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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Commemorating Women Nobel Prize Laureates In Chemistry, Jordan Smith Mar 2024

Commemorating Women Nobel Prize Laureates In Chemistry, Jordan Smith

Arkansas Women in STEM Conference

In this review study we describe contributions of women chemists who earned a Nobel Prize in Chemistry, notably the most prestigious award in the field. Based on our analysis of data, the number of women Nobel laureates in Chemistry is increasing with time. However, women still are the minority group compared to men in a pool of Nobel Prize winners in Chemistry.

In the current study we also compared women’s representation in chemistry to women’s representation in two other science fields of a Nobel Prize award: (i) Physics and (ii) Physiology or Medicine. Based on our analysis, the numbers of …


Adsorption Of Crystal Violet Dye From Synthetic Wastewater By Ball-Milled Royal Palm Leaf Sheath, Neloy Sen, Nawrin Rahman Shefa, Kismot Reza, Sk Md Ali Zaker Shawon, Md. Wasikur Rahman Mar 2024

Adsorption Of Crystal Violet Dye From Synthetic Wastewater By Ball-Milled Royal Palm Leaf Sheath, Neloy Sen, Nawrin Rahman Shefa, Kismot Reza, Sk Md Ali Zaker Shawon, Md. Wasikur Rahman

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

The current study shows that using a batch approach to remove crystal violet dye from synthetic wastewater is feasible when using royal palm leaf sheath powder as an adsorbent. In order to investigate the effects of many parameters, including starting concentration, pH effect, dye concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time, and temperature, experiments were carried out under various operating conditions. Maximum removal was obtained at pH 6 and at a concentration of 100 ppm, which are considered as ideal values. The influence of pH and dye concentration was shown to be substantial. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models were fitted to …


Frsc 480-002: Forensic Microscopy, Fisher David Jan 2024

Frsc 480-002: Forensic Microscopy, Fisher David

Chemistry, Environmental and Forensic Science Syllabi

No abstract provided.


Photoluminescence Switching In Quantum Dots Connected With Fluorinated And Hydrogenated Photochromic Molecules, Ephraiem S. Sarabamoun, Jonathan M. Bietsch, Pramod Aryal, Amelia G. Reid, Maurice Curran, Grayson Johnson, Esther H. R. Tsai, Charles W. Machan, Guijun Wang, Joshua J. Choi Jan 2024

Photoluminescence Switching In Quantum Dots Connected With Fluorinated And Hydrogenated Photochromic Molecules, Ephraiem S. Sarabamoun, Jonathan M. Bietsch, Pramod Aryal, Amelia G. Reid, Maurice Curran, Grayson Johnson, Esther H. R. Tsai, Charles W. Machan, Guijun Wang, Joshua J. Choi

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

We investigate switching of photoluminescence (PL) from PbS quantum dots (QDs) crosslinked with two different types of photochromic diarylethene molecules, 4,4'-(1-cyclopentene-1,2-diyl)bis[5-methyl-2-thiophenecarboxylic acid] (1H) and 4,4'-(1-perfluorocyclopentene-1,2-diyl)bis[5-methyl-2-thiophenecarboxylic acid] (2F). Our results show that the QDs crosslinked with the hydrogenated molecule (1H) exhibit a greater amount of switching in photoluminescence intensity compared to QDs crosslinked with the fluorinated molecule (2F). With a combination of differential pulse voltammetry and density functional theory, we attribute the different amount of PL switching to the different energy levels between 1H and 2F molecules which result in different potential barrier …


Elucidating The Pd Active Sites Of Bimetallic Gold-Palladium Catalysts Using Chemisorption And Titration Techniques, Andrew T. Boucher Dec 2023

Elucidating The Pd Active Sites Of Bimetallic Gold-Palladium Catalysts Using Chemisorption And Titration Techniques, Andrew T. Boucher

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A bimetallic nanoparticle catalyst combines two different metals on an oxide support, which can increase the selectivity towards useful products that may be too tightly bound to a monometallic catalyst. To explore the surface properties of such a system, we made a group of four PdAu bimetallic catalysts with varying gold mass loadings to compare with a parent Pd catalyst. The parent catalyst was synthesized using ion exchange, and gold was added to this parent Pd catalyst using incipient wetness impregnation (IWI) to create four bimetallic catalysts. All catalysts were characterized using H2 and CO chemisorption in tandem with …


Differentiation Of Human, Dog, And Cat Hair Fibers Using Dart Tofms And Machine Learning, Laura Ahumada, Erin R. Mcclure-Price, Chad Kwong, Edgard O. Espinoza, John Santerre Dec 2023

