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Impact Of Cria Protection Strategy On Post-Natal Survival And Growth Of Alpacas (Vicugna Pacos), Santiago Valenzuela, Ruth M. Benites, Juan E. Moscoso-Muñoz, Curtis R. Youngs, Oscar E. Gómez-Quispe 2021 Universidad Nacional Micaela Bastidas de Apurímac

Impact Of Cria Protection Strategy On Post-Natal Survival And Growth Of Alpacas (Vicugna Pacos), Santiago Valenzuela, Ruth M. Benites, Juan E. Moscoso-Muñoz, Curtis R. Youngs, Oscar E. Gómez-Quispe

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of different management systems on the postnatal survival and growth of alpaca crias. The study was conducted during the alpaca calving season in the Peruvian Andes. Animals were fed on native pastures; during the day they went out to graze, but at night they were brought into a corral. A total of 150 alpaca singleton neonates were randomly assigned to one of three cria protection strategies immediately after consuming colostrum. The first group consisted of 50 crias who slept in an open-corral (OC) without shelter. The second group was comprised ...


How A Low-Cost Method For Cumulative Water-Sampling Shows Need For Improvement Of Legal Public-Contact Standards In The United States, Samuel Kessler 2021 University of Louisville

How A Low-Cost Method For Cumulative Water-Sampling Shows Need For Improvement Of Legal Public-Contact Standards In The United States, Samuel Kessler

Grawemeyer Colloquium Papers

Across the world, it is estimated that 4.5 billion people live near water sources “impaired” for use or contact. Standards for human-interaction are established by international organizations such as the WHO, and legislative bodies from national to local levels with jurisdiction over the quality of our waterways to ensure public & environmental health. Standards are often assessed from “grab-samples” taken from a waterbody at a certain time, with a minimum number analyzed. Water-quality standards in the United States are enforced under the Clean Water Act (CWA) via the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), applying to “waters of the United States” (WOTUS ...


Evaluating Anesthetic Protocols For Non-Human Primate Functional Neuroimaging, Megha Verma 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Evaluating Anesthetic Protocols For Non-Human Primate Functional Neuroimaging, Megha Verma

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique that can be used to measure a proxy of neural activity in vivo with high spatial specificity. One subject can be followed for a long period of time to assess changes in functional brain organization. However, fMRI is extremely sensitive to motion. The challenges of training non-human primates to reduce motion in an MRI scanner motivate the study of anesthesia which is commonly used to substitute for this training. In this thesis, I compare three different commonly used anesthetic protocols: isoflurane, propofol-fentanyl in combination, and fentanyl alone, to test which of ...


Heart Health: Lifestyle Factors That Influence Cardiovascular Well-Being, Holly K. Sawyer 2021 Georgia Southern University

Heart Health: Lifestyle Factors That Influence Cardiovascular Well-Being, Holly K. Sawyer

Honors College Theses

Each year, one in every four deaths in the United States is a result of heart disease. As the leading cause of death among women and men from various ethnicities, heart disease may be overlooked when making everyday life decisions. As a group of genetic and behavioral conditions, heart disease is the number one killer of Americans. This may be due to the typical Western diet and daily life choices such as drinking alcohol or smoking tobacco. Heart diseases including atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease kill ten times more women than breast cancer (Lewis, et al., 2017). White men have ...


Effect Of Artemis (Dclre1c) Deficiency And Microinjection Timing On Editing Efficiency During Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer And In Vitro Fertilization Using The Crispr/Cas9 System, Yunsheng Li, Malavika K. Adur, Wei Wang, R. Blythe Schultz, Benjamin Hale, Wesley Wierson, Sara E. Charley, Maura McGrail, Jeffrey Essner, Christopher K. Tuggle, Jason W. Ross 2021 Iowa State University

Effect Of Artemis (Dclre1c) Deficiency And Microinjection Timing On Editing Efficiency During Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer And In Vitro Fertilization Using The Crispr/Cas9 System, Yunsheng Li, Malavika K. Adur, Wei Wang, R. Blythe Schultz, Benjamin Hale, Wesley Wierson, Sara E. Charley, Maura Mcgrail, Jeffrey Essner, Christopher K. Tuggle, Jason W. Ross

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The ability to efficiently introduce site-specific genetic modifications to the mammalian genome has been dramatically improved with the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. CRISPR/Cas9 is a powerful tool used to generate genetic modifications by causing double-strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA. Artemis (ART; also known as DCLRE1C), is a nuclear protein and is essential for DSB end joining in DNA repair via the canonical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ) pathway. In this work, we tested whether ART deficiency affects DNA repair following CRISPR/Cas9 induced DSBs in somatic cells. We also demonstrated the effect of microinjection timing on embryo developmental ...


