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Plant Sentience: The Burden Of Proof, Jon Mallatt, David G. Robinson, Michael R. Blatt, Andreas Draguhn, Lincoln Taiz 2023 The University of Idaho

Plant Sentience: The Burden Of Proof, Jon Mallatt, David G. Robinson, Michael R. Blatt, Andreas Draguhn, Lincoln Taiz

Animal Sentience

Segundo-Ortin & Calvo’s (2023) target article takes a less speculative and more evidence-based approach to plant sentience than did previous works promoting that idea. However, it retains many of the idea’s longstanding difficulties such as starting from a false dichotomy (plants must be either hardwired or sentient), not accepting the full burden of proof for an extraordinary claim, confusingly redefining accepted cognitive terms, implying cell consciousness, not adopting the most parsimonious explanations for plant behaviors, and downplaying all the counterevidence. We advise rectifying these problems before plant sentience can become a full-fledged scientific domain.


Analysis Of Wild Rodent Gut Microbiota As A Function Of Exposure To Ticks And Tick-Borne Pathogens, Joshua Pandian 2023 University of Richmond

Analysis Of Wild Rodent Gut Microbiota As A Function Of Exposure To Ticks And Tick-Borne Pathogens, Joshua Pandian

Honors Theses

Due to advances in high-throughput parallel sequencing, researchers have conducted novel studies exploring relationships between microbiome compositions and different aspects of organism health. Some of these studies have shown that the gut microbiome of rodent models has effects on organism health and behavior and that infection with pathogens and the composition of the skin microbiome are linked to changes in gut microbiome composition. While previous studies have shown how vector microbiota impact vector behavior and pathogen transmission, the effect vectors have on reservoir species microbiomes has been a less prominent focus. We were interested in the relationships between tick parasitism, …


The Effects Of A Blood–Brain Barrier Penetrating Erythropoietin In A Mouse Model Of Tauopathy, Joshua Yang, Weijun Ou, Nataraj Jagadeesan, Juste Simanauskaite, Jiahong Sun, Demi M. Castellanos, David H. Cribbs, Rachita K. Sumbria 2023 Keck Graduate Institute

The Effects Of A Blood–Brain Barrier Penetrating Erythropoietin In A Mouse Model Of Tauopathy, Joshua Yang, Weijun Ou, Nataraj Jagadeesan, Juste Simanauskaite, Jiahong Sun, Demi M. Castellanos, David H. Cribbs, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Erythropoietin (EPO), a hematopoietic neurotrophin, is a potential therapeutic for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but has limited blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability. EPO fused to a chimeric transferrin receptor monoclonal antibody (cTfRMAb) enters the brain via TfR-mediated transcytosis across the BBB. We previously showed that cTfRMAb-EPO is protective in a mouse model of amyloidosis, but its effects on tauopathy are not known. Given that amyloid and tau pathology are characteristics of AD, the effects of cTfRMAb-EPO were studied in a tauopathy mouse model (PS19). Six-month-old PS19 mice were injected intraperitoneally with either saline (PS19-Saline; n = 9) or cTfRMAb-EPO (PS19-cTfRMAb-EPO, 10 mg/kg; …


Analysis Of Attitudinal Student Learning Benefits From A Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (Cure) Adapted For Online Format, Ambika Kapil, Luis C. Gonzalez Isoba, Niraj Pathak, Arthur Sikora, Santanu De 2023 Nova Southeastern University

Analysis Of Attitudinal Student Learning Benefits From A Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (Cure) Adapted For Online Format, Ambika Kapil, Luis C. Gonzalez Isoba, Niraj Pathak, Arthur Sikora, Santanu De

FDLA Journal

Course-based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs) are an increasingly utilized model for exposing students to research. The lack of robust assessments is a major hurdle to wider adoption of CUREs. The Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic necessitated a drastic shift of in-person courses to the online format. Using the Participant Perception Indicator (PPI) survey, we measured students’ self-reported changes in learning from such a biochemistry course at a large university in south Florida based on the Biochemistry Authentic Scientific Inquiry Lab (BASIL) model. By doing this, we were able to better understand the student-benefits of CUREs and how these benefits …