Differentiation Of Human, Dog, And Cat Hair Fibers Using Dart Tofms And Machine Learning, Laura Ahumada, Erin R. Mcclure-Price, Chad Kwong, Edgard O. Espinoza, John Santerre

SMU Data Science Review

Hair is found in over 90% of crime scenes and has long been analyzed as trace evidence. However, recent reviews of traditional hair fiber analysis techniques, primarily morphological examination, have cast doubt on its reliability. To address these concerns, this study employed machine learning algorithms, specifically Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Random Forest, on Direct Analysis in Real Time time-of-flight mass spectra collected from human, cat, and dog hair samples. The objective was to develop a chemistry- and statistics-based classification method for unbiased taxonomic identification of hair. The results of the study showed that LDA and Random Forest were highly …


Cost Analysis Of Adsorption Based Air Capture Of Co2, Mona Muzammil, Muzammil Arshad, Muazzam Arshad Nov 2023

Cost Analysis Of Adsorption Based Air Capture Of Co2, Mona Muzammil, Muzammil Arshad, Muazzam Arshad

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and conversion to value added products, such as chemicals, polymers, and carbon-based fuels represents a promising approach to transform a potential threat to the environment into a value-added product for long term sustainability. Emerging Carbon Capture Technologies: Towards a Sustainable Future provides a multidisciplinary view of the research that is being carried out in this field, covering materials and processes for CO2 capture and utilization and including a broad discussion of the impact of novel technologies in carbon capture on the energy landscape, society and climate. Of interest to students, researchers and professionals in industries related …


Introductory Chemistry, Mona Muzammil Nov 2023

Introductory Chemistry, Mona Muzammil

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

Introductory Chemistry, this edition is designed for a one-semester, introductory or preparatory chemistry course. Students taking this course need to develop problem-solving skills-but they also must see why these skills are important to them and to their world. Introductory Chemistry extends chemistry from the laboratory to the student's world. It motivates students to learn chemistry by demonstrating how it plays out in their daily lives.

This book draws students into the course through engagement and building their foundational knowledge – while introducing new content and resources to help students build critical thinking and problem-solving skills. allowing students flexibility and ensuring …


Contributions Of Tunneling In 8Π-6Π Electrocyclic Cascade Reactions Of Bicyclo[4.2.0]Octa-2,4-Diene Moieties, Ishika Jain, Claire Castro, William L. Karney Nov 2023

Contributions Of Tunneling In 8Π-6Π Electrocyclic Cascade Reactions Of Bicyclo[4.2.0]Octa-2,4-Diene Moieties, Ishika Jain, Claire Castro, William L. Karney

Featured Student Work

Six-electron electrocyclic reactions usually require relatively high temperatures; however recent research has shown that such reactions can occur at significantly lower temperatures in biosynthetic and biomimetic pathways. Pathways resulting in bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-2,4-diene moieties arise from thermally allowed 8π-6π electrocyclization cascade reactions of 1,3,5,7-octatetraenes, as in the biosynthesis of endiandric acids, elysiapyrones, and numerous other natural products. We report multidimensional tunneling calculations to explore the possible contribution of heavy-atom tunneling (e.g. by carbon) to biosynthetic pathways and biomimetic syntheses, and thus to provide a more complete picture of biochemical kinetics. M06-2X/cc-pVDZ calculations on the 8π-6π cascade cyclizations of methylated octatetraene model systems …


Phosphorus And Its Role In Chemical Evolution, Asbel Gonzalez Sep 2023

Phosphorus And Its Role In Chemical Evolution, Asbel Gonzalez

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Phosphorus is a minor element with a cosmic abundance of about 105.5 atoms per 1012 H atoms (Boudreaux, n.d.). Phosphorus was depleted as a volatile throughout the developing solar system, and as a result, volatile forms of phosphorus would have been minimal, even in the colder regions of the solar nebula. Despite its low abundance, phosphorus minerals play key roles in planetary petrology, including through the formation of phosphate minerals that trapped volatiles and rare Earth elements, and in the formation of metal phosphides that may have served as nucleation sites for kamacite and taenite crystal growth in minor planet …


Exploring Students’ Epistemological Understanding Of Atomic Structure Models, Claire V. Ward, Morgan Balabanoff Sep 2023

Exploring Students’ Epistemological Understanding Of Atomic Structure Models, Claire V. Ward, Morgan Balabanoff

