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An Overview Of The Forensic Analysis And Use Of Non-Human Dna, Kaelyn Long 2022 Liberty University

An Overview Of The Forensic Analysis And Use Of Non-Human Dna, Kaelyn Long

Senior Honors Theses

DNA is present in every living organism on Earth. DNA is also present in a few non-living biological agents such as DNA-containing viruses, and is additionally unique to particular groups of organisms and often even to individuals. This characteristic allows DNA to be quite useful in forensic investigations. This study takes an in-depth look at the forensic use of non-human DNA. DNA analysis is a key component of many forensic investigations, but the majority of these analyses are focused on human DNA. This review examines the ways in which non-human DNA can be useful to forensic investigations. The various unique …


The Genetics Of Pain: An Exploration Of Gene-By-Environment Interactions And Their Effects On Pain, Mohamad F. Fakhereddin 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Genetics Of Pain: An Exploration Of Gene-By-Environment Interactions And Their Effects On Pain, Mohamad F. Fakhereddin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The findings presented in this dissertation are part of the bigger SYMBIOME project which aims to use the biopsychosocial model of pain to develop a prognostic clinical phenotype for people that experience musculoskeletal (MSK) trauma. Chapter 2 presents an exploratory analysis to assess the relationships between genetic polymorphisms and pain severity and interference. Early childhood trauma was also explored as a moderator between genetic polymorphisms and pain outcomes. For pain severity, major allele carriers (A/A and G/A) of FKBP5 rs9394314 reported significantly higher scores than minor allele carriers (G/G). Further, major allele carriers who had at least one adverse childhood …


Cpf1-Based Crispr Genome Editing In The Cyanobacterium N. Punctiforme, Soohan Woo 2022 University of the Pacific

Cpf1-Based Crispr Genome Editing In The Cyanobacterium N. Punctiforme, Soohan Woo

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

CRISPR systems have been growing in their utility and their application throughout the biological field as researchers continue to grow in their understanding of the relatively novel genome editing technology. However, despite the potential of CRISPR as a genome editing tool, the complexity of applying this technology to a specific organism calls for custom modifications to the system to improve its success rate. In this project, a CRISPR-Cpf1 system that can be effectively employed in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme was designed, with a focus on the hormogonium development of this species. Multiple plasmids containing the CRISPR system and targeting different …


Characterizing Drought Adaptations, Phenotypic Plasticity, And Fixed Gene Expression Patterns Within Quercus, James K. Rauschendorfer 2022 Michigan Technological University

Characterizing Drought Adaptations, Phenotypic Plasticity, And Fixed Gene Expression Patterns Within Quercus, James K. Rauschendorfer

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This dissertation was written on topics related to the genus Quercus with a primary focus on Quercus ellipsoidalis (northern pin oak) and Quercus rubra (northern red oak). Within this dissertation are chapters related to the setup of experimental common gardens within the Ford and Kellogg experimental forest, a literature review describing drought adaptations of Quercus sect. Lobatae (red oak group), identification of transcription factors within the Q. robur (English oak) and Q. rubra genomes, a study comparing leaf trait phenotypic plasticity of Q. ellipsoidalis and Q. rubra, and an RNA-seq experiment studying ecological speciation between Q. ellipsoidalis and Q. …


Applying Conservation Genomic Techniques To Guide Management Of The Reticulated Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma Bishopi), Miranda Gaupp 2022 Georgia Southern University

Applying Conservation Genomic Techniques To Guide Management Of The Reticulated Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma Bishopi), Miranda Gaupp

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Reticulated flatwoods salamander (Ambystoma bishopi) is a federally endangered amphibian endemic to the longleaf-pine ecosystem of the southeastern U.S. This study used analyses of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, collected from 2,255 unique individuals across 5 breeding seasons, spread across the known extant range of A. bishopi, to characterize the genetic diversity and demographics of populations, genetic relationships among populations, and patterns and spatial extents of gene flow, and to evaluate potential effects of management on A. bishopi’s resiliency. Population structure was strongly hierarchical, with individual breeding ponds (n = 38) acting as semi-connected subpopulations …