Differential Diagnosis Of Abnormal Muscle Gross Anatomy Of A Male Cadaver, Audrey V. Broffman, Carley R. Carpenter 2021 University of Montana, Missoula

Differential Diagnosis Of Abnormal Muscle Gross Anatomy Of A Male Cadaver, Audrey V. Broffman, Carley R. Carpenter

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

The ability of healthcare providers to carefully consider all presentations of illness and injury, draw upon research and knowledge to develop a list of potential diagnoses, and further investigate systems expected to be impacted by these diagnoses, is crucial for accurate identification of a condition and subsequent treatment plans to improve the welfare of patients. In order to determine a possible cause for unusual anatomic changes in multiple regions of the male cadaver used in the University of Montana’s Anatomy and Physiology lab, we performed a differential diagnosis.This research is exempt from IRB approval because the individual is ...


Soil Response Of Helicopter Liming In The Monongahela National Forest, Jarrett Douglas Fowler 2021 West Virginia University

Soil Response Of Helicopter Liming In The Monongahela National Forest, Jarrett Douglas Fowler

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Soils in the Monongahela National Forest (MNF) are acidic due to sandstone parent material, acid deposition, uptake of base cations by vegetation, and release of organic acids by organic matter (OM) decomposition. Increases in soil acidity have caused declines in forest health and changed species composition and nutrient status. Liming can neutralize soil acidity, but no large-scale liming projects have been done on acid forest soils in the USA. In anticipation of acquiring funding for a proposed liming project in the MNF, in 2007 and 2009 10 sites were selected to sample and analyze soils before lime was applied. In ...


Effects Of Wastewater Effluent On Fish Fin Morphology Of Larval Fathead Minnows (Pimephales Promelas) And Swimming Performance Of Smallmouth Buffalo (Ictiobus Bubalus), Seth Michael Bogue 2021 Eastern Illinois University

Effects Of Wastewater Effluent On Fish Fin Morphology Of Larval Fathead Minnows (Pimephales Promelas) And Swimming Performance Of Smallmouth Buffalo (Ictiobus Bubalus), Seth Michael Bogue

Masters Theses

The Sangamon River flows across central Illinois and is mostly free flowing except in the city of Decatur where it is impounded to form Lake Decatur. The Sanitary District of Decatur (SDD) is located approximately three miles downstream of the Lake Decatur dam. For a significant portion of the year, the stretch of the Sangamon River downstream of SDD is dominated by effluent due to limited discharge from the Lake Decatur dam. This has resulted in heavy nutrient loading, most notably phosphorus, and elevated levels of nickel and other compounds in the downstream section of the river. Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus ...


Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Optic Fissure Fusion During Zebrafish Eye Development, Megan Weaver 2021 University of Kentucky

Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Optic Fissure Fusion During Zebrafish Eye Development, Megan Weaver

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Vertebrate retinal development requires timely and precise fusion of the optic fissure. Failure of this event leads to congenital vision impairment in the form of coloboma. Recent studies have suggested hyaloid vasculature to be involved in OF fusion. In order to examine this link, we analyzed optic fissure fusion and hyaloid vasculogenesis in the zebrafish pax2a noi mutant line. We first determined that pax2a-/- embryos fail to accumulate F-actin in the optic fissure prior to basement membrane (BM) degradation. Furthermore, using 3D and live imaging we observed reduced OF hyaloid vascularization in pax2a-/- embryos. When examining the connection between pax2a ...


Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish 2021 West Virginia University

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


Dirofilaria Immitis Prevalence In Canis Latrans In Kentucky, Melanie Ann Brandon 2021 Murray State University

Dirofilaria Immitis Prevalence In Canis Latrans In Kentucky, Melanie Ann Brandon

Murray State Theses and Dissertations

Dirofilaria immitis (canine heartworm) was found in forty-two (42) of the two hundred seventy-five (275) Canis latrans (coyote) necropsied in the state of Kentucky from November 27, 2019 through March 3, 2021. Thirty-five (35) of the positive cases were from western Kentucky region with the other seven spread across the state. With this group of coyotes, one hundred fifty-eight (158) were male and the other one hundred six-teen (116) were female. The estimated age ranged from a pup to senior dogs. A little over forty percent of the dogs were obtained through coyote/predator tournaments; the remaining were acquired from ...