The Cardinal Edge

Developing a robust understanding of atomic structure and the nature of matter is foundational across chemistry and STEM courses. The development of this concept is challenging because it relies on models to illustrate something not directly observable. Scientific models are important tools used to explain phenomena, particularly phenomena that are not directly observable. In general chemistry, students are typically asked to consider four different models: (1) the particle model, (2) the nuclear model, (3) the Bohr model, and (4) the Quantum model. Each depiction has its own advantages and limitations, where instructors introduce each model to explain specific parts of …


Exploring Retrieval Difficulties And Self-Confidence In An Assessment Of General Chemistry Students, Karen Julian, Morgan Balabanoff Sep 2023

Exploring Retrieval Difficulties And Self-Confidence In An Assessment Of General Chemistry Students, Karen Julian, Morgan Balabanoff

The Cardinal Edge

Developing self-assessment skills is an important aspect of learning. Framed by assessment developed for the year-long sequence of general chemistry, students were asked to rate their ability to answer conceptual questions. Using cognitive interviews, this study revealed that people rely on a range of characteristics other than content knowledge to assess their confidence, including doubt, retrieval difficulty, and test-taking methods. These findings imply that more explicit instruction may be required to encourage correct self-assessment. Students can develop their metacognitive skills and calibrate their perceived ability by completing examinations meant to emphasize content knowledge gaps.


Addressing Learning Gaps In Acid-Base Chemistry Using Novel Three-Dimensional Models With Learning Module, Gabrielle Marie Grimes Aug 2023

Addressing Learning Gaps In Acid-Base Chemistry Using Novel Three-Dimensional Models With Learning Module, Gabrielle Marie Grimes

Theses and Dissertations

Teaching scientific concepts is very complex and includes the discussion and use of different models that support students’ understanding of particle-level interactions and behavior of chemical phenomena. The presented research describes the development of three-dimensional acid-base models and an accompanying learning module to support students’ understanding of the autoionization of water, acidic strength, pH, and Ka in aqueous acid-base chemistry. The model set includes acid and base models embedded with magnets and removable hydrogen atoms or hydroxide groups to model particle-level interactions. The magnetic models allow students to investigate particle-level processes with student-built models of aqueous acid and base systems. …


Studying The Stability Of Collagen/Heparin Coatings To Be Used In Cell Therapy Applications, Gavin Mussino Aug 2023

Studying The Stability Of Collagen/Heparin Coatings To Be Used In Cell Therapy Applications, Gavin Mussino

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

This honors thesis aims to investigate the reusability and performance of cell coatings for cell therapy applications. Cell therapy, which involves the use of human cells to repair or replace damaged tissues, holds immense potential for medical advancements. However, ensuring the survival and functionality of transplanted cells remains a significant challenge. We focused on studying the effectiveness of coatings applied to cells for improved cell growth and viability. The research project involved the preparation of the coatings using a layer-by-layer method and the subsequent seeding of cells. The coated cells were then subjected to a series of experiments to assess …


Leveraging Non-Covalent Interactions Between Small Organic Molecules And Inorganic Scaffolds In The Design Of Advanced Materials, Jonathan Lefton Jul 2023

Leveraging Non-Covalent Interactions Between Small Organic Molecules And Inorganic Scaffolds In The Design Of Advanced Materials, Jonathan Lefton

Chemistry Theses and Dissertations

Powder diffraction is a powerful tool for studying crystal structures, especially as it relates to interactions of small organic molecules with inorganic compounds. The first part of this dissertation involves small organic ligands interacting with metal-organic framework, MOF-74. The first and simplest iteration involves the crystal structure solution of a neat, liquid loading of n-propylmercaptan to the open metal sites within the MOF-74 pores. Later studies investigate the leveraging of a similarly sized bitopic ligand in the solution loading of 1,2-ethanedithiol, which results in the amorphization of MOF-74. Having no crystallinity, amorphous or severely defected materials can be a …


The Investigation Of Singlet Fission From The Perspective Of Hierarchy Of Pure States (Hops), Tao (James) Chen Jul 2023

The Investigation Of Singlet Fission From The Perspective Of Hierarchy Of Pure States (Hops), Tao (James) Chen

Chemistry Theses and Dissertations

This thesis provides a preliminary investigation of singlet fission from the perspective of Hierarchy of pure states (HOPS), which provides a numerical exact solution for the investigation of a series of open quantum systems. Since the inception of the concept of singlet fission about half a century ago, this photo-physical process has attracted the attention of a multitude of researchers and has been extensively studied theoretically and experimentally. However, these previous methods for the investigation of singlet fission focus more or less on tackling the underlying mechanisms of singlet fission from the perspective of perturbation. So far, the HOPS method …


