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Modulation Of Hepatic Amyloid Precursor Protein And Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1 By Chronic Alcohol Intake: Potential Link Between Liver Steatosis And Amyloid-Β, Jerome Garcia, Rudy Chang, Ross A. Steinberg, Aldo Arce, Joshua Yang, Peter Van Der Eb, Tamara Abdullah, Devaraj V. Chandrashekar, Syndey M. Eck, Pablo Meza, Zhang-Xu Liu, Enrique Cadenas, David H. Cribbs, Neil Kaplowitz, Rachita K. Sumbria, Derick Han 2022 University of La Verne

Modulation Of Hepatic Amyloid Precursor Protein And Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1 By Chronic Alcohol Intake: Potential Link Between Liver Steatosis And Amyloid-Β, Jerome Garcia, Rudy Chang, Ross A. Steinberg, Aldo Arce, Joshua Yang, Peter Van Der Eb, Tamara Abdullah, Devaraj V. Chandrashekar, Syndey M. Eck, Pablo Meza, Zhang-Xu Liu, Enrique Cadenas, David H. Cribbs, Neil Kaplowitz, Rachita K. Sumbria, Derick Han

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Heavy alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for various forms of dementia and the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this work, we investigated how intragastric alcohol feeding may alter the liver-to-brain axis to induce and/or promote AD pathology. Four weeks of intragastric alcohol feeding to mice, which causes significant fatty liver (steatosis) and liver injury, caused no changes in AD pathology markers in the brain [amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin], except for a decrease in microglial cell number in the cortex of the brain. Interestingly, the decline in microglial numbers correlated with serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, suggesting …


Prenatal Choline Supplementation During Maternal Obesity Alters Offspring Response To Western Diets, Hunter W. Korsmo 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Prenatal Choline Supplementation During Maternal Obesity Alters Offspring Response To Western Diets, Hunter W. Korsmo

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Maternal obesity has led to an increase in adverse offspring developmental outcomes and a greater risk for long-term metabolic diseases. Choline, a semi-essential nutrient, can be incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) as well as sphingomyelin (SM) and donate its labile methyl group for the remethylation of homocysteine after choline is oxidized to betaine. Prenatal choline insufficiency has been related to maternal obesity and metabolic diseases, such as metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Choline may interact with maternal obesity to influence the programming offspring.

Chapter 1 presents an introduction of choline and the various clinical outcomes associated with choline supplementation during …


The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen KW Wong 2022 Western University

The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen Kw Wong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Clinical and preclinical studies indicate prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) pathologically affects fetal brain development and may increase vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and mood/anxiety disorders. In review research from our lab suggests that fetal exposure to Δ9-THC sex-selectively impairs mesocorticolimbic (MCL) circuit function. However, there is a distinct lack of focus on PCE models on the BLA. The BLA plays a central role within the MCL where it directly interacts with the VTA, PFC and HIPP. Importantly, our model exhibits significant VTA hyperdopaminergic activity, and sex-specific alterations to PFC/HIPP glutamate firing, alongside region- and sex-specific changes in dopamine (DA), …


Myeloarchitectonic Maps Of Cat Auditory Cortex, Austin Robertson 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Myeloarchitectonic Maps Of Cat Auditory Cortex, Austin Robertson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cerebral cortex contains myriad cortical areas that differ in structure, function, and connectivity. Current methods of delineating cortical structures and their subregions are insufficient for in vivo applications, either being highly invasive or requiring a detailed knowledge of a region’s tuning properties. To address this, we seek to establish a structural biomarker capable of delineating the cortex that possesses a non-invasive correlate. We explore myelin as a potential candidate by evaluating its efficacy in parcellating the feline auditory cortex through the generation of depthwise myelin density profiles for each of the 13 auditory cortical subregions. Our analyses revealed significant …