Induction Of Il19 Expression Through Jnk And Cgas-Sting Modulates Dna Damage–Induced Cytokine Production, Sara H. Small, E. Jessica Tang, Ryan L. Ragland, Yaroslava Ruzankina, David W. Schoppy, Rahul S. Mandal, M. Rebecca Glineburg, Zgjim Ustelenca, Daniel J. Powell, Fiona Simpkins, F. Bradley Johnson, Eric J. Brown 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Induction Of Il19 Expression Through Jnk And Cgas-Sting Modulates Dna Damage–Induced Cytokine Production, Sara H. Small, E. Jessica Tang, Ryan L. Ragland, Yaroslava Ruzankina, David W. Schoppy, Rahul S. Mandal, M. Rebecca Glineburg, Zgjim Ustelenca, Daniel J. Powell, Fiona Simpkins, F. Bradley Johnson, Eric J. Brown

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Cytokine production is a critical component of cell-extrinsic responses to DNA damage and cellular senescence. Here, we demonstrated that expression of the gene encoding interleukin-19 (IL-19) was enhanced by DNA damage through pathways mediated by c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and cGAS-STING and that IL19 expression was required for the subsequent production of the cytokines IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8. IL19 expression was stimulated by diverse cellular stresses, including inhibition of the DNA replication checkpoint kinase ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein), oncogene expression, replicative exhaustion, oxidative stress, and DNA double-strand breaks. Unlike the production of IL-6 and IL-8, IL19 expression was …


A Systematic And Biogeographic Study Of Trillium (Melanthiaceae), Jayne A. Lampley 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Systematic And Biogeographic Study Of Trillium (Melanthiaceae), Jayne A. Lampley

Doctoral Dissertations

Trillium (Melanthiaceae, Parideae) has a disjunct distribution occurring in eastern and western North America, and eastern Asia. Past studies have examined the phylogeny and historical biogeography of Melanthiaceae and Parideae, however these studies either did not fully examine these aspects within Trillium or did not employ sufficiently broad taxonomic or character sampling to clarify relationships among taxa. The first phylogenetic analysis presented in this study provides a resolved phylogeny for Trillium s.l. and Paris s.l. by using a dataset of 70 plastid coding genes and by sampling broadly from Trillium s.s., Pseudotrillium, Trillidium, Paris s.s., Daiswa, and Kinugasa. The results …


Erecta Family Genes Regulate The Shoot Apical Meristem And Organ Formation, Daniel A. DeGennaro 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Erecta Family Genes Regulate The Shoot Apical Meristem And Organ Formation, Daniel A. Degennaro

Doctoral Dissertations

Plants are sessile and must adjust their organ growth to their environments. A reservoir of stem cells in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) supplies cells for differentiation into organs. The SAM must balance organ production with stem cell maintenance. The ERECTA family (ERfs) encodes the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases ERECTA (ER), ERECTA-LIKE 1 (ERL1), and ERL2. ERf signaling regulates organ initiation and stem cell maintenance. Results presented in this work include the following:

1) WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3) make up a negative feedback loop to maintain SAM size. WUS and CLV3 expression localization is critical for …


Comparing Machine Learning Techniques With State-Of-The-Art Parametric Prediction Models For Predicting Soybean Traits, Susweta Ray 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Comparing Machine Learning Techniques With State-Of-The-Art Parametric Prediction Models For Predicting Soybean Traits, Susweta Ray

Department of Statistics: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Work

Soybean is a significant source of protein and oil, and also widely used as animal feed. Thus, developing lines that are superior in terms of yield, protein and oil content is important to feed the ever-growing population. As opposed to the high-cost phenotyping, genotyping is both cost and time efficient for breeders while evaluating new lines in different environments (location-year combinations) can be costly. Several Genomic prediction (GP) methods have been developed to use the marker and environment data effectively to predict the yield or other relevant phenotypic traits of crops. Our study compares a conventional GP method (GBLUP), a …


Co-Option Of The Yolkless Oocyte Receptor For Crispr/Cas9 May Induce Transient Sterility In Female Drosophila Grimshawi Flies, Bronwyn Miller 2021 University of New Orleans

Co-Option Of The Yolkless Oocyte Receptor For Crispr/Cas9 May Induce Transient Sterility In Female Drosophila Grimshawi Flies, Bronwyn Miller

