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Growth Differentiation Factor 5 Is A Paracrine Regulator Of Sarcopenic Obesity, Landen W. Saling 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Growth Differentiation Factor 5 Is A Paracrine Regulator Of Sarcopenic Obesity, Landen W. Saling

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sarcopenic obesity attributes to skeletal muscle loss more than sarcopenia and obesity alone. Individuals with SO suffer from the comorbidity of excess body fat and concurrent muscle mass loss due to aging. Growth differentiation factors (Gdfs) have never been recognized as playing a role in skeletal muscle maintenance in those with SO. Specifically, Gdf5, has been recognized as playing a part in Bone Morphogenic Protein signaling to activate protein synthesis and deactivate protein degradation via SMAD 1/5/8 and SMAD 4 complex. Using RNA sequencing, Gdf5 was identified as being significantly upregulated in SO mice. Purpose: To determine the cellular role …


Author Correction: Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas 2022 University of Alberta

Author Correction: Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Correction to: Scientific Reports https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47255-9, published online 29 July 2019

The original Article contained an error in Figure 1A where the control trace for both the HEK-AMY3 and HEKWT cells was duplicated...

The original Article has been corrected.


Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From People That Use Antibacterial Soap Have A Higher Percentage Of Penicillin Resistance, Xou Xiong 2022 Concordia University, St. Paul

Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From People That Use Antibacterial Soap Have A Higher Percentage Of Penicillin Resistance, Xou Xiong

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

The Staph Study at CSP aims to identify bacteria from voluntary students. Swabs of bacteria were collected and cultured. Then, a series of tests were performed to identify the type of bacteria present. It was found that 8 of 12 strains collected were Staphylococcus aureus because of the presence of bubbles, light halos, purple clustered bacteria, dark purple halos, and agglutination.


Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (Tsst-1) More Prevalent In Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Taken From Men Than From Women, Bethany Rother 2022 Concordia University, St. Paul

Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (Tsst-1) More Prevalent In Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Taken From Men Than From Women, Bethany Rother

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

S. aureus is an opportunistic bacteria present in the anterior nares of roughly one third of the human population. One of the toxins certain strains are known to produce is toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). This can cause both menstrual and non-menstrual toxic shock syndrome (TSS), but is more widely known for the menstrual variation due to the high onset of TSS in women from high absorbency tampons in the 1980s. An analysis of survey data found that surprisingly more men carried S. aureus strains with the TSST-1 gene than women.


Quadruped Gait And Regulation Of Apoptotic Factors In Tibiofemoral Joints Following Intra-Articular Rhprg4 Injection In Prg4 Null Mice, Daniel S. Yang, Edward E. Dickerson, Ling X. Zhang, Holly Richendrfer, Padmini N. Karamchedu, Gary A. Badger, Tannin A. Schmidt, Alger M. Fredericks, Khaled A. Elsaid, Gregory D. Jay 2022 Brown University

Quadruped Gait And Regulation Of Apoptotic Factors In Tibiofemoral Joints Following Intra-Articular Rhprg4 Injection In Prg4 Null Mice, Daniel S. Yang, Edward E. Dickerson, Ling X. Zhang, Holly Richendrfer, Padmini N. Karamchedu, Gary A. Badger, Tannin A. Schmidt, Alger M. Fredericks, Khaled A. Elsaid, Gregory D. Jay

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis (CACP) syndrome leads to diarthrodial joint arthropathy and is caused by the absence of lubricin (proteoglycan 4—PRG4), a surface-active mucinous glycoprotein responsible for lubricating articular cartilage. In this study, mice lacking the orthologous gene Prg4 served as a model that recapitulates the destructive arthrosis that involves biofouling of cartilage by serum proteins in lieu of Prg4. This study hypothesized that Prg4-deficient mice would demonstrate a quadruped gait change and decreased markers of mitochondrial dyscrasia, following intra-articular injection of both hindlimbs with recombinant human PRG4 (rhPRG4). Prg4−/− (N = 44) mice of both sexes were injected with rhPRG4 …


Assessing The Threat Of Coral Decline On Fish Diversity In Response To Temperature, Ryland Talmadge 2022 SIT Study Abroad

Assessing The Threat Of Coral Decline On Fish Diversity In Response To Temperature, Ryland Talmadge

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Misali, a PECCA-protected island off the east coast of Pemba, Tanzania, is considered to be a marine biodiversity hotspot with a protected Non-Extractive Zone (NEZ) and remaining Extractive Zone (EZ). Upon protection, the island’s fringe reefs faced severe coral bleaching during the 1998 bleaching event, estimated to kill up to 70% of corals. Since the event, several others have occurred in addition to restructuring the management plan in 2006 to expand the region to 1000km. While the damage from the most recent coral bleaching event in 2020 has yet to be surveyed, this study investigates the current reef health in …


