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Unraveling Host-Gut Microbiota Dialogue And Its Impact On Response To Immune Checkpoint Blockade, Alexandria Cogdill 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Unraveling Host-Gut Microbiota Dialogue And Its Impact On Response To Immune Checkpoint Blockade, Alexandria Cogdill

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer is a disease with only one degree of separation, affecting one in two men and one in three women in their lifetimes; accounting for 1 of every 6 deaths. While cancer mortality rates continue to improve, incidence rates are expected to rise and shift through 2050 due to epidemiological and demographic transitions worldwide. As such, it is imperative to continue to investigate and improve our understanding of both disease etiology and hallmarks of response to treatment. Currently, conventional therapies include, but are not limited to, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. However, within the past decade, major advances have been made …


Survey Of Ticks And Tick-Borne Pathogens Associated With Feral Swine (Sus Scrofa) In Arkansas, Haylee Campbell 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Survey Of Ticks And Tick-Borne Pathogens Associated With Feral Swine (Sus Scrofa) In Arkansas, Haylee Campbell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Feral hogs (Sus scrofa L.) are an invasive species throughout the southeast United States and found in every Arkansas county. As feral hogs invade new habitat, they can disrupt ecosystems, damage agriculture systems, and bring ticks and tick-borne pathogens with them. There are no surveys of the tick species parasitizing the Arkansas feral hog populations or the pathogens they carry. This is a public health concern because feral hogs occupy often same geographical regions as humans and livestock and can harbor over 45 animal diseases and parasites. The ticks carried by feral hogs can carry tick-borne pathogens that can cause …


Climate-Driven Impacts On Himalayan Aquatic Biodiversity: A Case Study Involving Snowtrout (Cyprinidae: Schizothorax), Riri Wiyanti Retnaningtyas 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Climate-Driven Impacts On Himalayan Aquatic Biodiversity: A Case Study Involving Snowtrout (Cyprinidae: Schizothorax), Riri Wiyanti Retnaningtyas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Monitoring biodiversity, to include its relative dispersal and contraction, has become a conservation task of great importance, particularly given the catastrophic and ongoing loss of habitat due to climate change. However, the timing, direction, and magnitude of these rates vary across taxa and ecosystems. Predicting specific impacts of climate change can thus be difficult and this, in turn, hampers management action. Metrics are needed to not only quantify contemporary requirements of species, but also predict potential distributions that fluctuate in lockstep with climate.

Montane ecosystems in the Himalayas are highly impacted by climate change, yet remain largely understudied due to …


Pathogenesis Of Dry Eye In Graft Versus Host Disease (Gvhd): Role Of Ocular Mucins And Conjunctival Fibrosis, Kiumars Shamloo 2021 Chapman University

Pathogenesis Of Dry Eye In Graft Versus Host Disease (Gvhd): Role Of Ocular Mucins And Conjunctival Fibrosis, Kiumars Shamloo

Pharmaceutical Sciences (PhD) Dissertations

Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a procedure that offers a possible cure for hematologic cancers and other hematologic disorders. Unfortunately, despite the increasing survival rate of patients, the quality of their life is adversely affected by the allogeneic bone marrow transplantation’s major side effect i.e Graft vs. Host Disease (GVHD). GVHD is a complex, multi-organ disease resulting from an immunological attack by donor engrafted immune cells to host organs, including the eye surface. Mostly based on the time of disease onset after transplantation, GVHD is divided into the acute and chronic phase. The eyes may be involved in both …


Evaluation Of Weight Gain, Feed Intake, Feed Conversion And Oocyst Shedding Of Eimeria Maxima And Eimeria Acervulina In Broiler Chickens, Lauren Laverty 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Weight Gain, Feed Intake, Feed Conversion And Oocyst Shedding Of Eimeria Maxima And Eimeria Acervulina In Broiler Chickens, Lauren Laverty

