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7,272 full-text articles. Page 244 of 259.

Defining A Relationship Between Dietary Fatty Acids And The Cytochrome P450 System In A Mouse Model Of Fatty Liver Disease, Monika Gonzalez, Whitney Sealls, Elliot D. Jesch, M. Julia Brosnan, Istvan Ladunga, Xinxin Ding, Paul N. Black, Concetta C. DiRusso 2011 Albany Medical College

Defining A Relationship Between Dietary Fatty Acids And The Cytochrome P450 System In A Mouse Model Of Fatty Liver Disease, Monika Gonzalez, Whitney Sealls, Elliot D. Jesch, M. Julia Brosnan, Istvan Ladunga, Xinxin Ding, Paul N. Black, Concetta C. Dirusso

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Liver-specific ablation of cytochrome P450 reductase in mice (LCN) results in hepatic steatosis that can progress to steatohepatitis characterized by inflammation and fibrosis. The specific cause of the fatty liver phenotype is poorly understood but is hypothesized to result from elevated expression of genes encoding fatty acid synthetic genes. Since expression of these genes is known to be suppressed by polyunsaturated fatty acids, we performed physiological and genomics studies to evaluate the effects of dietary linoleic and linolenic fatty acids (PUFA) or arachidonic and decosahexaenoic acids (HUFA) on the hepatic phenotypes of control and LCN mice by comparison with a ...


Functional Diversification Of Thylakoidal Processing Peptidases In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Shih-Chi Hsu, Joshua K. Endow, Nicholas J. Ruppel, Rebecca Roston, Amy J. Baldwin, Kentaro Inoue 2011 Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research

Functional Diversification Of Thylakoidal Processing Peptidases In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Shih-Chi Hsu, Joshua K. Endow, Nicholas J. Ruppel, Rebecca Roston, Amy J. Baldwin, Kentaro Inoue

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Thylakoidal processing peptidase (TPP) is responsible for removing amino-terminal thylakoid-transfer signals from several proteins in the thylakoid lumen. Three TPP isoforms are encoded by the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies showed that one of them termed plastidic type I signal peptidase 1 (Plsp1) was necessary for processing three thylakoidal proteins and one protein in the chloroplast envelope in vivo. The lack of Plsp1 resulted in seedling lethality, apparently due to disruption of proper thylakoid development. The physiological roles of the other two TPP homologs remain unknown. Here we show that the three A. thaliana TPP isoforms evolved to ...


Enzymatic Defects Underlying Hereditary Glutamate Cysteine Ligase Deficiency Are Mitigated By Association Of The Catalytic And Regulatory Subunits, Melanie Neely Willis, Yilin Liu, Ekaterina I. Biterova, Melanie A. Simpson, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee, Joseph J. Barycki 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Enzymatic Defects Underlying Hereditary Glutamate Cysteine Ligase Deficiency Are Mitigated By Association Of The Catalytic And Regulatory Subunits, Melanie Neely Willis, Yilin Liu, Ekaterina I. Biterova, Melanie A. Simpson, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee, Joseph J. Barycki

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive trait that compromises

production of glutathione, a critical redox buffer and enzymatic cofactor. Patients have markedly

reduced levels of erythrocyte glutathione, leading to hemolytic anemia and in some cases,

impaired neurological function. Human glutamate cysteine ligase is a heterodimer comprised of a

catalytic (GCLC) and a regulatory subunit (GCLM), which catalyzes the initial rate limiting step

in glutathione production. Four clinical missense mutations have been identified within GCLC:

Arg127Cys, Pro158Leu, His370Leu, and Pro414Leu. Here, we have evaluated the impacts of

these mutations on enzymatic function in vivo and in vitro ...


In Vivo Liver Endocytosis Followed By Purification Of Liver Cells By Liver Perfusion, Sandhya Gopalakrishnan, Edward N. Harris 2011 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

In Vivo Liver Endocytosis Followed By Purification Of Liver Cells By Liver Perfusion, Sandhya Gopalakrishnan, Edward N. Harris

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The liver is the metabolic center of the mammalian body and serves as a filter for the blood. The basic architecture of the liver is illustrated in figure 1 in which more than 85% of the liver mass is composed of hepatocytes and the remaining 15% of the cellular mass is composed of Kupffer cells (KCs), stellate cells (HSCs), and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs). SECs form the blood vessel walls within the liver and contain specialized morphology called fenestrae within in the cytoplasm. Fenestration of the cytoplasm is the appearance of holes (˜100 μm) within the cells so that the ...


