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2008

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Articles 31 - 60 of 5920

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effect Of Oxidant And The Non-Oxidant Alteration Of Cellular Thiol Concentration On The Formation Of Protein Mixed-Disulfides In Hek 293 Cells, Jasen Lee Gilge, Michael Fisher, Yuh-Cherng Chai Dec 2008

The Effect Of Oxidant And The Non-Oxidant Alteration Of Cellular Thiol Concentration On The Formation Of Protein Mixed-Disulfides In Hek 293 Cells, Jasen Lee Gilge, Michael Fisher, Yuh-Cherng Chai

Chemistry

Cellular molecules possess various mechanisms in responding to oxidant stress. In terms of protein responses, protein S-glutathionylation is a unique post-translational modification of protein reactive cysteines forming disulfides with glutathione molecules. This modification has been proposed to play roles in antioxidant, regulatory and signaling in cells under oxidant stress. Recently, the increased level of protein S-glutathionylation has been linked with the development of diseases. In this report, specific S-glutathionylated proteins were demonstrated in human embryonic kidney 293 cells treated with two different oxidative reagents: diamide and hydrogen peroxide. Diamide is a chemical oxidizing agent whereas hydrogen peroxide is a physiological ...


Sex Differences In Mu-Opioid Receptor Expression In The Rat Midbrain Periaqueductal Gray Are Essential For Eliciting Sex Differences In Morphine Analgesia, Dayna R. Loyd, Xioaya Wang, Anne Z. Murphy Phd Dec 2008

Sex Differences In Mu-Opioid Receptor Expression In The Rat Midbrain Periaqueductal Gray Are Essential For Eliciting Sex Differences In Morphine Analgesia, Dayna R. Loyd, Xioaya Wang, Anne Z. Murphy Phd

Neuroscience Institute Faculty Publications

Opioid-based narcotics are the most widely prescribed therapeutic agent for the alleviation of persistent pain; however, it is becoming increasingly clear that morphine is significantly less potent in women compared with men. Morphine primarily binds to mu-opioid receptors (MORs), and the periaqueductal gray (PAG) contains a dense population of MOR-expressing neurons. Via its descending projections to the rostral ventromedial medulla and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, the PAG is considered an essential neural substrate for opioid-based analgesia. We hypothesized that MOR expression in the PAG was sexually dimorphic, and that these sex differences contribute to the observed sex ...


Genotyping And Drug Resistance Patterns Of M. Tuberculosis Strains In Pakistan., Mahnaz Tanveer, Zahra Hasan, Amna R Siddiqui, Asho Ali, Akbar Kanji, Solomon Ghebremicheal, Rumina Hasan Dec 2008

Genotyping And Drug Resistance Patterns Of M. Tuberculosis Strains In Pakistan., Mahnaz Tanveer, Zahra Hasan, Amna R Siddiqui, Asho Ali, Akbar Kanji, Solomon Ghebremicheal, Rumina Hasan

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background:The incidence of tuberculosis in Pakistan is 181/100,000 population. However, information about transmission and geographical prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and their evolutionary genetics as well as drug resistance remains limited. Our objective was to determine the clonal composition, evolutionary genetics and drug resistance of M. tuberculosis isolates from different regions of the country.

Methods:

M. tuberculosis strains isolated (2003-2005) from specimens submitted to the laboratory through collection units nationwide were included. Drug susceptibility was performed and strains were spoligotyped.

Results:

Of 926 M. tuberculosis strains studied, 721(78%) were grouped into 59 "shared types", while 205 ...


Applying Marine Protected Area Design Models In Large Estuarine Systems, Roman Zajac, Amanda E. Neely Dec 2008

Applying Marine Protected Area Design Models In Large Estuarine Systems, Roman Zajac, Amanda E. Neely

Biology and Environmental Science Faculty Publications

Several types of design models are currently being used to develop marine protected areas (MPAs) for conservation of coastal and pelagic ecosystems. However, few studies have applied these models in large estuaries which have unique characteristics that need to be considered in MPA design, including strong physical, chemical and biological gradients and significant human impacts. We explored how one design model, MARXAN, can be applied to estuarine systems by developing MPA design scenarios for Long Island Sound, an estuary in the northeastern USA. Using sedimentary texture as a proxy for habitats, we modeled and tested several scenarios where conservation goals ...