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the day and the time of sample collection of an

experimental challenge with Eimeria maxima (EM) and Eimeria acervulina (EA) in broiler chickens. One day old male Cobb-Vantress broiler chickens were randomly allocated to one of three groups with ten replicates (n=8 chickens/replicate). Chickens were placed in battery cages with a controlled age-appropriate environment: Group 1) Negative control (no challenge or treatment); 2) Challenge control (Eimeria challenge only); 3) Challenge + Salinomycin. Challenged chickens were orally gavaged with the mixed culture of EM/EA (10,000 sporulated EM containing 4% wild-type EA) …


The Effect Of Agkistrodon Contortrix And Crotalus Horridus Venom Toxicity On Strike Locations With Live Prey., Chase Giese 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Effect Of Agkistrodon Contortrix And Crotalus Horridus Venom Toxicity On Strike Locations With Live Prey., Chase Giese

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

This paper aims to uncover if there is a significant difference in the strike location of snake species that have different values of LD50% venom. It is thought that most snakes strike their prey in the anterior (head) area in order for their venom to work quicker in killing them. Venom toxicity is measured by its LD50% value, which is the amount of venom, in mg/kg, to kill 50% of a test population. The Copperhead has an LD50% value of 10.9 mg/kg, and the Timber Rattlesnake has an LD50% value of 1.64 mg/kg. The hypothesis was that if venom toxicity …


Aiming For The Sun- Averting The Fate Of Icarus: De-Risking Solar Energy Projects, Manu SRIVASTAVA 2021 Singapore Management University

Aiming For The Sun- Averting The Fate Of Icarus: De-Risking Solar Energy Projects, Manu Srivastava

Asian Management Insights

Climate change is increasingly accepted as an existential threat to civilisation and ‘business as usual’ is considered a luxury we cannot afford any more.


The Development And Evaluation Of Novel Da Transport Inhibitors And Their Effects On Effort-Related Motivation: A Review, Mukund Desibhatla 2021 University of Connecticut

The Development And Evaluation Of Novel Da Transport Inhibitors And Their Effects On Effort-Related Motivation: A Review, Mukund Desibhatla

Honors Scholar Theses

Depression is a debilitating disorder that can cause motivational deficits such as psychomotor retardation, anergia, apathy, and fatigue. Recent research indicates that these motivational deficits, and potential pathways of therapeutic intervention, can be studied in animal models involving rats and mice. Treatments with the VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine (TBZ) and cytokine interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) can create a low-effort bias and impair effort-related motivation (Nunes et al. 2013, 2014). A number of high-affinity DA transport inhibitors such as d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine can restore extracellular DA, albeit with the cost of undesirable effects such as high abuse liability. These observations have led researchers …


Pathogenicity Of Staphylococcus Agnetis Associated With Lame Broilers With Osteomyelitis, Sura Faris Salih Zaki 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Pathogenicity Of Staphylococcus Agnetis Associated With Lame Broilers With Osteomyelitis, Sura Faris Salih Zaki

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

We developed High Resolution Melt Analysis (HERMA) as a rapid and reliable molecular diagnostic assay for the detection and identification of the main bacterial species recovered from the blood and lesions of bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) from the lame broilers at the University of Arkansas poultry research farm. Also, the present study confirms that raising young birds on suspended wire flooring has been proved to successfully induce lameness attributable to BCO with birds being more susceptible to bacteraemia than those that were raised on litter flooring. The newly described pathogen, Staphylococcus agnetis, has been reported to be overrepresented in …


Evaluation Of Nutritional Factors That Influence The Efficacy Of Tributyrin As A Feed Additive For Broilers, Brooke Bodle 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Nutritional Factors That Influence The Efficacy Of Tributyrin As A Feed Additive For Broilers, Brooke Bodle

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Tributyrin (TB) is a glyceride ester of butyrate that has the potential to improve broiler performance and intestinal development. Therefore, to fully evaluate this potential, three experiments were conducted to evaluate effect of tributyrin (TB) on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics, intestinal morphology, and gastrointestinal function in birds fed diets varying in composition reared in battery cages and floor pens. Experiment 1 explored the supplementation of graded doses of TB and its impact upon growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics in a step-down program when added to a reduced energy and amino acid diet. A linear reduction …