A Quantitative Study Of Orchids And Their Proximate Environments Over An Elevational Gradient On The Northern Slope Of Montagne D’Ambre, Hazel Schrader 2022 SIT Study Abroad

A Quantitative Study Of Orchids And Their Proximate Environments Over An Elevational Gradient On The Northern Slope Of Montagne D’Ambre, Hazel Schrader

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research investigated change in orchid populations and their proximate environments on the Northern slope of Montagne d’Ambre, a subhumid forest in Northern Madagascar. Orchid density, way of life (epiphyte or terrestrial), phenology, and associations were recorded over 100m elevation gradients and between forest types (primary, secondary, dry, and humid forests at the same altitude). Additionally, orchid preferences for certain heights in the forest and DBH of host trees were analyzed. The establishment of 50X20m plots in 100m elevation gradients combined with ground survey yielded significant results demonstrating change along with elevation as well as forest types. Orchid density increased …


Good Cop/Bad Cop: A Comparative Analysis Of Affiliative And Aggressive Behaviors By Adult Female And Male Olive Baboons With Infants At Randilen Wildlife Management Area, Tanzania, Jesse Elop 2022 SIT Study Abroad

Good Cop/Bad Cop: A Comparative Analysis Of Affiliative And Aggressive Behaviors By Adult Female And Male Olive Baboons With Infants At Randilen Wildlife Management Area, Tanzania, Jesse Elop

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study investigated the infant-directed behaviors of adult male and female olive baboons in Randilen Wildlife Management Area in April of 2022. The objectives were 1) To determine the difference between olive baboon males and females in frequency and duration of listed behaviors towards infants; 2) To classify the interactions of adult male and adult female olive baboons with infants as either primarily affiliative or primarily aggressive; 3) To determine the frequency of selected behaviors at different reproductive phases (lactation, estrus, neutral, indeterminant) amongst female olive baboons towards infants. A single baboon troop in Randilen Wildlife Management Area was observed …


Behavioral And Physiological Effects Of Heavy Metals On Fish: A Review And Preliminary Results, Diana V. Morales 2022 CUNY Hunter College

Behavioral And Physiological Effects Of Heavy Metals On Fish: A Review And Preliminary Results, Diana V. Morales

Theses and Dissertations

Pollution, specifically heavy metal pollution, in various bodies of water has been a significant issue for decades. Research has been conducted on heavy metals and their effects on the environment, larger fish species, and humans since the 1970s (Skidmore, 1964; Adeniyi et al., 2007; Adeosun et al., 2015; Bawuro et al., 2018). It is known that zinc is a neurotoxin in some species and causes harm to the environment. It is also known that it causes harm to people if it is ingested or if they are exposed to it for long periods of time (Mahurpawar, 2015; Mizuno and Kawahara, …


Mytrials: Clinical Trial Application Concept, Katie Hollister 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Mytrials: Clinical Trial Application Concept, Katie Hollister

Graphic Communication

A clinical trial’s success is dependent upon whether a patient attends their highly-structured clinical trial visit schedule, which may include both in-person clinic visits and virtual check-in visits. MyTrials is a clinical trial journey app prototype that enables patients to schedule, reschedule, and attend join their in-person or virtual clinic visits. This product seeks to reduce the burden that scheduling places on the patient, and provides trial-provided resources and a daily and weekly timeline to help patients navigate their clinical trial journey.


Cilia Proteins Are Biomarkers Of Altered Flow In The Vasculature, Ankan Gupta, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Madhan Thamilarasan, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Hadeel T. Zedan, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Meghan R. Griffin, Andrew D. Spearman, Amy Pan, Sean P. Palecek, Huseyin C. Yalcin, Surya M. Nauli, Kevin R. Rarick, Rahima Zennadi, Ramani Ramchandran 2022 Medical College of Wisconsin

Cilia Proteins Are Biomarkers Of Altered Flow In The Vasculature, Ankan Gupta, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Madhan Thamilarasan, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Hadeel T. Zedan, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Meghan R. Griffin, Andrew D. Spearman, Amy Pan, Sean P. Palecek, Huseyin C. Yalcin, Surya M. Nauli, Kevin R. Rarick, Rahima Zennadi, Ramani Ramchandran

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Cilia, microtubule-based organelles that project from the apical luminal surface of endothelial cells (ECs), are widely regarded as low-flow sensors. Previous reports suggest that upon high shear stress, cilia on the EC surface are lost, and more recent evidence suggests that deciliation—the physical removal of cilia from the cell surface—is a predominant mechanism for cilia loss in mammalian cells. Thus, we hypothesized that EC deciliation facilitated by changes in shear stress would manifest in increased abundance of cilia-related proteins in circulation. To test this hypothesis, we performed shear stress experiments that mimicked flow conditions from low to high shear stress …