The Investigation Of Singlet Fission From The Perspective Of Hierarchy Of Pure States (Hops), Tao (James) Chen Jul 2023

The Investigation Of Singlet Fission From The Perspective Of Hierarchy Of Pure States (Hops), Tao (James) Chen

Chemistry Theses and Dissertations

This thesis provides a preliminary investigation of singlet fission from the perspective of Hierarchy of pure states (HOPS), which provides a numerical exact solution for the investigation of a series of open quantum systems. Since the inception of the concept of singlet fission about half a century ago, this photo-physical process has attracted the attention of a multitude of researchers and has been extensively studied theoretically and experimentally. However, these previous methods for the investigation of singlet fission focus more or less on tackling the underlying mechanisms of singlet fission from the perspective of perturbation. So far, the HOPS method …


Implementation And Assessment Of A Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (Cure) In General Chemistry, Alissa Potts Jun 2023

Implementation And Assessment Of A Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (Cure) In General Chemistry, Alissa Potts

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are growing in popularity in the chemistry community to replace traditional laboratory courses. This approach creates a research experience for a larger number of students than traditional research mentorship experiences offered at universities. CUREs can help students take ownership of projects, learn to design and troubleshoot experimental setups, problem-solve experiments that don’t have a “known answer”, and gain confidence in the laboratory. To assess the effectiveness of a general chemistry laboratory-based CURE course with DePaul students, the Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) and the Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) survey were given to …


Cooking With Chemistry: Marshmallows, Admin Stem For Success May 2023

Cooking With Chemistry: Marshmallows, Admin Stem For Success

STEM for Success Showcase

This lesson plan teaches students thermodynamics, foam, and other chemistry topics by cooking marshmallows.


New Methods For Core-Hole Spectroscopy Based On Coupled Cluster Theory, Megan Simons May 2023

New Methods For Core-Hole Spectroscopy Based On Coupled Cluster Theory, Megan Simons

Chemistry Theses and Dissertations

X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) is a method used to investigate atomic local structure and electronic states. Coupled cluster method is a numerical method used for describing many-body systems and electron correlation in a wavefunction. When equation-of-motion coupled cluster is used in XAS calculations, the ground state is applied to the excitation operator, which excites or ionizes the electron. This causes a large orbital relaxation error, normally ~5 eV, which leads to the need for triple excitations in order to obtain accurate results.

This dissertation introduces a coupled cluster method that uses "transition potential" reference orbitals to reduce the orbital relaxation …


Celebrating Native Chemists And Encouraging More Native Talent In Stem, Lisa Villa May 2023

Celebrating Native Chemists And Encouraging More Native Talent In Stem, Lisa Villa

Staff publications

This editorial was written to accompany cover art submitted to the American Chemical Society's 2023 ACS Diversity & Inclusion Cover Art Series, and selected as the July cover for Environmental Science & Technology Letters. The artwork design features several prominent chemists who are also strong advocates for increasing the number of Native American/First Nation scientists. They recognize how cultural beliefs may often be in conflict with scientific conversations, but have been working to attract and encourage Native American talent in the STEM fields.

The published cover art is included as a supplemental file.


The Novel Chlorination Of Zirconium Metal And Its Application To A Recycling Protocol For Zircaloy Cladding From Spent Nuclear Fuel Rods, Breanna K. Vestal May 2023

The Novel Chlorination Of Zirconium Metal And Its Application To A Recycling Protocol For Zircaloy Cladding From Spent Nuclear Fuel Rods, Breanna K. Vestal

Doctoral Dissertations

A novel protocol has been developed for the chemical removal of zirconium alloy (Zircaloy) cladding from spent nuclear fuel rods and subsequent isolation and purification of nuclear-grade zirconium chloride derived therefrom. This protocol is based on the chemistry developed from two new scientific findings.