Carbon Monoxide And Nitric Oxide Induced-Heme-Based Modification Of Alpha-2-Antiplasmin And Plasmin Activity, Matthew R. Arkebauer 2011 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Carbon Monoxide And Nitric Oxide Induced-Heme-Based Modification Of Alpha-2-Antiplasmin And Plasmin Activity, Matthew R. Arkebauer

PCOM Biomedical Studies Student Scholarship

Objectives: Carbon monoxide (CO) derived from cigarette smoke or released from carbon monoxide releasing-molecule 2 (CORM-2), diminishes fibrinolysis. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if CO diminished fibrinolysis by means of enhancing α2-antiplasmin via an alleged heme group. Methods: Plasma, isolated α2-antiplasmin and isolated plasmin were exposed to CO released from CORM-2 (tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer) and nitric oxide (NO) via a NO donor to induce carboxyheme and metheme states. Exposed, isolated enzymes were placed in either α2-antiplasmin deficient or normal plasma. Effects of CO and NO on tissue-type plasminogen activator initiated fibrinolysis were determined by thrombelastography. Liquid ...


The Effects Of Protein Kinase C Inhibitors On Blood Nitric Oxide And Hydrogen Peroxide Release In Ischemia And Reperfusion Injury, Kyle D. Bartol 2011 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

The Effects Of Protein Kinase C Inhibitors On Blood Nitric Oxide And Hydrogen Peroxide Release In Ischemia And Reperfusion Injury, Kyle D. Bartol

PCOM Biomedical Studies Student Scholarship

Vascular endothelial dysfunction is a key component initiating oxidative stress in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and a decrease in the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). Previous studies using protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Gö 6983 or PKC Beta (β) II inhibitor improved cardiac function in myocardial I/R, decreased leukocyte-endothelial interactions and leukocyte superoxide (SO) release and increased endothelial-derived NO release in vitro. This study examined the effects of Gö 6983 or PKC β II inhibitor on realtime H2O2 and NO release in femoral vein I/R in vivo ...


The Impact Of Tricaine Methanesulfonate, 2-Phenoxyethanol, And Carvone-Methyl Salicylate On The Innate Immune Response Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Charles R. Wulff 2011 Colby College

The Impact Of Tricaine Methanesulfonate, 2-Phenoxyethanol, And Carvone-Methyl Salicylate On The Innate Immune Response Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Charles R. Wulff

Honors Theses

Anesthesia plays a vital role in the maintenance of aquaculture species, where it is used to minimize stress during complex handling tasks such as transport, assessment, and harvesting. However, anesthetics have been shown to suppress the innate immune response, which could impact immunity and increase risk of infection. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) and 2-Phenoxyethanol (2-PE) represent two of the most commonly used anesthetics in aquaculture, with R-(+)-carvone, in the form of carvone-methyl salicylate (CMS) has recently been proposed as an alternative anesthetic for food fish. These three anesthetics were used to assess the influence of anesthetics on the immune system ...


Short Peptides As Inhibitors Of Amyloid Aggregation, Bradley Neddenriep, Anastasia Calciano, Daniel Conti, Erin Sauve, Marissa Paterson, Edward Bruno, David A. Moffet 2011 Loyola Marymount University

Short Peptides As Inhibitors Of Amyloid Aggregation, Bradley Neddenriep, Anastasia Calciano, Daniel Conti, Erin Sauve, Marissa Paterson, Edward Bruno, David A. Moffet

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Works

The misfolding and aggregation of proteins into amyloid has been linked to a variety of age-related diseases. Aggregation of proteins, such as Aβ in Alzheimer's disease and Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP, amylin) in type 2 diabetes, appears to lead to the formation of toxic assemblies. These assemblies range in size from small oligomers (2-8 proteins) to large fibrils (thousands of proteins). It remains unclear how these amyloidogenic proteins misfold and form toxic species, but growing evidence suggests that inhibiting the aggregation of these proteins could slow, if not prevent altogether, the progression of these diseases. We describe the use ...