Methods To Reducing Weaning Stress In Early Weaned Spring Beef Calves, Matthew Daniel Hahn 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Methods To Reducing Weaning Stress In Early Weaned Spring Beef Calves, Matthew Daniel Hahn

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Reducing weaning stress in beef calves can have dramatic benefits to the health, growth, and performance to beef calves post-weaning. Studies have shown that providing creep feed to calves during the pre-weaning period can improve their nutritional status, which can better prepare them for the stresses they will be exposed to during the weaning process. Studies have also shown that two-stage weaning can reduce the stresses associated with weaning. Previous research has suggested that this method resulted in dramatic changes in behavioral signs associated with stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two-stage weaning with …


Relationship Of Underline Scores And Production Traits In Beefmaster Cattle, Bryan R. Kutz 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Relationship Of Underline Scores And Production Traits In Beefmaster Cattle, Bryan R. Kutz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to establish the relationship of underline scores (UDLS), production traits, and conformation scores in Beefmaster cattle born between 1976 through 2008. Records provided by Beefmaster Breeders United (BBU) were analyzed. Certified classifiers approved by the BBU recorded scores. Sizes and shapes of the underlines differentiated the scores (1-4). A score of one was used to designate the least amount of navel flap or sheath and a score of four represents the maximum amount of naval flap or sheath accepted for registration in the BBU. In this study the relationship of the traits was determined …


Particle Tracking Reveals Pelagic Red Crabs As Indicators Of Climate-Driven Range Expansion In The California Current, Elizabeth Saraf 2021 University of Rhode Island

Particle Tracking Reveals Pelagic Red Crabs As Indicators Of Climate-Driven Range Expansion In The California Current, Elizabeth Saraf

Senior Honors Projects

Since their first recorded occurrence in 1859, Pelagic Red Crabs (PRC; Pleuroncodes planipes) have experienced increased frequency of episodic mass stranding events in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. PRC’s are transported over 1,000 km northward of their central domain from the coast of central Baja California, Mexico. They have been reported by the thousands on the beaches of central and southern California. Their presence influences the surrounding ecosystem and commercial fisheries because they are nutritional prey items and large predators change their diet to incorporate PRC’s when they are available. Seasonal coastal currents and the California Undercurrent transport warmer waters …


Responses To Fine Particulate Matter (Pm2.5) Exposures In Two Wild-Type Zebrafish Strains, Connor Necaise 2021 University of Mississippi

Responses To Fine Particulate Matter (Pm2.5) Exposures In Two Wild-Type Zebrafish Strains, Connor Necaise

Honors Theses

Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure poses great health risks across the globe, causing both acute and chronic illnesses in humans. Therefore, a more complete understanding of the mechanisms in which PM2.5 induces these adverse health effects is urgently needed. Oxidative stress due to PAHs and other common components of PM2.5 is a proposed mechanism for its adverse health effects. However, little is known about the actual mechanisms of PM2.5 damage in humans. This study aimed to distinguish behavioral differences in two lines of zebrafish (AB & 5D) as a result of developmental exposure to …


Validation Of A Novel Trpm8 Knockout Mouse Model, Bilan Mohamed 2021 University of Southern Maine

Validation Of A Novel Trpm8 Knockout Mouse Model, Bilan Mohamed

Thinking Matters Symposium

Recent studies suggest that the use of thermoregulatory treatments that affect brown fat may help curb obesity. However it is unknown how these treatments may affect bone homeostasis. Our work has focused on the transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM8) protein, which is responsible for detecting colder temperatures in sensory neurons. Previous work within the Motyl laboratory has found that Trpm8 plays a role in bone acquisition. Mice with a global deletion of the Trpm8 gene have reduced trabecular bone volume fraction due to reduced bone formation by osteoblasts. However, it is unclear whether sensory neuron or osteoblast-mediated expression of Trpm8 …


The Evolution Of Mimicry; The Doublesex Gene, Aisha Hill 2021 Southern Maine Community College

