Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Microbiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

7,375 Full-Text Articles 16,398 Authors 1,913,818 Downloads 242 Institutions

All Articles in Microbiology

Faceted Search

7,375 full-text articles. Page 263 of 264.

Enhancement Of The Antibacterial Properties Of Silver Nanoparticles Using Beta-Cyclodextrin As A Capping Agent, Swarna Jaiswal, Brendan Duffy, Niall Stobie, Patrick McHale, Amit Jaiswal 2010 Technological University Dublin

Enhancement Of The Antibacterial Properties Of Silver Nanoparticles Using Beta-Cyclodextrin As A Capping Agent, Swarna Jaiswal, Brendan Duffy, Niall Stobie, Patrick Mchale, Amit Jaiswal

Articles

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by reducing silver salts using NaBH4 followed by capping with varying concentrations of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and were physically characterised. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was determined by a microtitre well method. The AgNPs were spherical under TEM while DLS showed average diameters of capped particles to be smaller (4-7 nm) than their uncapped equivalents (17 nm). Capped particles demonstrated superior photostability when exposed to intense UV radiation for 4 hours and a significantly (p


Characterization Of Biofilms Formed By Mycobacterium Aviumn Subspecies Paratuberculosis In Psychologically Relevant Conditions, Richard Brunner 2010 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Characterization Of Biofilms Formed By Mycobacterium Aviumn Subspecies Paratuberculosis In Psychologically Relevant Conditions, Richard Brunner

All Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Mpt) is the cause of Johne's disease, a gastrointestinal disease that mainly affects ruminants. Despite being an obligate intracellular pathogen, Mpt can survive in the environment for months. How Mpt survives in the environment has yet to be determined, but one tactic Mpt may use is the formation of biofilms. Biofilms may provide sufficient protection and allow Mpt endure in the environment until a new host is encountered. The conditions affecting Mpt biofilm formation have not been investigated. Both in the host and in the environment, Mpt experiences physiological stresses that may induce biofilm formation including …


Bioinformatic And Sequence Analysis Of Four Resuscitation Promoting Factor (Rpf) Gene Homologues In Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis (Mpt), And Expression Of The Putative Mpt Rpfb In Escherichia Coli., David Dale Hedlund 2010 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Bioinformatic And Sequence Analysis Of Four Resuscitation Promoting Factor (Rpf) Gene Homologues In Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis (Mpt), And Expression Of The Putative Mpt Rpfb In Escherichia Coli., David Dale Hedlund

All Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mpt), the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), is a global problem in the agricultural industry. It is estimated that 25% of all U.S. dairy herds are JD positive. One obstacle in the management of JD is the lack a sensitive diagnostic test for use during the early stages of infection. Resuscitation promoting factors (Rpf) are proteins that promote the growth of many species of Actinobacteria. If Rpf proteins could enhance the growth of Mpt, the sensitivity of diagnostic fecal culture could be improved, and the impact of JD on the dairy industry would be significantly …


Characterization Of Tram, A Required Bacteroides Fragilis Conjugal Apparatus Protein That Interacts With The B. Fragilis Putative Coupling Protein Bcta And The B. Fragilis Relaxase Protein Bmph, Mai Thi Thanh Nguyen 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Characterization Of Tram, A Required Bacteroides Fragilis Conjugal Apparatus Protein That Interacts With The B. Fragilis Putative Coupling Protein Bcta And The B. Fragilis Relaxase Protein Bmph, Mai Thi Thanh Nguyen

Dissertations

Bacteroides spp. organisms, the most prominent bacteria of the human colon, are reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes which promiscuously transfer within and from the genus via conjugation. The B. fragilis clinical isolate LV23 harbors a 37kb conjugative transposon, BTF-37. Two important conjugal apparatus proteins encoded by BTF-37 are BctA, a predicted coupling protein (CP) that powers DNA translocation, and ORF7 (TraM). In this study, we demonstrated that TraM exhibits characteristics of a required conjugal apparatus protein including 1) upregulated expression under conjugation conditions; 2) localization to the bacterial inner membrane; 3) interaction with the putative coupling protein BctA and the …


Hypervirulent Clostridium Difficile Strains: Adherence, Toxin Production And Sporulation, Michelle Marie Merrigan 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Hypervirulent Clostridium Difficile Strains: Adherence, Toxin Production And Sporulation, Michelle Marie Merrigan

Dissertations

Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of nosocomial infections, and recently emerged "hypervirulent" C. difficile strains have caused epidemics worldwide. We hypothesized that multiple factors were responsible for this phenotype, particularly the interaction of C. difficile with the epithelial cell, as well as toxin production and sporulation.

