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Differential Activation Of Frontoparietal Attention Networks By Social And Symbolic Spatial Cues, Andrew D. Engell, Lauri Nummenmaa, Nikolaas N. Oosterhof, Richard N. Henson, James V. Haxby, Andrew J. Calder 2010 Princeton University

Differential Activation Of Frontoparietal Attention Networks By Social And Symbolic Spatial Cues, Andrew D. Engell, Lauri Nummenmaa, Nikolaas N. Oosterhof, Richard N. Henson, James V. Haxby, Andrew J. Calder

Dartmouth Scholarship

Perception of both gaze-direction and symbolic directional cues (e.g. arrows) orient an observer’s attention toward the indicated location. It is unclear, however, whether these similar behavioral effects are examples of the same attentional phenomenon and, therefore, subserved by the same neural substrate. It has been proposed that gaze, given its evolutionary significance, constitutes a ‘special’ category of spatial cue. As such, it is predicted that the neural systems supporting spatial reorienting will be different for gaze than for non-biological symbols. We tested this prediction using functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the brain’s response during target localization ...


Dopamine Neuron Stimulating Actions Of A Gdnf Propeptide, Luke H. Bradley, Josh Fuqua, April Richardson, Jadwiga Turchan-Cholewo, Yi Ai, Kristen A. Kelps, John D. Glass, Xiuquan He, Zhiming Zhang, Richard Grondin, O. Meagan Littrell, Peter Huettl, Francois Pomerleau, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt 2010 University of Kentucky

Dopamine Neuron Stimulating Actions Of A Gdnf Propeptide, Luke H. Bradley, Josh Fuqua, April Richardson, Jadwiga Turchan-Cholewo, Yi Ai, Kristen A. Kelps, John D. Glass, Xiuquan He, Zhiming Zhang, Richard Grondin, O. Meagan Littrell, Peter Huettl, Francois Pomerleau, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Neurotrophic factors, such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), have shown great promise for protection and restoration of damaged or dying dopamine neurons in animal models and in some Parkinson's disease (PD) clinical trials. However, the delivery of neurotrophic factors to the brain is difficult due to their large size and poor bio-distribution. In addition, developing more efficacious trophic factors is hampered by the difficulty of synthesis and structural modification. Small molecules with neurotrophic actions that are easy to synthesize and modify to improve bioavailability are needed.

METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we present the neurobiological actions of ...


Motor Neuron Synapse And Axon Defects In A C. Elegans Alpha-Tubulin Mutant, Renee Baran, Liliana Castelblanco, Garland Tang, Ian Shapiro, Alexandr Goncharov, Yishi Jin 2010 Occidental College

Motor Neuron Synapse And Axon Defects In A C. Elegans Alpha-Tubulin Mutant, Renee Baran, Liliana Castelblanco, Garland Tang, Ian Shapiro, Alexandr Goncharov, Yishi Jin

Renee Baran

Regulation of microtubule dynamics underlies many fundamental cellular mechanisms including cell division, cell motility, and transport. In neurons, microtubules play key roles in cell migration, axon outgrowth, control of axon and synapse growth, and the regulated transport of vesicles and structural components of synapses. Loss of synapse and axon integrity and disruption of axon transport characterize many neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, mutations that specifically alter the assembly or stability of microtubules have been found to directly cause neurodevelopmental defects or neurodegeneration in vertebrates. We report here the characterization of a missense mutation in the C-terminal domain of C. elegans alpha-tubulin, tba-1 ...


The Cost Of Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder And Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries, Amy L. Gilliland 2010 Air Force Institute of Technology

The Cost Of Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder And Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries, Amy L. Gilliland

Theses and Dissertations

Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries (mTBIs) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are two of the signature wounds of war. Due to the advances in technology the survival rates are higher than in previous wars, however, the weaponry has changed. The world has seen an increase in the use of suicide bombs, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and rocket propelled grenades (RPGs) which increases the number of blast related injuries. One of the major problems with blast related injuries is that they can be invisible to the naked eye. The lack of physical evidence suggests the soldier is not injured and can ...


Does Food Color Influence Taste And Flavor Perception In Humans?, Charles Spence, Carmel Levitan, Maya Shankar, Massimiliano Zampini 2010 Occidental College

Does Food Color Influence Taste And Flavor Perception In Humans?, Charles Spence, Carmel Levitan, Maya Shankar, Massimiliano Zampini

Carmel Levitan

In this paper, we review the empirical literature concerning the important question of whether or not food color influences taste and flavor perception in humans. Although a superficial reading of the literature on this topic would appear to give a somewhat mixed answer, we argue that this is, at least in part, due to the fact that many researchers have failed to distinguish between two qualitatively distinct research questions. The first concerns the role that food coloring plays in the perception of the intensity of a particular flavor (e.g., strawberry, banana, etc.) or taste attribute (e.g., sweetness, saltiness ...