The Evolution Of Mimicry; The Doublesex Gene, Aisha Hill

Thinking Matters Symposium

Many butterfly species use mimicry in order to increase their chance of survival. In Batesian mimicry, non toxic butterflies mimic the wing patterns, colors, and shapes of another species that is toxic to predators. Swallowtail butterflies (Papilio polytes) are well-known Batesian mimics, and also display sexual dimorphism with distinct differences between the sexes. Sex limited mimicry is common. The female butterfly may mimic an inedible red-bodied swallowtail, such as the common rose (Pachliopta aristolochiae), or she may be non-mimetic. The male butterfly is non-mimetic. This is a review of recent research into the origin and evolution …


Seasonal Plumage Condition Variation And The Thermal Value Of The Feather Coats Of House Sparrows (Passer Domesticus), Jordana MF Graveley, Margaret Rubega, Kevin R. Burgio 2021 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Seasonal Plumage Condition Variation And The Thermal Value Of The Feather Coats Of House Sparrows (Passer Domesticus), Jordana Mf Graveley, Margaret Rubega, Kevin R. Burgio

Honors Scholar Theses

Feathers are critical to how birds thermoregulate, and thus their total energy balance. The feather coat insulates birds by trapping air next to the skin and acting as a physical barrier to heat loss. Despite previous work studying thermal balance in birds, relatively few studies have focused on the thermal contribution of the feather coat alone; most studies have focused on physiological and behavioral responses. Moreover, to our knowledge, no studies have directly measured the effect of feather wear through the annual cycle on the thermal performance of the feather coat. To address this, we used a thermal camera to …


Optimization Of Grow-Out Of Bouldering Coral Microfragments: Land Vs. Offshore Nursery, Ashlee A. Steinberg 2021 Nova Southeastern University

Optimization Of Grow-Out Of Bouldering Coral Microfragments: Land Vs. Offshore Nursery, Ashlee A. Steinberg

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Corals along the Florida Reef Tract and the wider Caribbean have been declining for decades. Low densities of adult colonies hinder the ability of corals to replenish themselves through sexual reproduction, thus reef managers are focusing on restoration actions that increase coral biomass. Microfragmentation is a way to quickly increase the biomass of bouldering corals by cutting the coral into small pieces which forces the coral to allocate its resources away from reproduction and back into growth, increasing its growth rate. This study assessed the optimal location for grow-out (land vs. offshore nursery) and its synergy with size of fragment …


Measuring The Decrement Times Of Volatile Anesthetics In Drosophila Melanogaster Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Jason Tolley 2021 Olivet Nazarene University

Measuring The Decrement Times Of Volatile Anesthetics In Drosophila Melanogaster Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Jason Tolley

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Presentation Location: Warming House, Olivet Nazarene University

Abstract

Background

Model organisms are widely used in research, especially in the context of complex situations. One model organism that has been widely used is the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (D. mel). D. mel are most commonly used in the context of genetics, but they have also been widely used in research focusing on general anesthetics. One value that has not been measured in D. mel, however, as it relates to general anesthetics, is the decrement times. This is what was the present research set out to determine. …


Trials And Tribulations Of Humanizing Mice For Cancer Research, Brittney Ruedlinger, Steven Warsof, Eric Feliberti, Mary Beth Hughes, Ayobami ‘Edwin’ Oshin, Chunqi Jiang, Brittany P. Lassiter, Siqi Guo, Stephen J. Beebe 2021 Old Dominion University

Trials And Tribulations Of Humanizing Mice For Cancer Research, Brittney Ruedlinger, Steven Warsof, Eric Feliberti, Mary Beth Hughes, Ayobami ‘Edwin’ Oshin, Chunqi Jiang, Brittany P. Lassiter, Siqi Guo, Stephen J. Beebe

The Graduate School Posters

Cancers are aggressive, evasive, and ruthless killers, claiming millions of lives every year. Cancers are heterogeneous and there is often no single, clearly defined problem as they harness and manipulate a multitude of fundamental mechanisms at the very essence of life. To investigate these mechanisms and vet potential interventive therapies, humanized mice offer a unique model as a prelude to the use of nanosecond pulse stimulation (NPS), a pulse power technology applying nanosecond duration, high electric field pulses, to ablate human tumors. Immunodeficient mouse strains, NSG and NSG-SGM3, were engrafted with human immune cells and human tumors, which would allow …


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