To test if host interaction varied in HV strains, we developed a quantitative host-cell adherence assay, and found that while C. difficile strains varied in adherence to human intestinal epithelial cells, hypervirulent strains were not significantly more adherent than other strains. The bacterial surface protein SlpA varied in both size and amount between …


Pattern Recognition In Cytopathology For Papanicolaou Screening, Jonathan Blackledge, Dmitriy Dubovitskiy 2010 Technological University Dublin

Pattern Recognition In Cytopathology For Papanicolaou Screening, Jonathan Blackledge, Dmitriy Dubovitskiy

Conference papers

A unique space oriented filer is presented in order to detect and isolate the cell of a nucleus for applications in cytopathology. A classification method for nuclei is then considered based on the application of a set of features which includes certain fractal parameters. Segmentation algorithms are considered in which a self-adjustable sharpening filter is designed to enhance object location. Although the methods discussed and the algorithms developed have a range of applications, in this work we focus the engineering of a system for automating a Papanicolaou screening test using standard optical images


Thermocrinis Minervae Sp. Nov., A Hydrogen And Sulfur-Oxidizing, Thermophilic Member Of The Aquificales From A Costa Rican Terrestrial Hot Spring, Sara L. Caldwell, Yitai Liu, Isabel Ferrera, Terry Beveridge, Anna-Louise Reysenbach 2010 Portland State University

Thermocrinis Minervae Sp. Nov., A Hydrogen And Sulfur-Oxidizing, Thermophilic Member Of The Aquificales From A Costa Rican Terrestrial Hot Spring, Sara L. Caldwell, Yitai Liu, Isabel Ferrera, Terry Beveridge, Anna-Louise Reysenbach

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

A thermophilic bacterium, designated strain CR11T , was isolated from a filamentous sample collected from a terrestrial hot spring on the south-western foothills of the Rincón volcano in Costa Rica. The Gram-negative cells are approximately 2.4–3.9 mm long and 0.5–0.6 mm wide and are motile rods with polar flagella. Strain CR11T grows between 65 and 85 6C (optimum 75 6C, doubling time 4.5 h) and between pH 4.8 and 7.8 (optimum pH 5.9–6.5). The isolate grows chemolithotrophically with S0 , S2O2{ 3 or H2 as the electron donor and with O2 (up to 16 %, v/v) as the sole electron …


Oceanic Heterotrophic Bacterial Nutrition By Semilabile Dom As Revealed By Data Assimilative Modeling, YW Luo, M. A.M. Friedrichs, SC Doney, MJ Church, HW Ducklow 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Oceanic Heterotrophic Bacterial Nutrition By Semilabile Dom As Revealed By Data Assimilative Modeling, Yw Luo, M. A.M. Friedrichs, Sc Doney, Mj Church, Hw Ducklow

VIMS Articles

Previous studies have focused on the role of labile dissolved organic matter (DOM) (defined as turnover time of similar to 1 d) in supporting heterotrophic bacterial production, but have mostly neglected semilabile DOM (defined as turnover time of similar to 100 to 1000 d) as a potential substrate for heterotrophic bacterial growth. To test the hypothesis that semilabile DOM supports substantial amounts of heterotrophic bacterial production in the open ocean, we constructed a 1-dimensional epipelagic ecosystem model and applied it to 3 open ocean sites: the Arabian Sea, Equatorial Pacific and Station ALOHA in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. The …


Genetic Diversity Among Plasmodium Falciparum Field Isolates In Pakistan Measured With Pcr Genotyping Of The Merozoite Surface Protein 1 And 2, Najia Ghanchi, andreas Martensson, Johan Ursing, Sana Jafri, Sandor Bereczky, Rabia Hussain, Mohammad Asim Beg 2010 Agha Khan University

Genetic Diversity Among Plasmodium Falciparum Field Isolates In Pakistan Measured With Pcr Genotyping Of The Merozoite Surface Protein 1 And 2, Najia Ghanchi, Andreas Martensson, Johan Ursing, Sana Jafri, Sandor Bereczky, Rabia Hussain, Mohammad Asim Beg

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background:The genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum has been extensively studied in various parts of the world. However, limited data are available from Pakistan. This study aimed to establish molecular characterization of P. falciparum field isolates in Pakistan measured with two highly polymorphic genetic markers, i.e. the merozoite surface protein 1 (msp-1) and 2 (msp-2).
Methods:Between October 2005 and October 2007, 244 blood samples from Patients with symptomatic blood-slide confirmed P. falciparum mono-infections attending the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, or its collection units located in Sindh and Baluchistan provinces, Pakistan were collected. The genetic diversity of P. falciparum …


Quantitative Pcr Assay For Mycobacterium Pseudoshottsii And Mycobacterium Shottsii And Application To Environmental Samples And Fishes From The Chesapeake Bay, D. T. Gauthier, K. S. Reece, J. Xiao, M. W. Rhodes, H. I. Kator, R. J. Latour, C. F. Bonzek, J. M. Hoenig, W. K. Vogelbein 2010 Old Dominion University