Characterization Of Site-Specific Vegetation Activity In Alaskan Wet And Dry Tundra As Related To Climate And Soil State, Michael Gregory Brown, Kyle C. McDonald, Reiner Zimmermann, Nicholas Steiner, Stephanie DeVries, Laura Bourgeau-Chavez 2022 City College of New York

Characterization Of Site-Specific Vegetation Activity In Alaskan Wet And Dry Tundra As Related To Climate And Soil State, Michael Gregory Brown, Kyle C. Mcdonald, Reiner Zimmermann, Nicholas Steiner, Stephanie Devries, Laura Bourgeau-Chavez

Michigan Tech Publications

We present discrete (2-h resolution) multi-year (2008–2017) in situ measurements of seasonal vegetation growth and soil biophysical properties from two sites on Alaska's North Slope, USA, representing dry and wet sedge tundra. We examine measurements of vertical active soil layer temperature and soil moisture profiles (freeze/thaw status), woody shrub vegetation physiological activity, and meteorological site data to assess interrelationships within (and between) these two study sites. Vegetation phenophases (cold de-hardening start, physiological function start, stem growth start, stem growth end, physiological function end, cold hardening completion) were found to have greater interannual day of year (DOY) occurrence variability at the …


Inhibition Of Interferon-Gamma-Stimulated Melanoma Progression By Targeting Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (Nnos), Shirley Tong, Maris A. Cinelli, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, He Huang, Anika Patel, Richard B. Silverman, Sun Yang 2022 Chapman University

Inhibition Of Interferon-Gamma-Stimulated Melanoma Progression By Targeting Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (Nnos), Shirley Tong, Maris A. Cinelli, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, He Huang, Anika Patel, Richard B. Silverman, Sun Yang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is shown to stimulate melanoma development and progression. However, the underlying mechanism has not been completely defined. Our study aimed to determine the role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-mediated signaling in IFN-γ-stimulated melanoma progression and the anti-melanoma effects of novel nNOS inhibitors. Our study shows that IFN-γ markedly induced the expression levels of nNOS in melanoma cells associated with increased intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels. Co-treatment with novel nNOS inhibitors effectively alleviated IFN-γ-activated STAT1/3. Further, reverse phase protein array (RPPA) analysis demonstrated that IFN-γ induced the expression of HIF1α, c-Myc, and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), in contrast …


Barriers In Surgical Research: A Perspective From The Developing World, Nadeem Ahmed Siddiqui, Muhammad Aanish Raees, Rehan Nasir Khan, Farhan Zafar 2022 Aga Khan University

Barriers In Surgical Research: A Perspective From The Developing World, Nadeem Ahmed Siddiqui, Muhammad Aanish Raees, Rehan Nasir Khan, Farhan Zafar

Department of Surgery

Research in surgery has led to significant advances over the last century in terms of how medicine is practised in and outside the operating rooms today. Surgical research in the developed countries is responsible for most of this advancement, but it is often inapplicable in resource-limited settings in the developing world. Lower- and middle-income countries are in a unique position to take this work further, but they are limited by certain barriers. These barriers could broadly be classified under social and cultural, infrastructure, financial, ethical, and personal categories. These barriers are often not fully realised, but can potentially be addressed …


Self-Conscious Emotions And The Right Fronto-Temporal And Right Temporal Parietal Junction, Adriana LaVarco, Nathira Ahmad, Qiana Archer, Matthew Pardillo, Ray Nunez Castaneda, Anthony Minervini, Julian Keenan 2022 Montclair State University

Self-Conscious Emotions And The Right Fronto-Temporal And Right Temporal Parietal Junction, Adriana Lavarco, Nathira Ahmad, Qiana Archer, Matthew Pardillo, Ray Nunez Castaneda, Anthony Minervini, Julian Keenan

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

For more than two decades, research focusing on both clinical and non-clinical populations has suggested a key role for specific regions in the regulation of self-conscious emotions. It is speculated that both the expression and the interpretation of self-conscious emotions are critical in humans for action planning and response, communication, learning, parenting, and most social encounters. Empathy, Guilt, Jealousy, Shame, and Pride are all categorized as self-conscious emotions, all of which are crucial components to one’s sense of self. There has been an abundance of evidence pointing to the right Fronto-Temporal involvement in the integration of cognitive processes underlying the …


A Nationwide Virtual Research Education Program For Medical Students In Pakistan: Methodological Framework, Feasibility Testing, And Outcomes, Ali Aahil Noorali, Maha Inam, Hamna Shahbaz, Hareem Rauf, Faiqa Binte Aamir, Farah Khalid, Saadia Abbas, Abdullah Saeed, Muhammad Daniyal Musharraf, Asma Altaf Hussain Merchant, Babar Hasan, Muneera A. Rasheed, Fyezah Jehan, Muhammad Tariq, Adil Hussain Haider 2022 Aga Khan University