Mycorrhizal Fungi And Reforestation In An Eastern Lowland Rainforest Of Madagascar, Sophia Gibby 2023 SIT Study Abroad

Mycorrhizal Fungi And Reforestation In An Eastern Lowland Rainforest Of Madagascar, Sophia Gibby

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Most terrestrial plants worldwide make associations with mycorrhizal fungi, yet the fungal diversity of Madagascar is vastly unknown. This research project is a preliminary investigation into the mycorrhizal status of 19 tree species in and near Ranomafana National Park (RNP), a lowland tropical forest on the southeast coast of Madagascar. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization in these species was studied in root samples under the microscope in the laboratory of Centre ValBio (CVB). The degree of AM infection was assessed for three study areas: one directly adjacent to a protected area and two reforestation sites supported by CVB. For the 19 …


Understory Epiphyte Hydrology: Analyzing Water Storage Capacity Of Epiphytes Along An Elevational Gradient In Western Ecuadorian Cloud Forest, Angelina Dodge 2023 SIT Study Abroad

Understory Epiphyte Hydrology: Analyzing Water Storage Capacity Of Epiphytes Along An Elevational Gradient In Western Ecuadorian Cloud Forest, Angelina Dodge

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Epiphytes are defined as plants that grow on a host, often another plant, and acquire their nutrients and water from the atmosphere. As such is true, epiphyte composition is largely dependent upon atmospheric and thus climactic conditions. Due to high levels of atmospheric water availability that results from the frequent presence of mist, clouds, and high humidity, epiphytic plants grow and thus store water within the above ground region of the Andean cloud forest at levels higher than in any other ecosystem found in Ecuador. This study was done in hopes of revealing any trends of epiphytic water storage capacity …


A Comparative Plague Study Of Cacao Fungal Disease In Cacao Pods Within Monocultures And Indigenous Agroforests In Ecuador’S Napo Province, Seamus McCarthy 2023 SIT Study Abroad

A Comparative Plague Study Of Cacao Fungal Disease In Cacao Pods Within Monocultures And Indigenous Agroforests In Ecuador’S Napo Province, Seamus Mccarthy

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study analyzes the composition of three major fungal diseases in Theobroma cacao fruits compared between monocultures and chakra agroforests in the Napo province of Ecuador with the goal of noting similarities and differences in the disease composition between the two systems, as well as investigate possible variation within this poorly understood category of agroforest to better structure future studies. Cacao pods on sampled trees were counted and fungal infections identified visually and by touch. Chakra systems were selected in the communities of Cinco de Enero and Seis de Marzo to the Southwest of Tena, Ecuador. Monoculture data was collected …


Abcds Of Triggerfish In Pemba And Misali Island: Abundance, Biodiversity, Behaviour, Cultural Significance And Distribution, Hannah Ng Shueh Yi 2023 SIT Study Abroad

Abcds Of Triggerfish In Pemba And Misali Island: Abundance, Biodiversity, Behaviour, Cultural Significance And Distribution, Hannah Ng Shueh Yi

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study takes a socioecological approach to understanding triggerfish (Balistidae) in Pemba Island, using Misali Island reefs as a sample ecological site. Two reef sites on Misali Island and three of four districts in Pemba were observed during the study. The abundance of Balistipus undulatus at one of two study sites is close to the maximum carrying capacity of the reef. Overall observed biodiversity was low. Behavioural trends point to distinct species specific defence strategies and species aggression taking different forms. Triggerfishes cultural significance was primarily as a food fish, though it is not highly sought after. With polarised responses …


Impact Of Wildlife Provisioning On Species Diversity, Relative Frequency, And Richness In New South Wales, Alanah Cohen-Tigör 2023 SIT Study Abroad