Lpa Induces Il-6 Secretion From Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Via An Lpa1-Regulated, Pkc-Dependent, And P38alpha-Mediated Pathway, F Hao, M Tan, D Wu, Xuemin Xu, Mei-Zhen Cui 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Lpa Induces Il-6 Secretion From Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Via An Lpa1-Regulated, Pkc-Dependent, And P38alpha-Mediated Pathway, F Hao, M Tan, D Wu, Xuemin Xu, Mei-Zhen Cui

Xuemin Xu

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent bioactive lysophospholipid. Accumulated evidence supports a role for LPA in inflammation. To profile LPA-induced cytokine production in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), we used a cytokine antibody array system and found that LPA prominently induces the secretion of IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 from human aortic SMCs (HASMCs). The mechanism by which LPA induces MCP-1 expression in SMCs has been previously reported. However, LPA induction of IL-6 secretion from vascular SMCs and its regulatory mechanism are unknown. The present study reveals that LPA induces the expression of IL-6 mRNA and protein in ...


Lpa Induces Il-6 Secretion From Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Via An Lpa1-Regulated, Pkc-Dependent, And P38alpha-Mediated Pathway, F Hao, M Tan, D Wu, Xuemin Xu, Mei-Zhen Cui 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Lpa Induces Il-6 Secretion From Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Via An Lpa1-Regulated, Pkc-Dependent, And P38alpha-Mediated Pathway, F Hao, M Tan, D Wu, Xuemin Xu, Mei-Zhen Cui

Mei-Zhen Cui

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent bioactive lysophospholipid. Accumulated evidence supports a role for LPA in inflammation. To profile LPA-induced cytokine production in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), we used a cytokine antibody array system and found that LPA prominently induces the secretion of IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 from human aortic SMCs (HASMCs). The mechanism by which LPA induces MCP-1 expression in SMCs has been previously reported. However, LPA induction of IL-6 secretion from vascular SMCs and its regulatory mechanism are unknown. The present study reveals that LPA induces the expression of IL-6 mRNA and protein in ...


Functional Generalized Linear Models With Images As Predictors, Philip T. Reiss, R. Todd Ogden 2010 New York University

Functional Generalized Linear Models With Images As Predictors, Philip T. Reiss, R. Todd Ogden

Philip T. Reiss

Functional principal component regression (FPCR) is a promising new method for regressing scalar outcomes on functional predictors. In this paper we present a theoretical justification for the use of principal components in functional regression. FPCR is then extended in two directions: from linear to the generalized linear modeling, and from univariate signal predictors to high-resolution image predictors. We show how to implement the method efficiently by adapting generalized additive model technology to the functional regression context. A technique is proposed for estimating simultaneous confidence bands for the coefficient function; in the neuroimaging setting, this yields a novel means to identify ...


Animal Models Of Focal Brain Ischemia, Kenneth M. Sicard, Marc Fisher 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Animal Models Of Focal Brain Ischemia, Kenneth M. Sicard, Marc Fisher

Neurology Publications

Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death in many countries. Understanding the pathophysiology of ischemic injury and developing therapies is an important endeavor that requires much additional research. Animal stroke models provide an important mechanism for these activities. A large number of stroke models have been developed and are currently used in laboratories around the world. These models are overviewed as are approaches for measuring infarct size and functional outcome.


Efficient Encoding Of Vocalizations In The Auditory Midbrain, Lars Andreas Holmstrom 2010 Portland State University

Efficient Encoding Of Vocalizations In The Auditory Midbrain, Lars Andreas Holmstrom

Systems Science Friday Noon Seminar Series

An important question in sensory neuroscience is what coding strategies and mechanisms are used by the brain to detect and discriminate among behaviorally relevant stimuli. To address the noisy response properties of individual neurons, sensory systems often utilize broadly tuned neurons with overlapping receptive fields at the system's periphery, resulting in homogeneous responses among neighboring populations of neurons. It has been hypothesized that progressive response heterogeneity in ascending sensory pathways is evidence of an efficient encoding strategy that minimizes the redundancy of the peripheral neural code and maximizes information throughput for higher level processing. This hypothesis has been partly ...