First, two new oxidative chlorination reactions have been discovered for zirconium metal. In both solvents, zirconium can be quantitatively chlorinated at temperatures less than 150°C, with the operative equations seen below. In sulfur monochloride, the reaction is completed in 2 – 4 hours via surface etching, exhibiting 0th order kinetic behavior. The elemental sulfur byproduct …


Quantitative Analysis Of The Proteomic Selectivity Of Acidic Reductive Alkylation Of Peptides, Connor Jewell May 2023

Quantitative Analysis Of The Proteomic Selectivity Of Acidic Reductive Alkylation Of Peptides, Connor Jewell

Honors Scholar Theses

Proteome quantification is a complicated process which takes on many methods, usually involving peptide derivatization and complex mass spectral analysis. Scores of techniques have been utilized to address issues of incomplete quantification. The implementation of IPTL labeling, or isobaric peptide terminal labeling, is a recent addition to the literature, which exploits the supposedly selective labeling of N-termini of tryptic peptides from the C-termini of lysine residues due to differences in basicity. This method has been shown to improve quantitation by reducing spectral complexity and provide more accurate and reproducible results on peptide abundance. Investigations into the selectivity of terminal derivatization …


Synthesis And Characterization Of Rhenium 2,2′-Pyridylnaphthyridine Metal Complexes, Benjamin F. Solomon Apr 2023

Synthesis And Characterization Of Rhenium 2,2′-Pyridylnaphthyridine Metal Complexes, Benjamin F. Solomon

Honors Theses

Rhenium (Re) is a group 7 heavy 5d transition metal in the same family as manganese (Mn) and technetium (Tc). Re-carbonyl complexes are known to be catalysts for many different kinds of reactions from C-C bond formation to reduction reactions like CO2 reduction (CO2RR)1,2. With this in mind, we have prepared a set of six Re-carbonyl complexes of 2,2′-pyridyl-1,6-naphthyridine (1,6- pynap) and 2,2′-pyridyl-1,8-naphthyridine (1,8-pynap), a redox non-innocent ligand containing a bpy moiety as well as an additional aryl nitrogen binding location at which another metal-ligand bond could form. We have synthesized these complexes as precursors …


Methods For Increasing The Electron Richness Of Iron Tricarbonyl Diimine Complexes, Francesca Lombardi, Joseph Maher, Sean Peloquin Apr 2023

Methods For Increasing The Electron Richness Of Iron Tricarbonyl Diimine Complexes, Francesca Lombardi, Joseph Maher, Sean Peloquin

Chemistry & Biochemistry Student Scholarship

Francesca Lombardi ’24, Major: Chemistry

Joseph Maher ’25, Major: Chemistry

Sean Peloquin ’26, Major: Biochemistry

Faculty Mentor: Dr. Maria Carroll, Chemistry and Biochemistry

The goal of our research is to synthesize new iron complexes that can reduce carbon dioxide. Increasing the electron richness of iron tricarbonyl diimine complexes, which have been synthesized previously in the Carroll research group, will increase the likelihood of a reaction with carbon dioxide occurring. We have taken two approaches to changing the electron density in the complexes. First, we reacted the complex Fe((CF3)2ArDABMe)(CO)¬3 with the reducing agent potassium on graphite, in order to reduce either …


Magnetic Slime, Admin Stem For Success Apr 2023

Magnetic Slime, Admin Stem For Success

STEM for Success Showcase

Students learn chemistry and physics by making magnetic slime.


Invisible Ink, Admin Stem For Success Apr 2023

Invisible Ink, Admin Stem For Success

STEM for Success Showcase

Students create invisible ink to hide and reveal a message using chemistry.


Kinetic Analysis Of Glu115ala Cytosolic Human Malate Dehydrogenase Mutation Shows A Change In Activity On Non-Native Substrate Phenylpyruvate, Kailey Paar Apr 2023

Kinetic Analysis Of Glu115ala Cytosolic Human Malate Dehydrogenase Mutation Shows A Change In Activity On Non-Native Substrate Phenylpyruvate, Kailey Paar

Chemistry & Biochemistry Student Scholarship

The cytosolic human enzyme, malate dehydrogenase (MDH1), is believed to have a significant effect on the proliferation of cancerous cells. This enzyme oxidizes NADH to NAD+ as it converts oxaloacetate (OAA) to malate. This oxidation of NADH provides the needed NAD+ to cancer cells, which require NAD+ as they upregulate glycolysis in aerobic conditions. Targeting MDH1 can reveal new therapeutic treatments for cancer by preventing the conversion of OAA to malate and depleting NAD+ stores in cancer cells, which can be done by mutating residues in the enzyme and assessing the change in activity. Here we show the replacement of …


Sugar Water Density Activity, Admin Stem For Success Apr 2023

Sugar Water Density Activity, Admin Stem For Success

STEM for Success Showcase

In this activity students learn about density using sugar water. Attached is the activity's lesson plan and a teacher reflection on the activity.


Physical And Chemical Changes Lesson Plan, Admin Stem For Success Apr 2023

Physical And Chemical Changes Lesson Plan, Admin Stem For Success

STEM for Success Showcase

Lesson plan and video for an activity on the difference between physical and chemical changes.