Escherichia Coli Thioredoxin-Like Protein Ybbn Contains An Atypical Tetratricopeptide Repeat Motif And Is A Negative Regulator Of Groel, Jiusheng Lin, Mark A. Wilson 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Escherichia Coli Thioredoxin-Like Protein Ybbn Contains An Atypical Tetratricopeptide Repeat Motif And Is A Negative Regulator Of Groel, Jiusheng Lin, Mark A. Wilson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Many proteins contain a thioredoxin (Trx)-like domain fused with one or more partner domains that diversify protein function by the modular construction of new molecules. The Escherichia coli protein YbbN is a Trx-like protein that contains a C-terminal domain with low homology to tetratricopeptide repeat motifs. YbbN has been proposed to act as a chaperone or co-chaperone that aids in heat stress response andDNAsynthesis. We report the crystal structure of YbbN, which is an elongated molecule with a mobile Trx domain and four atypical tetratricopeptide repeat motifs. The Trx domain lacks a canonical CXXC active site architecture and is ...


Infection With Chlamydia Pneumoniae In Neuronal Cells Alters The Expression Of Genes Involved In Apoptosis And Autophagy Pathways, Annette K. Slutter 2011 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Infection With Chlamydia Pneumoniae In Neuronal Cells Alters The Expression Of Genes Involved In Apoptosis And Autophagy Pathways, Annette K. Slutter

PCOM Biomedical Studies Student Scholarship

Dysfunctions in cellular mechanisms such as apoptosis and autophagy have been implicated in the neurodegeneration associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Autophagy in AD pathogenesis has been linked to the endosomal-lysosomal system, which has been shown to play a role in amyloid processing. Studies have suggested that apoptosis may contribute to the neuronal cell loss observed in AD; however, there is no evidence of the apoptotic process leading to terminal completion. Aβ1-42 has been shown to induce apoptosis in neurons and may be an initiating factor in AD. Our previous studies demonstrated that neurons infected with C. pneumoniae are resistant ...


The Role Of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (Enos) Uncoupling On Leukocyte-Endothelial Interactions In Rat Mesenteric Postcapillary Venules, Maria Kern 2011 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

The Role Of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (Enos) Uncoupling On Leukocyte-Endothelial Interactions In Rat Mesenteric Postcapillary Venules, Maria Kern

PCOM Biomedical Studies Student Scholarship

Endothelial derived nitric oxide (NO) is essential in the regulation of blood pressure and attenuates leukocyte-endothelial interactions associated with vascular injury. However, when endothelial-derived NO is decreased, endothelial dysfunction results and promotes inflammation characterized by increased leukocyte-endothelial interactions. Under normal conditions, eNOS produces NO in the presence of an essential cofactor, tetrahydrobiopetrin (BH4) by facilitating the reduction of molecular oxygen to L-arginine oxidation and generation of L-citrulline. Whereas uncoupled eNOS refers to the electron transfer that becomes uncoupled to L-arginine oxidation and therefore superoxide (SO) is generated when the dihydrobiopetrin (BH2) to BH4 ratio is increased. SO is subsequently converted ...


The Role Of Zip Superfamily Of Metal Transporters In Chronic Diseases, Purification & Characterization Of A Bacterial Zip Transporter: Zupt., Iryna King 2011 Wayne State University

The Role Of Zip Superfamily Of Metal Transporters In Chronic Diseases, Purification & Characterization Of A Bacterial Zip Transporter: Zupt., Iryna King

Wayne State University Theses

In mammals zinc is the second most abundant essential trace metal. Since Zn2 is a small, hydrophilic, and a highly charged ion, it cannot be transported across the plasma or intracellular organelle membrane by passive diffusion. Different types of cells require a different constant concentration of zinc at all times. Presence of excess free Zn ions can be toxic to the cell. All cells must have tightly regulated homeostatic mechanisms in order to preserve healthy levels and proper compartmentalization of zinc. This is accomplished through the actions of specialized proteins that facilitate zinc uptake, efflux and compartmentalization. If the ...