Impacts On Fast-Start Performance: How Do Group Size And Habitat Degradation Alter The Escape Behavior Of A Schooling Coral Reef Fish?, Monica D. Bacchus 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Impacts On Fast-Start Performance: How Do Group Size And Habitat Degradation Alter The Escape Behavior Of A Schooling Coral Reef Fish?, Monica D. Bacchus

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Escaping predation is essential for species survival, but prey must effectively match their response to the perceived threat imposed by a predator. Fish evaluate their surroundings using several sensory stimuli, including olfactory, visual, auditory, and mechanical cues. A range of taxa use the fast-start response to evade predators, including fishes, sharks, and larval amphibians. While the fast-start response (rapid bursts of swimming) is extensively studied in solitary fishes, the factors that mediate the collective escape response in schools of fish have historically been investigated far less. To address this knowledge gap, the collective escape behavior and individual escape performance of …


Effects Of An Injectable Zinc Solution At Weaning As An Alternative Castration Method In Beef Cattle, Reagan Nicole Cauble 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of An Injectable Zinc Solution At Weaning As An Alternative Castration Method In Beef Cattle, Reagan Nicole Cauble

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Two experiments were conducted to investigate a 1 mL intratesticular zinc (100 mg Zn) injection administered into each testicle at weaning (Z) and its effects on growth, health, behavior and testosterone. In the first experiment, beef bulls were assigned randomly to treatment at birth: 1) surgically castrated at birth (S; n = 37) or 2) Z (n = 37). Testicular thickness differed by day (P < 0.01) for Z. Testosterone concentrations were greater in Z by d 77 and remained so through d 280 (P = 0.02) compared to S. Zinc injected calves were heavier at the trail’s conclusion (P ≤ 0.04), had greater ADG overall (P < 0.01), heavier hot carcass weight (P = 0.01), and greater lean muscle area (P = 0.01) compared to S; but a lower marbling score (P < 0.01). Yield Grade, dressed carcass yield and fat thickness were similar (P ≥ 0.14). Zinc injected calves had greater haptoglobin (Hp) concentrations (P < 0.01). Zinc injected calves had greater concentrations of white blood cells on d 1 and 2 and greater concentrations and proportions of neutrophils on d 1, 2 and 3 (P < 0.01). Conversely, S had a greater percentage of lymphocytes on d 1, 2 and 3 and a lower ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes during that same time (P < 0.01). Zinc injected calves spent more time on their side or sternum on d 1 and more time on their side on d 2 while S spend more time standing during that time (P < 0.01). During d 3, 4, 5, and 6, Z stood more while S laid on their sternum (P < 0.01). In trail 2, beef bulls were allocated randomly to treatment one week post weaning: 1) banded (B; n = 42) or 2) Z (n = 39). Body weights were similar (P ≥ 0.39) but ADG improved for Z compared to B (P = 0.05). Testosterone concentrations were greater in Z compared to B (P ≤ 0.02). Testicular width in Z differed by d (P < 0.01). Zinc castrated calves spent more time on their side compared to B one day post castration (P = 0.03) until d 3 and 4 where B spent more time on their side (P ≤ 0.02). Banded calves stood more the first two days (P ≤ 0.01). On days 3, 4, 5, and 6, Z stood more (P ≤ 0.01) while B were on their sternum (P ≤ 0.03). Banded calves had lower Hp concentrations compared to Z (P ≤ 0.01). Total white blood cell concentrations, proportions and concentrations of neutrophils, and proportion of lymphocytes were greater in Z compared to B on d 1, 2, and 3 (P ≤ 0.01). There was no interaction between treatments over time for IL1β, IL6, and TNFα expression (P ≥ 0.83). The findings in both studies indicate that intratesticular Zn injections at weaning can improve growth performance and some carcass attributes but produce a heightened inflammatory and immune response and cause discomfort. Injecting zinc, as formulated and administered in these trails, does not result in complete castration of beef calves at this age and therefore cannot be considered a true castration alternative.