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Evolutionary developmental biology has historically used generalist model organisms like Drosophila melanogaster. The Hawaiian Drosophilidae radiation, which occurred just 25 million years ago, is an ideal lineage for work in Evo-Devo. Hawaiian flies make up 25% of the world’s Drosophila species and extreme diversity is seen throughout the group. D. grimshawi is a generalist Hawaiian picture-wing fly that has served as a model for the Hawaiian Drosophilidae radiation. However, D. grimshawi’s power and use as a model organism is constrained by our lack of ability to manipulate its genome. In this work, I attempted to edit the genome of …


Discovering Mechanisms Driving Adaptive Evolution In The Cross-Kingdom Fungal Pathogen Fusarium Oxysporum, Dilay Hazal Ayhan 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Discovering Mechanisms Driving Adaptive Evolution In The Cross-Kingdom Fungal Pathogen Fusarium Oxysporum, Dilay Hazal Ayhan

Doctoral Dissertations

Fusarium oxysporum is a cross-kingdom pathogenic fungus that can cause vascular wilt disease in many economically important plants and local or disseminated infections in humans. Although it lacks a sexual stage in its life cycle, F. oxysporum can adapt to a wide range of hosts because of accessory chromosomes (ACs) which are enriched in host-specific genes and repeat content. This dissertation investigates the mechanisms that drive the adaptive evolution in the cross-kingdom pathogen F. oxysporum using comparative genomics and an experimental evolution approach. The first chapter compares phenotypes and genomes of a plant pathogenic isolate F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici …


Exploring Epigenetics As A Tool For Population Assessment And Conservation In Large Marine Predators, Andria Paige Beal 2021 Florida International University

Exploring Epigenetics As A Tool For Population Assessment And Conservation In Large Marine Predators, Andria Paige Beal

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Worldwide, many large marine predator populations are in decline. These populations can be difficult to study due to the extensive home ranges and migration patterns often exhibited by these species. Molecular tools are therefore necessary to measure specific parameters on these populations that would otherwise be nearly impossible to obtain. This dissertation pioneers the use of environmental epigenetic approaches for that purpose, and specifically the epigenetic modification known as DNA methylation, using sharks and small cetaceans as model organisms. This work is organized into five chapters. Chapter I is an introductory chapter that lays out the fundamentals of environmental epigenetics …


Global Population Divergence Of A Cosmopolian Desert Plant, Victor Ryan Alfaro 2021 University of New Mexico

Global Population Divergence Of A Cosmopolian Desert Plant, Victor Ryan Alfaro

Biology ETDs

Genetic and phenotypic variation can have different patterns within a species if it has populations with contrasting histories. Populations can have discrete differences that are shaped by different evolutionary scenarios, but within each population, range, or region, traits and association with fitness can also be affected by both edaphic and landscape variation. For my dissertation, I surveyed and experimentally analyzed variation and adaptive potential in Sahara mustard (Brassica tournefortii), a desert annual that has endemic, invasive, and agricultural populations in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Although my multi-trait analysis generated complex results, my findings can be applied to …


Role Of A Cryptic Trna Gene Operon In Survival Under Translational Stress, Javier Santamaría-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Rubio, Rocío López-Igual, Ana B. Romero-Losada, Fernando M. Delgado-Chaves, Roque Bru-Martínez, Francisco J. Romero-Campero, Antonio Herrero, Michael Ibba, Jesús A. G. Ochoa de Alda, Ignacio Luque 2021 Universidad de Sevilla

Role Of A Cryptic Trna Gene Operon In Survival Under Translational Stress, Javier Santamaría-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Rubio, Rocío López-Igual, Ana B. Romero-Losada, Fernando M. Delgado-Chaves, Roque Bru-Martínez, Francisco J. Romero-Campero, Antonio Herrero, Michael Ibba, Jesús A. G. Ochoa De Alda, Ignacio Luque

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

As compared to eukaryotes, bacteria have a reduced tRNA gene set encoding between 30 and 220 tRNAs. Although in most bacterial phyla tRNA genes are dispersed in the genome, many species from distinct phyla also show genes forming arrays. Here, we show that two types of arrays with distinct evolutionary origins exist. This work focuses on long tRNA gene arrays (L-arrays) that encompass up to 43 genes, which disseminate by horizontal gene transfer and contribute supernumerary tRNA genes to the host. Although in the few cases previously studied these arrays were reported to be poorly transcribed, here we show that …


Having A High-Activity Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Allele Is Associated With Elevated Anxiety And Lower Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone But Also Lower Alpha Amylase In Children With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome., Jessie Beebe 2021 University Of New Orleans