Quantitative Pcr Assay For Mycobacterium Pseudoshottsii And Mycobacterium Shottsii And Application To Environmental Samples And Fishes From The Chesapeake Bay, D. T. Gauthier, K. S. Reece, J. Xiao, M. W. Rhodes, H. I. Kator, R. J. Latour, C. F. Bonzek, J. M. Hoenig, W. K. Vogelbein

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay are currently experiencing a very high prevalence of mycobacteriosis associated with newly described Mycobacterium species, Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii. The ecology of these mycobacteria outside the striped bass host is currently unknown. In this work, we developed quantitative real-time PCR assays for M. pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii and applied these assays to DNA extracts from Chesapeake Bay water and sediment samples, as well as to tissues from two dominant prey of striped bass, Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) and bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli). Mycobacterium …


An Evaluation Of Miru-Vntr Analysis And Spoligotyping For Genotyping Of Mycobacterium Bovis Isolates And A Comparison With Rflp Typing., Joanne McLernon, Eamonn Costello, Orla Flynn, Gillian Madigan, Fergus Ryan 2010 Technological University Dublin

An Evaluation Of Miru-Vntr Analysis And Spoligotyping For Genotyping Of Mycobacterium Bovis Isolates And A Comparison With Rflp Typing., Joanne Mclernon, Eamonn Costello, Orla Flynn, Gillian Madigan, Fergus Ryan

Articles

Strain typing of Mycobacterium bovis isolates based on the variable-number tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU-VNTR) and on spoligotyping was evaluated in this study and these typing methods were compared with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing. A total of 386 M. bovis isolates from cattle, badgers and deer in the Republic of Ireland that had previously been typed by IS6110, polymorphic GC-rich sequence (PGRS) and direct repeat (DR) RFLP were included in the study. Spoligotyping and analysis of six VNTR loci (2163a, 2163b, 2165, 4052, 2996 and 1895) was performed on the samples. RFLP was the method …


Plasmid Injection And Application Of Electric Pulses Alter Endogenous Mrna And Protein Expression In B16.F10 Mouse Melanomas, L. C. Heller, Y. L. Cruz, B. Ferraro, H. Yang, R. Heller 2010 Old Dominion University

Plasmid Injection And Application Of Electric Pulses Alter Endogenous Mrna And Protein Expression In B16.F10 Mouse Melanomas, L. C. Heller, Y. L. Cruz, B. Ferraro, H. Yang, R. Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

The application of electric pulses to tissues causes cell membrane destabilization, allowing exogenous molecules to enter the cells. This delivery technique can be used for plasmid gene therapy. Reporter gene expression after plasmid delivery with eight representative published protocols was compared in B16.F10 mouse melanoma tumors. This expression varied significantly based on the pulse parameters utilized for delivery. To observe the possible influence of plasmid injection and/or pulse application on endogenous gene expression, levels of stress-related mRNAs 4 and 24 h after delivery were determined by PCR array. Increases in mRNA levels for several inflammatory chemokines and cytokines were observed …


Analysing The Effects Of Loss Of Sin3 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Aishwarya Swaminathan 2010 Wayne State University

Analysing The Effects Of Loss Of Sin3 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Aishwarya Swaminathan

Wayne State University Dissertations

Sin3A has been previously shown to be an essential gene for Drosophila viability and is implicated in the regulation of cell cycle. In this study, we show that SIN3 is not only required for embryonic viability but also for post-embryonic development. Genetic analysis suggests that the different isoforms of SIN3 may regulate unique sets of genes during development. The developmental lethality occurring due to ubiquitous knock down of SIN3 is hypothesized to be to the result of defects in cell proliferation. Conditional knock down of SIN3 in the wing discs results in a curly wing phenotype in the adult fly. …


Immunomodulatory Effect Of Host And Fungal Eicosanoids During Host-Pathogen Interactions With Candida Albicans, Gitanjali Kundu 2010 Wayne State University

Immunomodulatory Effect Of Host And Fungal Eicosanoids During Host-Pathogen Interactions With Candida Albicans, Gitanjali Kundu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, poses a significant clinical threat to immunocompromised patients. Diseases associated with this fungus ranges from superficial mucosal infection to life-threatening systemic candidiasis. The mechanisms by which Candida persists at mucosal surfaces in the face of an adaptive response are unclear. Candida produces immunomodulatory oxylipins that cross-react functionally with host eicosanoids, which are considered to play important role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. Our objective was to characterize the role of prostaglandins produced by the host and this fungus during host pathogen interactions, both in vitro with dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, and …


Identification And Molecular Characterisation Of Mycobacteriophages And Their Lysis Proteins, Marine Henry 2010 Department of Biological Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland.