Intestinal Microbiota Analysis Of Broiler Chickens Under Necrotic Enteritis Challenge And Tributyrin Supplementation, Taylor Nicole McKinney 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Intestinal Microbiota Analysis Of Broiler Chickens Under Necrotic Enteritis Challenge And Tributyrin Supplementation, Taylor Nicole Mckinney

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Poultry is a staple protein source for most of the planet. Until recently, antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) were used to prevent illnesses in commercial chicken production. Currently, this is not possible due to regulations and consumer concern, but without such a preventative, diseases like necrotic enteritis (NE) have reemerged, posing a threat to bird health, and ultimately, our food source. Necrotic enteritis is a severe gastrointestinal disease caused by the gram-positive pathogen, Clostridium perfringens. Clinical features of this disease are diarrhea, intestinal lesions, and death, with a high transmission rate. In a subclinical form, growth performance is diminished and is …


The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The only curative option for patients is surgery, but over 80% of patients are not surgical candidates. Unfortunately, PDAC is resistant to the three remaining options. PDAC is characterized by a profoundly hypoxic and immunosuppressive stroma, which contributes to its therapeutic recalcitrance. Alpha-smooth muscle actin+ (αSMA+) cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant stromal component, as well as mediators of stromal deposition. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF1 and HIF2) coordinate responses to hypoxia, yet, despite their known association to poor patient outcomes, their functions within the PDAC tumor microenvironment (TME) …


Effect Of Sensory Additives On Sow Lactation Performance, Subsequent Reproductive Performance, And Nursey Pig Performance, Nathan E. Davis 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Sensory Additives On Sow Lactation Performance, Subsequent Reproductive Performance, And Nursey Pig Performance, Nathan E. Davis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Maximizing nutrient intake during lactation is vital to sow performance as well as litter performance. The aim of these studies was to evaluate the impact of a sensory additive on sow lactation performance and nursery pig performance. Five groups of sows were farrowed, three during winter (October, December and January) and two during summer months (June, July, August). Sows were weighed, and back fat depth was measured, at 110 d of gestation prior to entering the lactation room, and again at weaning. The sows were blocked by parity, and then allotted by BW at d 110 to Control or 0.075% …


The Role Of Microbiota On Campylobacter Jejuni Colonization And Growth Performance In Broiler Chickens, Ayidh Almansour 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Role Of Microbiota On Campylobacter Jejuni Colonization And Growth Performance In Broiler Chickens, Ayidh Almansour

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The successful poultry production at modern era comes from the vertical integratedindustrialization, which has fundamentally changed how animals have been living for millions of years. Antimicrobial growth promoters have been used to sustain the efficient industrialized animal production, driving antimicrobial overuse and resistance. Because of the increasing pressure from consumer’s concerns and government regulations, it is urgent to develop antimicrobial free alternatives as growth promoters in poultry production, but few effective antimicrobial alternatives are currently available. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the worldwide prevalent foodborne bacterial pathogens mainly transmitted from poultry. However, few mechanisms are available on why C. jejuni …


Early-Exercise Effects On Mice Tendon Remodeling, Miles Valencia 2022 California State University, San Bernardino

Early-Exercise Effects On Mice Tendon Remodeling, Miles Valencia

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Tendons connect and transmit energy between muscles and bones and play a key role in movement. Tendon remodels by breaking down and absorbing tendon components including collagen fibers and elastin while replacing them with newly formed tendon. These processes can be influenced by short- and long-term factors such as exercise and aging; the magnitude of influence on tendon remodeling remains unclear. I researched the effects of maturation and exercise on tendon remodeling using a mice colony artificially selected for high voluntary wheel running called high-runner mice. Control and high-runner linetype mice were separated into 2 age cohorts that started training …


Online Privacy Challenges And Their Forensic Solutions, Bandr Fakiha 2022 Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia

Online Privacy Challenges And Their Forensic Solutions, Bandr Fakiha

Journal of the Arab American University مجلة الجامعة العربية الامريكية للبحوث

In the digital age, internet users are exposed to privacy issues online. Few rarely know when someone else is eavesdropping or about to scam them. Companies, governments, and individual internet users are all vulnerable to security breaches due to the challenges of online privacy ranging from trust and hierarchical control to financial losses. As systems advance, people are optimistic that forensic science will provide long-term interventions that surpass the current solutions, including setting stronger passwords and firewall protection. The future of online privacy is changing, and more practical interventions, such as email, malware, mobile, and network forensics, must be integrated, …


Ciliogenesis Mechanisms Mediated By Pak2-Arl13b Signaling In Brain Endothelial Cells Is Responsible For Vascular Stability, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Emma Van Why, Amy Pan, Ankan Gupta, Koji Foreman, Rahima Zennadi, Kevin R. Rarick, Surya M. Nauli, Sean P. Palacek, Ramani Ramchandran 2022 Medical College of Wisconsin

Ciliogenesis Mechanisms Mediated By Pak2-Arl13b Signaling In Brain Endothelial Cells Is Responsible For Vascular Stability, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Emma Van Why, Amy Pan, Ankan Gupta, Koji Foreman, Rahima Zennadi, Kevin R. Rarick, Surya M. Nauli, Sean P. Palacek, Ramani Ramchandran

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

In the developing vasculature, cilia, microtubule-based organelles that project from the apical surface of endothelial cells (ECs), have been identified to function cell autonomously to promote vascular integrity and prevent hemorrhage. To date, the underlying mechanisms of endothelial cilia formation (ciliogenesis) are not fully understood. Understanding these mechanisms is likely to open new avenues for targeting EC-cilia to promote vascular stability. Here, we hypothesized that brain ECs ciliogenesis and the underlying mechanisms that control this process are critical for brain vascular stability. To investigate this hypothesis, we utilized multiple approaches including developmental zebrafish model system and primary cell culture systems. …


Maternal Responses In The Face Of Infection Risk, Patricia C. Lopes, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Chathuni Liyanage, Ursula K. Beattie, L. Michael Romero 2022 Chapman University

Maternal Responses In The Face Of Infection Risk, Patricia C. Lopes, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Chathuni Liyanage, Ursula K. Beattie, L. Michael Romero

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

When animals are sick, their physiology and behavior change in ways that can impact their offspring. Research is emerging showing that infection risk alone can also modify the physiology and behavior of healthy animals. If physiological responses to environments with high infection risk take place during reproduction, it is possible that they lead to maternal effects. Understanding whether and how high infection risk triggers maternal effects is important to elucidate how the impacts of infectious agents extend beyond infected individuals and how, in this way, they are even stronger evolutionary forces than already considered. Here, to evaluate the effects of …


Effects Of Chronic Stress On Safety Processing And Physiology In The Medial Prefrontal-Amygdala-Basal Forebrain Circuit, Itamar S. Grunfeld 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Effects Of Chronic Stress On Safety Processing And Physiology In The Medial Prefrontal-Amygdala-Basal Forebrain Circuit, Itamar S. Grunfeld

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Chronic stress increases generalization of fear to non-threatening cues, a key symptom in numerous psychiatric mood disorders. However, the mechanisms through which stress impacts safety learning remain poorly understood. To probe the relationship between stress and safety learning, this dissertation employed multiple behaviors, in conjunction with in-vivo multisite physiology during explicit safety and fear discrimination learning. In Chapter 1, I outline the role of chronic stress in driving neurological adaptations that result in generalized fear and highlight how this occurs because of impaired safety cue encoding. In Chapter 2, I show that chronic stress in the form of social defeat …


Female Presence Does Not Increase Testosterone But Still Ameliorates Sickness Behaviours In Male Japanese Quail, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Kaelyn Bridgette, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Patricia C. Lopes 2022 Chapman University

Female Presence Does Not Increase Testosterone But Still Ameliorates Sickness Behaviours In Male Japanese Quail, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Kaelyn Bridgette, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Patricia C. Lopes