Behind The Mask: The Influence Of Mask-Type On Amygdala Response To Fearful Faces, M Justin Kim, Rebecca A. Loucks, Maital Neta, F. Caroline Davis, Jonathan A. Oler, Emily C. Mazzulla, Paul J. Whalen 2010 Dartmouth College

Behind The Mask: The Influence Of Mask-Type On Amygdala Response To Fearful Faces, M Justin Kim, Rebecca A. Loucks, Maital Neta, F. Caroline Davis, Jonathan A. Oler, Emily C. Mazzulla, Paul J. Whalen

Dartmouth Scholarship

In this study, we compared the effects of using neutral face masks vs non-face pattern masks on amygdala activity to masked fearful faces. Twenty-seven subjects viewed 18 s blocks of either fearful or happy faces masked with either neutral faces or patterns, while their brain activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results replicated increased amygdala activation to face-masked fearful vs happy faces. In the pattern mask condition, the amygdala discriminated between masked fearful and happy faces, but this effect manifested as a decrease in activation to fearful faces compared to happy faces. This interactive effect between facial expression ...


Insertion Of Tetracysteine Motifs Into Dopamine Transporter Extracellular Domains, Deanna M. Navaroli, Haley E. Melikian 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Insertion Of Tetracysteine Motifs Into Dopamine Transporter Extracellular Domains, Deanna M. Navaroli, Haley E. Melikian

GSBS Student Publications

The neuronal dopamine transporter (DAT) is a major determinant of extracellular dopamine (DA) levels and is the primary target for a variety of addictive and therapeutic psychoactive drugs. DAT is acutely regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activation and amphetamine exposure, both of which modulate DAT surface expression by endocytic trafficking. In order to use live imaging approaches to study DAT endocytosis, methods are needed to exclusively label the DAT surface pool. The use of membrane impermeant, sulfonated biarsenic dyes holds potential as one such approach, and requires introduction of an extracellular tetracysteine motif (tetraCys; CCPGCC) to facilitate dye binding ...


Effects Of Socioeconomic Status On Brain Development, And How Cognitive Neuroscience May Contribute To Levelling The Playing Field, Rajeev Raizada, Mark M. Kishiyama 2010 Dartmouth College

Effects Of Socioeconomic Status On Brain Development, And How Cognitive Neuroscience May Contribute To Levelling The Playing Field, Rajeev Raizada, Mark M. Kishiyama

Dartmouth Scholarship

The study of socioeconomic status (SES) and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. This behavioural research provides an invaluable guide for future neuroimaging work, but also poses an important challenge for it: how ...


Bilateral Multi-Electrode Neurophysiological Recordings Coupled To Local Pharmacology In Awake Songbirds, Liisa A. Tremere, Thomas A. Terleph, Jin Kwon Jeong, Raphael Pinaud 2010 University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

Bilateral Multi-Electrode Neurophysiological Recordings Coupled To Local Pharmacology In Awake Songbirds, Liisa A. Tremere, Thomas A. Terleph, Jin Kwon Jeong, Raphael Pinaud

Biology Faculty Publications

Here we describe a protocol for bilateral multielectrode neurophysiological recordings during intracerebral pharmacological manipulations in awake songbirds. This protocol encompasses fitting adult animals with head-posts and recording chambers, and acclimating them to periods of restraint. The adaptation period is followed by bilateral penetrations of multiple electrodes to obtain acute, sensory-driven neurophysiological responses before versus during the application of pharmacological agents of interest. These local manipulations are achieved by simultaneous and restricted drug infusions carried out independently for each hemisphere. We have used this protocol to elucidate how neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine systems shape the auditory and perceptual processing of natural, learned ...


Gene Expression Profiling Of The Short-Term Adaptive Response To Acute Caloric Restriction In Liver And Adipose Tissues Of Pigs Differing In Feed Efficiency, Sender Lkhagvadorj, Long Qu, Weiguo Cai, Oliver P. Couture, C. Richard Barb, Gary J. Hausman, Dan Nettleton, Lloyd L. Anderson, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Christopher K. Tuggle 2010 Iowa State University

Gene Expression Profiling Of The Short-Term Adaptive Response To Acute Caloric Restriction In Liver And Adipose Tissues Of Pigs Differing In Feed Efficiency, Sender Lkhagvadorj, Long Qu, Weiguo Cai, Oliver P. Couture, C. Richard Barb, Gary J. Hausman, Dan Nettleton, Lloyd L. Anderson, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Christopher K. Tuggle

Animal Science Publications

Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, in which low RFI denotes improved feed efficiency. Caloric restriction (CR) is associated with feed efficiency in livestock species and to human health benefits, such as longevity and cancer prevention. We have developed pig lines that differ in RFI, and we are interested in identifying the genes and pathways that underlie feed efficiency. Prepubertal Yorkshire gilts with low RFI (n = 10) or high RFI (n = 10) were fed ad libitum or fed at restricted intake of 80% of maintenance energy requirements for 8 days. We measured serum metabolites and hormones ...