Impact Of Wildlife Provisioning On Species Diversity, Relative Frequency, And Richness In New South Wales, Alanah Cohen-Tigör

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Wildlife provisioning and camera trapping are two recently evolving methods of conservation and wildlife management, aimed at protecting animals in the face of ever worsening climate change. Habitats are being destroyed by climate disruption, decreasing species diversity and abundance worldwide. It is imperative that methods of protecting species are developed to slow or reverse this era of extinction. By providing supplementary food and water to ecological communities, the hope is that species will have improved survivorship and reproduction, making them more resilient and resistant to population decline. Camera trapping is product of modern technology, allowing researchers to monitor species without …


Understanding Invasive Predation: Detections Of Feral Cats (Felis Catus) On Kangaroo Island’S Western River Refuge, Leah Boget 2023 SIT Study Abroad

Understanding Invasive Predation: Detections Of Feral Cats (Felis Catus) On Kangaroo Island’S Western River Refuge, Leah Boget

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Feral cats (Felis catus) are a priority-level threat for small to medium-sized native vertebrates across Australia and especially so in insular environments like that of Kangaroo Island, South Australia. The island is home to several endangered and geographically restricted species, including the Kangaroo Island Dunnart (Sminthopsis aitkeni), an endangered marsupial endemic to Kangaroo Island. When bushfires spread across the island and burned x percent of native vegetation in late 2019 to early 2020, these populations were critically impacted and post-fire feral cat predation on the island risked their extinctions, motivating the creation of a refuge with …


Chronic Kidney Disease Promotes Cerebral Microhemorrhage Formation, Chuo Fang, Wei Ling Lau, Jiahong Sun, Rudy Chang, Adrian Vallejo, Donghy Lee, Jihua Liu, Han Liu, Yu-Han Hung, Yitong Zhao, Annlia Paganini-Hill, Rachita K. Sumbria, David H. Cribbs, Mark J. Fisher 2023 University of California, Irvine

Chronic Kidney Disease Promotes Cerebral Microhemorrhage Formation, Chuo Fang, Wei Ling Lau, Jiahong Sun, Rudy Chang, Adrian Vallejo, Donghy Lee, Jihua Liu, Han Liu, Yu-Han Hung, Yitong Zhao, Annlia Paganini-Hill, Rachita K. Sumbria, David H. Cribbs, Mark J. Fisher

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly recognized as a stroke risk factor, but its exact relationship with cerebrovascular disease is not well-understood. We investigated the development of cerebral small vessel disease using in vivo and in vitro models of CKD.

Methods

CKD was produced in aged C57BL/6J mice using an adenine-induced tubulointerstitial nephritis model. We analyzed brain histology using Prussian blue staining to examine formation of cerebral microhemorrhage (CMH), the hemorrhagic component of small vessel disease and the neuropathological substrate of MRI-demonstrable cerebral microbleeds. In cell culture studies, we examined effects of serum from healthy or CKD patients and …


Comparison Of Dna Extraction Methods For Soft Tissue Samples, Steve Guzman, Nathaniel E. Hill, Mujtaba Shah, Jonathon Reynolds, Cole Farnsworth, Molly Henley, Alfred Amendolara, Laura Minor, John Dougherty Jr., John A. Kriak, Kyle B. Bills, David W. Sant 2023 , Noorda College of Osteopathic Medicine

Comparison Of Dna Extraction Methods For Soft Tissue Samples, Steve Guzman, Nathaniel E. Hill, Mujtaba Shah, Jonathon Reynolds, Cole Farnsworth, Molly Henley, Alfred Amendolara, Laura Minor, John Dougherty Jr., John A. Kriak, Kyle B. Bills, David W. Sant

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


A Composition Of Phytonutrients For Glycemic And Weight Management, Yasuyo Urasaki 2023 Roseman University of Health Sciences

A Composition Of Phytonutrients For Glycemic And Weight Management, Yasuyo Urasaki