A Nationwide Virtual Research Education Program For Medical Students In Pakistan: Methodological Framework, Feasibility Testing, And Outcomes, Ali Aahil Noorali, Maha Inam, Hamna Shahbaz, Hareem Rauf, Faiqa Binte Aamir, Farah Khalid, Saadia Abbas, Abdullah Saeed, Muhammad Daniyal Musharraf, Asma Altaf Hussain Merchant, Babar Hasan, Muneera A. Rasheed, Fyezah Jehan, Muhammad Tariq, Adil Hussain Haider

Medical College Documents

Introduction: Equipping young medical trainees with fundamental research skills can be a promising strategy to address the need for professionals who can understand and responsibly communicate evolving scientific evidence during a pandemic. Despite an ardent interest to partake in research, most educational institutions in Pakistan and other low-middle income countries have not yet adopted a comprehensive strategy for research skills education. The authors aimed to design and assess the feasibility of implementing the first nation-wide virtual research workshop for medical students in Pakistan.
Methods: The course "Beginners Guide to Research," designed as a nation-wide virtual research workshop series, was conducted …


Comparison Of Percutaneous Vs Oral Infection Of Hamsters With The Hookworm Ancylostoma Ceylanicum: Parasite Development, Pathology And Primary Immune Response, Richard D. Bungiro, Lisa M. Harrison, Blaise Dondji, Michael Cappello 2022 Yale University

Comparison Of Percutaneous Vs Oral Infection Of Hamsters With The Hookworm Ancylostoma Ceylanicum: Parasite Development, Pathology And Primary Immune Response, Richard D. Bungiro, Lisa M. Harrison, Blaise Dondji, Michael Cappello

Biology Faculty Scholarship

Background

Hundreds of millions of people in poor countries continue to suffer from disease caused by bloodfeeding hookworms. While mice and rats are not reliably permissive hosts for any human hookworm species, adult Golden Syrian hamsters are fully permissive for the human and animal pathogen Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Similar to humans, hamsters may be infected with A. ceylanicum third-stage larvae orally or percutaneously. Oral infection typically leads to consistent worm yields in hamsters but may not accurately reflect the clinical and immunological manifestations of human infection resulting from skin penetration.

Methodology/Principal findings

In this study we compared host responses …


An Assessment Of Geographic And Taxonomic Biases In Research On Climate Change-Related Range Shifts, Evan J. Parker 2022 Yale University

An Assessment Of Geographic And Taxonomic Biases In Research On Climate Change-Related Range Shifts, Evan J. Parker

Library Map Prize

Geographic and taxonomic biases in ecological literature inhibit the ability of research to be generalized or translated to other systems. This is particularly true with research on climate change-related range shifts, where a diverse and representative set of observations is needed to understand the significant heterogeneity of range shifts and improve models. A literature review was conducted and biases were assessed by examining the geographic location of study areas, the taxonomic makeup of study species, and the location of study areas within species ranges. A substantial geographic skew towards terrestrial, mid-latitude North America and Europe was observed. However, taxonomic coverage …


Conditioned Territory Defense In Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches (Gromphadorhina Portentosa), Macy R. Albaitis 2022 Bucknell University

Conditioned Territory Defense In Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches (Gromphadorhina Portentosa), Macy R. Albaitis

Honors Theses

In male blue gourami fish (Trichogaster trichopterus), signaled presentation of a male rival produces an aggressive conditioned response that results in an increased likelihood of the male winning the contest (Hollis, 1984). I replicated this classic study in a species that also shows territorial aggression: the Madagascar hissing cockroach (MHC; Gromphadorhina portentosa). During training, four adult male MHCs were designated as “CS+” animals and received a light (NS) followed by visual access to a rival male (US). Simultaneously, another group of four adult male MHCs designated as “UNC” animals received the light (NS) and visual access to a …


Evaluating Relative Abundance, Fish Length, And Marine Protected Area Effectiveness For Four Key Rocky Reef Species Along The Northern Californian Coast, Leon Davis 2022 Cal Poly Humboldt

Evaluating Relative Abundance, Fish Length, And Marine Protected Area Effectiveness For Four Key Rocky Reef Species Along The Northern Californian Coast, Leon Davis

Cal Poly Humboldt theses and projects

Marine protected areas (MPAs) were created with the purpose of helping conserve and restore diminished populations of marine organisms. Measuring the effectiveness of MPAs requires long-term monitoring, investigating the abundance and size distributions of the species that utilize the conservation areas, and comparing the results to neighboring reference sites that are not currently protected. In this study, observations from long-term MPA monitoring in northern California (2010-2019) were modeled with substrate, oceanographic, spatial, temporal, and body size variables to describe the variability in abundance and size of three fish groups: Black rockfish (Sebastes melanops), the Blue rockfish group (comprised …


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