Rigor And Reproducibility Training For First Year Medical Students In Research Pathways, Kate L. Lapane, Catherine E. Dube 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Rigor And Reproducibility Training For First Year Medical Students In Research Pathways, Kate L. Lapane, Catherine E. Dube

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

In the Spring of 2020, we launched a rigor and reproducibility curriculum for medical students in research training programs. This required class consisted of eight, two-hour sessions which transitioned to remote learning in response to the COVID-19 epidemic. The class was graded as Pass/Fail. Flipped classroom techniques, with multiple hands-on exercises, were developed for first year medical students (MD/PhD (n=9), Clinical and Translational Research Pathway students (n=9)). Four focus groups (n=13 students) and individual interviews with the two instructors were conducted in May 2020. From individual interviews with instructors and focus groups with medical students ...


The Physiological Interaction Of Sleep Deprivation And Zoledronate On Distal Femur Trabecular Thickness Of Ovariectomized Rats, Erin Nolte, Frank Frisch, Oliver Lopez 2020 Chapman University

The Physiological Interaction Of Sleep Deprivation And Zoledronate On Distal Femur Trabecular Thickness Of Ovariectomized Rats, Erin Nolte, Frank Frisch, Oliver Lopez

Health Sciences and Kinesiology Faculty Articles

Osteoporosis, a disease resulting in an increased risk of fracture due to compromised bone, affects 1 in 3 postmenopausal women. Discontinuities in the microarchitecture of bone, such as trabeculae, are seen in postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study aimed to evaluate how sleep deprivation affects the distal femur trabecular thickness of estrogen-deficient rats treated with Zoledronate. 29 ovariectomized Wistar female rats were separated into 4 groups. The control group (C) was housed in standard housing with a 12-hour light/dark cycle and was given an intravenous injection of 0.45 mL of 0.9% saline. The Zoledronate group (Z) were also housed ...


Lipid Source And Peroxidation Status Alter Immune Cell Recruitment In Broiler Chicken Ileum, Krysten A. Fries-Craft, Meaghan M. Meyer, Stephanie C. Lindblom, Brain J. Kerr, Elizabeth A. Bobeck 2020 Iowa State University

Lipid Source And Peroxidation Status Alter Immune Cell Recruitment In Broiler Chicken Ileum, Krysten A. Fries-Craft, Meaghan M. Meyer, Stephanie C. Lindblom, Brain J. Kerr, Elizabeth A. Bobeck

Animal Science Publications

Background: Restaurant oil in poultry diets increases energy content, reduces production costs, and promotes sustainability within the food supply chain. However, variable oil composition and heating temperatures among restaurant oil sources can impact broiler chicken health due to heat-induced lipid modifications.

Objectives: A 21-d experiment was conducted to evaluate ileal morphology, liver cytokine gene expression, and ileal immune cell populations in broilers fed control or peroxidized lipids with varying chain and saturation characteristics.

Methods: Day-old broilers were housed in battery cages (5 birds per cage) and fed diets containing 5% control or peroxidized oils. Eight diets were randomly assigned in ...


Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi

Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis is the most important cause of lameness in broilers. This is important to poultry production, as it poses animal welfare issues, and causes a significant loss in revenue. The remediation of this disease requires the study of its etiology with fitting models and evaluating preventatives. The research reported herein covers genomic virulence analysis of BCO isolates, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli retrieved from lame birds. We found that S. aureus isolates were closest to chicken strains in Europe but may have been in the Arkansas area for a decade. Phylogenomics suggest our S. aureus is ...


Natural History Study Of Glycan Accumulation In Large Animal Models Of Gm2 Gangliosidoses, Catlyn Cavender, Linley Mangini, Jeremy L. Van Vleet, Carley Corado, Emma McCullagh, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Douglas R. Martin, Brett E. Crawford, Roger Lawrence 2020 BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc.

Natural History Study Of Glycan Accumulation In Large Animal Models Of Gm2 Gangliosidoses, Catlyn Cavender, Linley Mangini, Jeremy L. Van Vleet, Carley Corado, Emma Mccullagh, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Douglas R. Martin, Brett E. Crawford, Roger Lawrence

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

beta-hexosaminidase is an enzyme responsible for the degradation of gangliosides, glycans, and other glycoconjugates containing beta-linked hexosamines that enter the lysosome. GM2 gangliosidoses, such as Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff, are lysosomal storage disorders characterized by beta-hexosaminidase deficiency and subsequent lysosomal accumulation of its substrate metabolites. These two diseases result in neurodegeneration and early mortality in children. A significant difference between these two disorders is the accumulation in Sandhoff disease of soluble oligosaccharide metabolites that derive from N- and O-linked glycans. In this paper we describe our results from a longitudinal biochemical study of a feline model of Sandhoff disease and an ...