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Update – Food & Drug Administration’S Animal Testing Mandate, Andrew N. Rowan 2023 WellBeing International

Update – Food & Drug Administration’S Animal Testing Mandate, Andrew N. Rowan

WellBeing News

Following the end of the Second World War, the World Medical Association developed new ethical guidelines regarding research involving human subjects. These guidelines included requirements to obtain informed consent from research subjects but also emphasized the importance of conducting animal research before engaging in human clinical trials and other human research. This principle was included in legislation mandating the FDA to require prior animal research before permitting human trials of new drugs. That mandate was recently eliminated by new US legislation cosponsored by Senators Cory Booker and Rand Paul. The FDA can now encourage non-animal methods and no longer has …


Differential Strain-Dependent Ovarian And Metabolic Responses In A Mouse Model Of Pcos, April K. Binder, Danielle L. Peecher, Amanda J. Qvigstad, Silvia D. Gutierrez, Jennifer Magaña, David B. Banks, Kenneth S. Korach 2023 Central Washington University

Differential Strain-Dependent Ovarian And Metabolic Responses In A Mouse Model Of Pcos, April K. Binder, Danielle L. Peecher, Amanda J. Qvigstad, Silvia D. Gutierrez, Jennifer Magaña, David B. Banks, Kenneth S. Korach

Biology Faculty Scholarship

Several mouse models have been developed to study polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a leading cause of infertility in women. Treatment of mice with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for 90-days causes ovarian and metabolic phenotypes similar to women with PCOS. We used this 90-day DHT treatment paradigm to investigate the variable incidence and heterogeneity in two inbred mouse strains, NOD/ShiLtJ and 129S1/SvlmJ. NOD mice naturally develop type 1 diabetes, and recent meta-analysis found increased androgen excess and PCOS in women with type 1 diabetes. 129S1 mice are commonly used in genetic manipulations. Both NOD and 129S1 DHT treated mice had early vaginal opening, …


Loss-Of-Function KCa2.2 Mutations Abolish Channel Activity, Young-Woo Nam, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Grace Yang, Razan Orfali, Meng Cui, Miao Zhang 2023 Chapman University

Loss-Of-Function KCa2.2 Mutations Abolish Channel Activity, Young-Woo Nam, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Grace Yang, Razan Orfali, Meng Cui, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Small-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels subtype 2 (KCa2.2, also called SK2) are operated exclusively by a Ca2+-calmodulin gating mechanism. Heterozygous genetic mutations of KCa2.2 channels have been associated with autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorders including cerebellar ataxia and tremor in humans and rodents. Taking advantage of these pathogenic mutations, we performed structure-function studies of the rat KCa2.2 channel. No measurable current was detected from HEK293 cells heterologously expressing these pathogenic KCa2.2 mutants. When co-expressed with the KCa2.2_WT channel, mutations of the pore-lining amino acid residues (I360M, Y362C, G363S …


Exploring The Potential Of Intranasally Administered Naturally Occurring Quercetin Loaded Into Polymeric Nanocapsules As A Novel Platform For The Treatment Of Anxiety, Shady Swidan, Khaled Younis Mahmoud, Nahla Ahmed Elhesaisy, Abdelrahman Rashed, Ebram Mikhael, Mahmoud Fadl, Mahmoud Elsadek, Merna Mohamed, Merna Mostafa, Mohamed Hassan, Omar Halema, Youssef Elnemer 2023 The British University in Egypt

Exploring The Potential Of Intranasally Administered Naturally Occurring Quercetin Loaded Into Polymeric Nanocapsules As A Novel Platform For The Treatment Of Anxiety, Shady Swidan, Khaled Younis Mahmoud, Nahla Ahmed Elhesaisy, Abdelrahman Rashed, Ebram Mikhael, Mahmoud Fadl, Mahmoud Elsadek, Merna Mohamed, Merna Mostafa, Mohamed Hassan, Omar Halema, Youssef Elnemer