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Infections can dramatically modify animal behaviour. The extent of these changes depends on an animal's environment. It has been proposed that testosterone modulates the suppression of behavioural symptoms of sickness under certain reproductive contexts. To further understand the role played by testosterone in modulating sickness behaviours under reproductive contexts, we studied a species, the Japanese quail, in which female exposure rapidly decreases circulating testosterone in males. Males received either an immune challenge (lipopolysaccharide – LPS) or a control injection and their behaviours, mass change and testosterone levels were quantified in the presence or absence of a female. Both the presence …


Monitoring The Abundance Of Microplastics In Mussels And Marine Ecosystems May Indicate Human Health Risks., Puja Kaur Janda 2022 University of San Francisco

Monitoring The Abundance Of Microplastics In Mussels And Marine Ecosystems May Indicate Human Health Risks., Puja Kaur Janda

Master's Projects and Capstones

The numerous scientific methodologies and procedures used in marine research on microplastic pollution restrict our present understanding of this severe environmental issue threatening marine organisms and human health. The abundance and bioaccumulation of microplastic in the food web is causing adverse implications for marine wildlife and potentially human health via seafood consumption. The absence of standardized methods for quantifying and characterizing microplastics is a major limiting factor in comparing current research. To evaluate the issue of monitoring microplastics in the marine environment, I conducted a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis on mussels as a biomonitoring tool. Because mussels …


Full- Versus Sub-Regional Quantification Of Amyloid-Beta Load On Mouse Brain Sections, Yuu Ohno, Riley Murphy, Matthew Choi, Weijun Ou, Rachita K. Sumbria 2022 Keck Graduate Institute

Full- Versus Sub-Regional Quantification Of Amyloid-Beta Load On Mouse Brain Sections, Yuu Ohno, Riley Murphy, Matthew Choi, Weijun Ou, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques is one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is the target of the only FDA-approved disease-modifying treatment for AD. Accordingly, the use of transgenic mouse models that overexpress the amyloid precursor protein and thereby accumulate cerebral Aβ plaques are widely used to model human AD in mice. Therefore, immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunostaining, commonly measure the Aβ load in brain tissues derived from AD transgenic mice. Though the methods for Aβ detection and quantification have been well established and documented, the impact of the size of the …


Developing A Novel Place Preference Assay To Compare Drosophila Species Over Time, Martha M. Brinson 2022 University of Mississippi

Developing A Novel Place Preference Assay To Compare Drosophila Species Over Time, Martha M. Brinson

Honors Theses

Across phylogeny, integration of external factors, memory, and internal states of the organism dictate organismal behavior and mechanisms. The underlying genetic components can affect these behaviors such as in genomic changes arising from speciation. In this thesis, a new place preference assay was evaluated in the analysis and investigation of two species of Drosophila flies (D. melanogaster and D. simulans) to measure similarities and differences and their attraction to two different food substrates. Sleep and circadian measurements were also recorded during experimentation. The Drosophila Activity Monitor 5M (DAM5M) System and Sleep Circadian Analysis MATLAB Program (SCAMP) analysis were …


The Role Of Calprotectin In T-Lymphocyte Driven Inflammation In A Mouse Model Of Psychological Trauma, Cassandra Moshfegh 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Role Of Calprotectin In T-Lymphocyte Driven Inflammation In A Mouse Model Of Psychological Trauma, Cassandra Moshfegh

Theses & Dissertations

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychological disorder that affects nearly 45 million Americans. This mental disorder is characterized by behavioral symptoms such as learned helplessness, hyperarousal, withdrawal, and flashbacks. The deleterious effects of PTSD are far-reaching and go beyond behavioral dysfunction, as these individuals are at a three-fold higher risk of comorbid inflammatory diseases. Autonomic, metabolic, and cardiovascular diseases plague these individuals later in their lifetime, however, the mechanistic link connecting psychological trauma to this systemic peripheral immunological dysfunction remains elusive. T-lymphocyte-induced inflammation plays a significant role in all these disease pathologies. Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated …


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