The Prevalence Of Canine Leishmania Infantum Infection In Western China Detected By Pcr And Serological Tests, Jun-Yun Wang, Yu Ha, Chun-Hua Gao, Yong Wang, Yue-Tao Yang, Hai-Tang Chen 2011 Chinese Ministry of Health

The Prevalence Of Canine Leishmania Infantum Infection In Western China Detected By Pcr And Serological Tests, Jun-Yun Wang, Yu Ha, Chun-Hua Gao, Yong Wang, Yue-Tao Yang, Hai-Tang Chen

Wayne State University Associated BioMed Central Scholarship

Abstract

Background

Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is endemic in western China, resulting in important public health problem. It is essential to evaluate the prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection for designing control policy. In the present study we report for the first time prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs living in Jiuzhaigou County (Sichuan Provence, China), which is not only an important endemic area of CanL but also a tourism scenic spot, detected by PCR, ELISA and dipstick test. The results could provide key information for designing control programs against canine and human leishmaniasis. In addition, the complete sequence of the ...


Synthesis, Evaluation And Structural Studies Of Antiproliferative Tubulin-Targeting Azetidin-2-Ones, Niamh O'Boyle, Lisa M. Greene, Orla Bergin, Jean-Baptiste Fichet, Thomas McCabe, David G. Lloyd, Daniela M. Zisterer, Mary J. Meegan 2011 Technological University Dublin

Synthesis, Evaluation And Structural Studies Of Antiproliferative Tubulin-Targeting Azetidin-2-Ones, Niamh O'Boyle, Lisa M. Greene, Orla Bergin, Jean-Baptiste Fichet, Thomas Mccabe, David G. Lloyd, Daniela M. Zisterer, Mary J. Meegan

Articles

A series of azetidin-2-ones substituted at positions 2, 3 and 4 of the azetidinone ring scaffold were synthesised and evaluated for antiproliferative, cytotoxic and tubulin binding activity. In these compounds, the cis double bond of the vascular targeting agent combretastatin A-4 is replaced with the azetidinone ring in order to enhance the antiproliferative effects displayed by combretastatin A-4 and prevent the cis/trans isomerization that is associated with inactivation of combretastatin A-4. The series of azetidinones was synthetically accessible via the Staudinger and Reformatsky reactions. Of a diverse range of heterocyclic derivatives, 3-(2-thienyl) analogue 28 and 3-(3-thienyl) analogue ...


Altered Self-Assembly And Apatite Binding Of Amelogenin Induced By N-Terminal Proline Mutation, Li Zhu, Vuk Uskoković, Thuan Le, Pamela DenBesten, Yulei Huang, Stefan Habelitz, Wu Li 2011 University of California - San Francisco

Altered Self-Assembly And Apatite Binding Of Amelogenin Induced By N-Terminal Proline Mutation, Li Zhu, Vuk Uskoković, Thuan Le, Pamela Denbesten, Yulei Huang, Stefan Habelitz, Wu Li

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective—A single Pro-70 to Thr (p.P70T) mutation of amelogenin is known to result in hypomineralized amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). This study aims to test the hypothesis that the given mutation affects the self-assembly of amelogenin molecules and impairs their ability to conduct the growth of apatite crystals.

Design—Recombinant human full-length wild-type (rh174) and p.P70T mutated amelogenins were analyzed using dynamic light scattering (DLS), protein quantification assay and atomic force microscopy (AFM) before and after the binding of amelogenins to hydroxyapatite crystals. The crystal growth modulated by both amelogenins in a dynamic titration system was observed using AFM ...


Mechanisms Of Decreased Cholesterol Absorption Mediated By Phytosterols In The Intestinal Lumen, Andrew W. Brown 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mechanisms Of Decreased Cholesterol Absorption Mediated By Phytosterols In The Intestinal Lumen, Andrew W. Brown

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Phytosterols and their fatty acyl esters have been known for decades to lower LDL cholesterol, making them powerful nutraceuticals in lowering cardiovascular disease risk. The mechanisms by which phytosterols lower cholesterol, though, have been incompletely characterized. Three studies were executed to examine three aspects of cholesterol and phytosterol interactions in the intestinal lumen. In the first study, the ability of pancreatic cholesterol esterase to hydrolyze phytosterol esters was examined. Pancreatic cholesterol esterase hydrolyzed phytosterol esters, but the rate of hydrolysis proved sensitive to the structures of both the sterol and ester components. In the second study, cholesterol micellarization was challenged ...