Lineage-Specific Effects Of Notch/Numb Signaling In Post-Embryonic Development Of The Drosophila Brain, Suewei Lin, Sen-Lin Lai, Hung-Hsiang Yu, Takahiro Chihara, Liqun Luo, Tzumin Lee 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Lineage-Specific Effects Of Notch/Numb Signaling In Post-Embryonic Development Of The Drosophila Brain, Suewei Lin, Sen-Lin Lai, Hung-Hsiang Yu, Takahiro Chihara, Liqun Luo, Tzumin Lee

GSBS Student Publications

Numb can antagonize Notch signaling to diversify the fates of sister cells. We report here that paired sister cells acquire different fates in all three Drosophila neuronal lineages that make diverse types of antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs). Only one in each pair of postmitotic neurons survives into the adult stage in both anterodorsal (ad) and ventral (v) PN lineages. Notably, Notch signaling specifies the PN fate in the vPN lineage but promotes programmed cell death in the missing siblings in the adPN lineage. In addition, Notch/Numb-mediated binary sibling fates underlie the production of PNs and local interneurons from ...


Effects Of Chlordiazepoxide On Predator Odor-Induced Reductions Of Playfulness In Juvenile Rats, Stephen M. Siviy, Courtney L. Steets, Lauren M. DeBrouse 2010 Gettysburg College

Effects Of Chlordiazepoxide On Predator Odor-Induced Reductions Of Playfulness In Juvenile Rats, Stephen M. Siviy, Courtney L. Steets, Lauren M. Debrouse

Psychology Faculty Publications

The extent to which a non-sedative dose of chlordiazepoxide (CDP) is able to modify the behavioral responses toward a predator odor was assessed in juvenile rats. Play behavior was suppressed and defensive behaviors were enhanced in the presence of a collar previously worn by a cat, when tested 24 hours later in the same context as that where the exposure occurred, and when tested in a context different than that in which the exposure occurred for up to 3 hours after exposure. CDP had no effect on the ability of cat odor to suppress play when rats were tested in ...


Dynamics Of The Rapsyn Scaffolding Protein At The Neuromuscular Junction Of Live Mice, Emile Bruneau, Mohammed Akaaboune 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Dynamics Of The Rapsyn Scaffolding Protein At The Neuromuscular Junction Of Live Mice, Emile Bruneau, Mohammed Akaaboune

Departmental Papers (ASC)

The efficacy of synaptic transmission depends on the maintenance of a high density of neurotransmitter receptors and their associated scaffold proteins in the postsynaptic membrane. While the dynamics of receptors has been extensively studied, the dynamics of the intracellular scaffold proteins that make up the postsynaptic density are largely unknown in vivo. Here, we focused on the dynamics of rapsyn, a protein required for the clustering and maintenance of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) density at postsynaptic sites. Using time-lapse imaging, we demonstrated that rapsyn is remarkably dynamic compared to AChRs at functional synapses, turning over 4–6 times more rapidly than ...


Do Athletes Respond Differently To Academic And Social Stress? An Examination Of Cortisol And Perceived Stress Throughout A Semester In College Athletes And Typical College Students, Rita Rose Holak 2010 Connecticut College

Do Athletes Respond Differently To Academic And Social Stress? An Examination Of Cortisol And Perceived Stress Throughout A Semester In College Athletes And Typical College Students, Rita Rose Holak

Behavioral Neuroscience Honors Papers

In order to be a successful athlete, you must be able to perform well under stressful situations. Are athletes also better at responding to stress under other circumstances such as social and academic stress? The present study investigated the impact of exercise on salivary cortisol and perceived stress in college students. Cortisol was sampled throughout a semester as well as before and after a laboratory‐based stress test during the final exam period. It was found that athletes had the largest increase in cortisol between baseline and the final exam period and the sedentary students had the smallest increase. Also ...


Safe Medication Use Among Hispanic College Students: Knowledge, Attitudes And Behaviors, Tania Guadalupe Quiroz 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Safe Medication Use Among Hispanic College Students: Knowledge, Attitudes And Behaviors, Tania Guadalupe Quiroz

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

College students are at increased risk of medication errors. Research suggests that young adults are active users of over-the- counter (OTC) medications and other products that may increase the risk for negative health outcomes. Therefore, it is very important to analyze young adults' attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors about medication use among college students in order to provide them with the necessary information. Due to language and cultural factors, the issue is particularly relevant in U.S.-Mexico border communities. This casual-comparative study examined knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding medication use among Hispanic college students. Data was collected through a survey ...


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