Of The Effect Of A Lippia Organoides Essential Oil Extract On Clostridium Perfringens Proliferation In Vitro And Necrotic Enteritis In Broiler Chickens, Makenly E. Coles 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of The Effect Of A Lippia Organoides Essential Oil Extract On Clostridium Perfringens Proliferation In Vitro And Necrotic Enteritis In Broiler Chickens, Makenly E. Coles

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present research was to assess the effects of essential oils derived from the plant Lippia organoides on performance parameters, intestinal integrity, and necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens. To do this, a previously established challenge model for NE was utilized which included challenging with Salmonella Typhimurium on day 0, Eimeria maxima on day 18, and Clostridium perfringens on days 22 and 23. Treatment groups included a 1) non-challenged, negative control, 2) challenged control, and 3) challenged, Lippia origanoides (37ppm in the diet). Group 1 (negative control) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher body weight gain from d8-25 and d0-25 compared to both challenged groups. Feed intake was significantly different for all three groups (P < 0.05) at 8-25 days and 0-25 days with group 1 having the highest feed intake for both time periods. Total mortality was greater in the positive control when compared to both the negative and treatment groups. NE lesion scores were significantly different between all groups with the positive control having the highest mean lesion scores and the negative control having a mean lesion score of 0. The positive control group had the highest FITC-d amounts detected in the sera, being statistically higher than both the treatment group and negative group which were both statistically different from each other. At the present inclusion rate for the essential oil (37 ppm), there was an overall reduction in the negative impact from the NE infection. Further studies should be conducted to reach more significant conclusions.


Pandemics And Animal Welfare: A Quantitative Inquiry Into How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Kayla N. DeSmet 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Pandemics And Animal Welfare: A Quantitative Inquiry Into How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Kayla N. Desmet

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in late 2019, industries have been impacted globally. The companion animal care industry has not received much recognition in mainstream news, and though multiple grants have been allocated (Nolen, 2020), limited resources were available to individual facilities such as animal shelters, animal day cares, and boarding facilities. Little is known about the long-term effects of the pandemic on these facilities and how companion animal care may have changed. The purpose of this study was to explore the day-to-day impacts and long-term effects of COVID-19 on the companion animal industry in Northwest Arkansas from ...


Author Correction: Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas 2022 University of Alberta

Author Correction: Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Correction to: Scientific Reports https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47255-9, published online 29 July 2019

The original Article contained an error in Figure 1A where the control trace for both the HEK-AMY3 and HEKWT cells was duplicated...

The original Article has been corrected.


Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From People That Use Antibacterial Soap Have A Higher Percentage Of Penicillin Resistance, Xou Xiong 2022 Concordia University, St. Paul

Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From People That Use Antibacterial Soap Have A Higher Percentage Of Penicillin Resistance, Xou Xiong

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

The Staph Study at CSP aims to identify bacteria from voluntary students. Swabs of bacteria were collected and cultured. Then, a series of tests were performed to identify the type of bacteria present. It was found that 8 of 12 strains collected were Staphylococcus aureus because of the presence of bubbles, light halos, purple clustered bacteria, dark purple halos, and agglutination.


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