Identification And Molecular Characterisation Of Mycobacteriophages And Their Lysis Proteins, Marine Henry

Theses

Given their potential as specific and natural biocontrol agents, bacteriophages and their associated proteins have become the focus of renewed interest over the last decade. This study reviews the current state of mycobacterial diseases control worldwide and presents how phage therapy and the production of recombinant bacteriophage lysis proteins can be applied as novel biocontrol strategies for mycobacteria.

Chapter 11 presents an overview of the predicted LysA and LysB proteins in all the mycobacteriophages sequenced to date and proposes an in silico 3D predictive model of the lysin B of a recently isolated and characterised mycobacteriophage. Our data also confirms …


Phage Lysins - Structure, Genetics And Applications, Jennifer Garry 2010 Department of Biological Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland.

Phage Lysins - Structure, Genetics And Applications, Jennifer Garry

Theses

Antibiotics are of the utmost importance in the fight against pathogenic bacteria, however, in recent years there has been a continual increase in the development of antibiotic resistance among bacteria. As a result it has become essential to develop new technologies to combat these pathogens. One such technology is the application of phage lysins as antimicrobial agents against pathogenic infections. A promising phage lysin is LysK, a 495 amino-acid protein derived from Staphylococcal Phage K. LysK can lyse a wide range of staphylococcal species including MRSA. It is also capable of killing both live and dead cells increasing its potential …


Isolation And Molecular Characterization Of Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis In Ireland, Pierre Emmanuel Douarre 2010 Department of Biological Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland.

Isolation And Molecular Characterization Of Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis In Ireland, Pierre Emmanuel Douarre

Theses

MAP is a proven animal pathogen causing Johne's disease, one of the most widespread and economically important diseases of ruminants. Since 1992 and the opening of the European market, the prevalence of MAP in Ireland has increased considerably. Improvements in diagnostic strategies for Ireland and elsewhere are urgently required. MAP infects a wide host range and has emerged as a potential threat to human health and has been associated with Crohn's disease. The control of paratuberculosis infection requires a better understanding of the genetic diversity of the pathogen. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize this enteric …


The Rapid Identification Of Novel Anti-Mycobacterial Drugs And The Transporters Involved In Their Resistance, James Carroll 2010 Department of Biological Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland.

The Rapid Identification Of Novel Anti-Mycobacterial Drugs And The Transporters Involved In Their Resistance, James Carroll

Theses

Despite the success of anti-mycobacterial drugs over the past 70 years, mycobacterial disease, particularly tuberculosis is still responsible for millions of deaths worldwide. Additionally, the emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR-TB) and Extensively Drug Resistant (XDR-TB) Tuberculosis throughout the world has motivated calls by the World Health Organization for novel mycobacterial drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tests. Consequently, this study sought to identify and evaluate the efficacy of a range of anti-mycobacterial compounds against a representative cohort of pathogenic mycobacterial species. The development and employment of the rapid, robust and inexpensive microtitre alamarBlue assay (MABA) facilitated the assessment of a vast array …


Process Optimization For The Developmenht Of A Functional Beverage Based On Lactic Acid Fermentation Of Oats, Shilpi Gupta, Sabrina Cox, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam 2010 Technological University Dublin

Process Optimization For The Developmenht Of A Functional Beverage Based On Lactic Acid Fermentation Of Oats, Shilpi Gupta, Sabrina Cox, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

Oats (Avena sativa) have received considerable interest for their high content of soluble and insoluble fibre and for their high fermentability upon applying probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In the present study, Box–Behnken optimization design was used to optimize three different levels of oat, sucrose and starter culture concentration on the final viable cell population of Lactobacillus plantarum for the development of a fermented drink. A second-order polynomial response surface equation was developed indicating the effect of the studied variables on L. plantarum growth. Contour maps generated using the response surface equation showed that the experimental variables significantly affected the …


Biosynthesis Of Exopolysaccharides From Lactic Acid Bacteria And Evaluation Of Their Prebiotic Potential, Colette Ann Forde 2010 Munster Technological University

Biosynthesis Of Exopolysaccharides From Lactic Acid Bacteria And Evaluation Of Their Prebiotic Potential, Colette Ann Forde

Theses

In this study, two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) namely Weissella kimchii F28 and W. confusa MGl were used for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from sucrose. Both strains produced glucan polysaccharides. In the case of W. kimchii F28, the EPS isolation procedure was performed six times, making modifications in order to optimize the yield of EPS. The maximum yield of EPS for this strain was 16 g per litre of culture. In the case of W. confusa MGl, the EPS isolation procedure was followed five times, resulting in a maximum yield of EPS for this strain of 34.4 …


Digital Commons powered by bepress