Having A High-Activity Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Allele Is Associated With Elevated Anxiety And Lower Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone But Also Lower Alpha Amylase In Children With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome., Jessie Beebe

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) results from a hemizygous deletion located on the long arm of chromosome 22. The most common deletion sizes affect between 30 and 90 genes. Individuals with 22q11.2DS may develop serious developmental and psychiatric disorders. The phenotype is highly variable, however, and may be influenced by allelic variation of the retained copies of genes covered by the deletion. I set out to examine the effects of two genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and proline dehydrogenase (PRODH), in relation to anxiety in children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS. Individuals with the major COMT allele (higher activity) have significantly higher anxiety …


Npsd4: A New Player In Sumo-Dependent Dna Repair, Erin Atkinson 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Npsd4: A New Player In Sumo-Dependent Dna Repair, Erin Atkinson

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

The human genome is under constant threat from sources of damage and stress. Improper resolution of DNA damage lesions can lead to mutations, oncogene activation, and genomic instability. Difficult-to-replicate-loci present barriers to DNA replication that, when not properly resolved, lead to replication fork stalling and collapse and genomic instability.

DNA damage and replication stress trigger signaling cascades potentiated by multiple types of post-translational modifications, including SUMOylation. Through proteomic analysis of proteins involved in SUMOylation following DNA damage, our lab identified an uncharacterized protein that we named New Player in SUMO-dependent DNA damage repair 4 (NPSD4). Through an additional proteomic screen, …


Dna Barcoding Of The High-Altitude Artemisia And Nepeta Species, Vyacheslav Dushenkov, Csanad Gurdon, Shukhratdzhon Satorov 2021 CUNY Hostos Community College

Dna Barcoding Of The High-Altitude Artemisia And Nepeta Species, Vyacheslav Dushenkov, Csanad Gurdon, Shukhratdzhon Satorov

Publications and Research

DNA barcoding was performed for four medicinal plant species from the mountain region of Tajikistan. The nucleotide sequences for Artemisia sieberi, Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia vulgaris, and Nepeta glutinosa were deposited into the GenBank at the National Center for Biotechnology Information.


The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan 2021 University of Connecticut

The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan

University Scholar Projects

The granule cells are the most abundant neuronal type in the human brain. Rapid proliferation of granule cell progenitors results in dramatic expansion and folding of the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development. Mis-regulation of this proliferation process causes medulloblastoma, the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. In the developing cerebellum, granule cells are derived from Atoh1-expressing cells, which arise from the upper rhombic lip (the interface between the roof plate and neuroepithelium). In addition to granule cells, the Atoh1 lineage also gives rise to different types of neurons including cerebellar nuclei neurons. In the current study, I have investigated the …


The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan 2021 University of Connecticut

The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan

Honors Scholar Theses

The granule cells are the most abundant neuronal type in the human brain. Rapid proliferation of granule cell progenitors results in dramatic expansion and folding of the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development. Mis-regulation of this proliferation process causes medulloblastoma, the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. In the developing cerebellum, granule cells are derived from Atoh1-expressing cells, which arise from the upper rhombic lip (the interface between the roof plate and neuroepithelium). In addition to granule cells, the Atoh1 lineage also gives rise to different types of neurons including cerebellar nuclei neurons. In the current study, I have investigated the …


The Impact Of A Lynch Syndrome Diagnosis By Population Genomic Screening On Family Communication, Medical Management, And Lifestyle Changes, Reem Ibrahim Bux, Brooke Nicole Delehoy 2021 Sarah Lawrence College

The Impact Of A Lynch Syndrome Diagnosis By Population Genomic Screening On Family Communication, Medical Management, And Lifestyle Changes, Reem Ibrahim Bux, Brooke Nicole Delehoy

Human Genetics Theses

The purpose of population genomic screening programs is to help in prevention and treatment of conditions that takes into account an individual’s unique genetics, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Through this “genome-first” approach, individuals at increased lifetime risk for certain conditions are identified, allowing them and their relatives to qualify for preventative medical care and surveillance (Schwartz et al., 2018). An example institution that utilizes this approach is Geisinger’s MyCode Community Initiative, where their goal is to “make healthcare better” through research and its application to patient care (MyCode Community Health Initiative, n.d.). MyCode reports back medically actionable results for conditions …


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