Pharmacy

Anxiety is one of the most prevalent forms of psychopathology that afects millions worldwide. It gained more importance under the pandemic status that resulted in higher anxiety prevalence. Anxiolytic drugs such as benzodiazepines have an unfavorable risk/beneft ratio resulting in a shift toward active ingredients with better safety profle such as the naturally occurring quercetin (QRC). The delivery of QRC is hampered by its low water solubility and low bioavailability. The potential to enhance QRC delivery to the brain utilizing polymeric nanocapsules administered intranasally is investigated in the current study. Polymeric nanocapsules were prepared utilizing the nanoprecipitation technique. The best …


Orb-Web Spider Argiope (Araneidae) As Indigenous Arrow Poison Of G/Ui And G//Ana San Hunters In The Kalahari, Tharina L. Bird, Smith Moeti, Robert K. Hitchcock, Melinda C. Kelly, Lefang L. Chobolo, Nonofo Gotcha, Kgosi K. Moatlhodi, Leungo D. Mukoka, Emmanuel K. Sekopo, Caroline Simmrita Chaboo 2023 Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, Pretoria, South Afr

Orb-Web Spider Argiope (Araneidae) As Indigenous Arrow Poison Of G/Ui And G//Ana San Hunters In The Kalahari, Tharina L. Bird, Smith Moeti, Robert K. Hitchcock, Melinda C. Kelly, Lefang L. Chobolo, Nonofo Gotcha, Kgosi K. Moatlhodi, Leungo D. Mukoka, Emmanuel K. Sekopo, Caroline Simmrita Chaboo

Publications of UNSM Staff and Affiliates

Hunting has been crucial in early human evolution. Some San (Bushmen) of southern Africa still practice their indigenous hunting. The use of poisons is one remarkable aspect of their bow-and-arrow hunting but the sources, taxonomic identifications of species used, and recipes, are not well documented. This study reports on fieldwork to investigate recent indigenous hunting practices of G/ui and G//ana San communities in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR), Botswana. Here we discuss their use of spider poison. The hunters use the contents of the opisthosoma (‘abdomen’) of a spider as sole ingredient of the arrow poison and discard the …


A Growth Model For Arctica Islandica: The Performance Of Tanaka And The Temptation Of Von Bertalanffy—Can The Two Coexist?, John M. Klinck, Eric N. Powell, Kathleen M. Hemeon, Jillian R. Sower, Daniel R. Hennen 2023 Old Dominion University

A Growth Model For Arctica Islandica: The Performance Of Tanaka And The Temptation Of Von Bertalanffy—Can The Two Coexist?, John M. Klinck, Eric N. Powell, Kathleen M. Hemeon, Jillian R. Sower, Daniel R. Hennen

CCPO Publications

Organisms increase in size over time (age) due to excess assimilation over metabolic (respiration) energy demands. Most organisms reach a maximum size with increasing age as gain and loss balance. The von Bertalanffy length-at-age relationship, which is commonly used in fishery assessment calculations, imposes such a maximum size. However, some fished species, such as ocean quahogs, Arctica islandica, are long lived and continue to grow at old age. The Tanaka age-at-length relationship has continued growth at old age, but is rarely used in stock assessment models. A modified form of the von Bertalanffy model is presented, which mimics the …


The Effects Of Sex On Zebrafish Bone Metabolism, Simon Bagatto 2023 University of Akron

The Effects Of Sex On Zebrafish Bone Metabolism, Simon Bagatto

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I investigated the effects of diet and sex on zebrafish bone metabolism. Zebrafish were subjected to either a high-calorie or low-calorie diet over a five-week period. After this diet, zebrafish scales were used to measure alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) enzyme activity with a fluorescent substrate. The enzyme activities were markers of the osteoblasts (ALP) and the osteoclasts (TRAP). These data were compared among sex and diet of the zebrafish using a repeated measures ANOVA statistical test. I also measured the number of resorption lacunae per scale (another indicator of osteoclast activity). The results showed higher TRAP …


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