Role Of Protein Kinase C-Iota In Glioblastoma, Shraddha R. Desai 2011 University of South Florida

Role Of Protein Kinase C-Iota In Glioblastoma, Shraddha R. Desai

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this research was to investigate the role of protein kinase C-iota (PKC-é) in the regulation of Bad function, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family and Cdk7 function, a master cell cycle regulator in glioblastoma.

The results were obtained from the human glial tumor derived cell lines, T98G and U87MG. In these cells, PKC-é co-localized and directly associated with Bad as shown by immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and Western blotting. Furthermore, in-vitro kinase activity assay showed that PKC-é directly phosphorylated Bad at phospho specific residues, S112, S136 and S155 which in turn induced inactivation of Bad and disruption of ...


Targeted Deletion Of The Mouse Mitoferrin1 Gene: From Anemia To Protoporphyria, Marie-Berengere Troadec, David Warner, Jared Wallace, Kirk Thomas, Gerald J. Spangrude, John Phillips, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Barry H. Paw, Diane McVey Ward, Jerry Kaplan 2011 University of Utah

Targeted Deletion Of The Mouse Mitoferrin1 Gene: From Anemia To Protoporphyria, Marie-Berengere Troadec, David Warner, Jared Wallace, Kirk Thomas, Gerald J. Spangrude, John Phillips, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Barry H. Paw, Diane Mcvey Ward, Jerry Kaplan

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Mitoferrin1 is 1 of 2 homologous mitochondrial iron transporters and is required for mitochondrial iron delivery in developing erythroid cells. We show that total deletion of Mfrn1 in embryos leads to embryonic lethality. Selective deletion of Mfrn1 in adult hematopoietic tissues leads to severe anemia because of a deficit in erythroblast formation. Deletion of Mfrn1 in hepatocytes has no phenotype or biochemical effect under normal conditions. In the presence of increased porphyrin synthesis, however, deletion of Mfrn1 in hepatocytes results in a decreased ability to convert protoporphyrin IX into heme, leading to protoporphyria, cholestasis, and bridging cirrhosis. Our results show ...


A New Noncovalent Force: Comparison Of P∙∙∙N Interaction With Hydrogen And Halogen Bonds, Steve Scheiner 2011 Utah State University

A New Noncovalent Force: Comparison Of P∙∙∙N Interaction With Hydrogen And Halogen Bonds, Steve Scheiner

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

When PH(3) is paired with NH(3), the two molecules are oriented such that the P and N atoms face one another directly, without the intermediacy of a H atom. Quantum calculations indicate that this attraction is due in part to the transfer of electron density from the lone pair of the N atom to the σ(∗) antibond of a P-H covalent bond. Unlike a H-bond, the pertinent hydrogen is oriented about 180° away from, instead of toward, the N, and the N lone pair overlaps with the lobe of the P-H σ(∗) orbital that is closest to the ...


An Apoptosis Targeted Stimulus With Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (Nspefs) In E4 Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Wei Ren, Stephen J. Beebe 2011 Old Dominion University

An Apoptosis Targeted Stimulus With Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (Nspefs) In E4 Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Wei Ren, Stephen J. Beebe

Bioelectrics Publications

Stimuli directed towards activation of apoptosis mechanisms are an attractive approach to eliminate evasion of apoptosis, a ubiquitous cancer hallmark. In these in vitro studies, kinetics and electric field thresholds for several apoptosis characteristics are defined in E4 squamous carcinoma cells (SCC) exposed to ten 300 ns pulses with increasing electric fields. Cell death was [95% at the highest electric field and coincident with phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase and calpain activation in the presence and absence of cytochrome c release, decreases in Bid and mitochondria membrane potential (Δψm) without apparent changes reactive oxygen species levels or in Bcl2 and Bclxl levels ...


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