Effects Of Long-Term Variation In Temperature On Reproductive Phenology In A Population Of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis), Paul Pleiman 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Long-Term Variation In Temperature On Reproductive Phenology In A Population Of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis), Paul Pleiman

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates the relationship between multiple temperature variables, to include annual and pre-lay date temperatures with first-egg and mean first-egg lay dates of the eastern bluebird at the Warner Parks in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Data is collected by citizen scientists for the Eastern Bluebird Nesting Box Project while visiting artificial nest boxes throughout the park and recording observations made during the breeding season. Temperature data is retrieved from the Northwest Alliance for Computational Science and Engineering’s Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) Climate Group, based at Oregon State University. The analyses showed no correlation between annual or ...


Birth Of A Live Cria After Transfer Of A Vitrified-Warmed Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos) Preimplantation Embryo, Jennifer C. Lutz, Susan L. Johnson, Kimberly J. Duprey, Paul J. Taylor, Henry William Vivanco-Mackie, Daniel Ponce-Salazar, Marlene Miguel-Gonzales, Curtis R. Youngs 2020 Cas-Cad-Nac Farm

Birth Of A Live Cria After Transfer Of A Vitrified-Warmed Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos) Preimplantation Embryo, Jennifer C. Lutz, Susan L. Johnson, Kimberly J. Duprey, Paul J. Taylor, Henry William Vivanco-Mackie, Daniel Ponce-Salazar, Marlene Miguel-Gonzales, Curtis R. Youngs

Animal Science Publications

The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) is an important species for the production of fiber and food. Genetic improvement programs for alpacas have been hindered, however, by the lack of field-practical techniques for artificial insemination and embryo transfer. In particular, successful techniques for the cryopreservation of alpaca preimplantation embryos have not been reported previously. The objective of this study was to develop a field-practical and efficacious technique for cryopreservation of alpaca preimplantation embryos using a modification of a vitrification protocol originally devised for horses and adapted for dromedary camels. Four naturally cycling non-superovulated Huacaya females serving as embryo donors were mated to ...


Wireless ‘Under The Skull’ Epidural Eeg And Behavior In Piglets During Nitrous Oxide Or Carbon Dioxide Gas Euthanasia, Jean-Loup Rault, Alan Lai, Lauren Hemsworth, Matthias Le Chevoir, Sebastien Bauquier, Richard S. Gates, Donald C. Lay Jr. 2020 University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna

Wireless ‘Under The Skull’ Epidural Eeg And Behavior In Piglets During Nitrous Oxide Or Carbon Dioxide Gas Euthanasia, Jean-Loup Rault, Alan Lai, Lauren Hemsworth, Matthias Le Chevoir, Sebastien Bauquier, Richard S. Gates, Donald C. Lay Jr.

Animal Science Publications

Consciousness is central to animal welfare concerns. Its assessment is most often conducted based on behavior, with a poor understanding of the correspondence between behavior and the neurobiological processes that underlie the subjective experience of consciousness. Recording of brain electrical activity using electrodes placed under the skull improves EEG recording by minimizing artifacts from muscular or cardiac activities, and it can now be combined with wireless recording in free-moving animals. This experiment investigated the correspondence between wireless ‘under the skull’ epidural EEG and the behavior of 18 five-week-old female piglets undergoing nitrous oxide (N2O) or carbon dioxide (CO2) gradual fill ...


Evaluation Of Different Ensiling Methods On Storage And Feeding Value Of The Residual Material From Edamame Soybean Processing, Ellen Herring 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Different Ensiling Methods On Storage And Feeding Value Of The Residual Material From Edamame Soybean Processing, Ellen Herring

Theses and Dissertations

Use of organic waste material by ruminant animals from food processing operations potentially reduces costs and reduces environmental issues from disposal of these residues. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the storage and feeding value of residual from edamame soybean processing for ruminant animals. Two types of waste streams, waste during harvest time and waste from processing stored material, were ensiled (on a laboratory scale) using various methods and effects on post-ensiling nutritive value were examined. Material from both waste streams were ensiled either without wilting or after wilting; each moisture level was ensiled with and without an inoculant ...


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