Insig2 Gene Polymorphism Is Associated With Increased Subcutaneous Fat In Women And Poor Response To Resistance Training In Men, Funda Orkunoglu-Suer, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Priscilla Clarkson, Paul Thompson, Theodore Angelopoulos, Paul Godron, Niall Moyna, Linda Pescatello, Paul Visich, Robert Zoeller, Brennan Harmon, Richard Seip, Eric Hoffman, Joseph Devaney Dec 2008

Insig2 Gene Polymorphism Is Associated With Increased Subcutaneous Fat In Women And Poor Response To Resistance Training In Men, Funda Orkunoglu-Suer, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Priscilla Clarkson, Paul Thompson, Theodore Angelopoulos, Paul Godron, Niall Moyna, Linda Pescatello, Paul Visich, Robert Zoeller, Brennan Harmon, Richard Seip, Eric Hoffman, Joseph Devaney

Priscilla M. Clarkson

Background A common SNP upstream of the INSIG2 gene, rs7566605 (g.-10,1025G>C, Chr2:118,552,255, NT_022135.15), was reported to be associated with obesity (Body Mass Index, [BMI]) in a genome-wide association scan using the Framingham Heart Study but has not been reproduced in other cohorts. As BMI is a relatively insensitive measure of adiposity that is subject to many confounding variables, we sought to determine the relationship between the INSIG2 SNP and subcutaneous fat volumes measured by MRI in a young adult population. Methods We genotyped the INSIG2 SNP rs7566605 in college-aged population enrolled in a ...


Northeast Research Station Watertown, South Dakota Annual Progress Report, 2008, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department Dec 2008

Northeast Research Station Watertown, South Dakota Annual Progress Report, 2008, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department

Agricultural Experiment Station and Research Farm Annual Reports

This is the 2008 annual progress report for the Northeast Research Station in Watertown, South Dakota. This report is issued by the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and the South Dakota State University Plant Science Department. This report includes weather data, yield comparisons, crop performance trials, corn trials, soybean trials, winter wheat performance testing, Barley Foliar information, weed and pest control, herbicide demonstrations, canola and flax variety trials and more.


Towards The Total Synthesis Of Thioviridamide: Thiyl Radical Approach To The Beta-Thioenamide Linkage Formation, Jung-Hoon Kang Dec 2008

Towards The Total Synthesis Of Thioviridamide: Thiyl Radical Approach To The Beta-Thioenamide Linkage Formation, Jung-Hoon Kang

Theses and Dissertations

We developed an approach to the β-thioenamide linkage contained in the S-(2-aminovinyl)cysteine (avCys) residue of thioviridamide.1,2 Kinetic and thermodynamic control of radical additions of thiols to ynamides were studied for the formation of β-thioenamide linkage. Thiyl radicals are electrophilic and ynamides are electron-rich alkynes. This complementary polarity of the radical and acceptor increases the likelihood of a successful radical addition reaction. Because little is known about these types of compounds (β-thioenamides), we were unsure what kinds of yields and stereoselectivities (cis vs. trans) to expect. The adduct stability is another issue to consider. Fortunately, under typical ...


Ethanol Sensitivity And Tolerance Of Rat Neuronal Bk Channels: A Dissertation, Patricia M. Wynne Dec 2008

Ethanol Sensitivity And Tolerance Of Rat Neuronal Bk Channels: A Dissertation, Patricia M. Wynne

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

BK channels are well studied targets of acute ethanol action. They play a prominent role in neuronal excitability and have been shown to play a significant role in behavioral ethanol tolerance in invertebrates. The focus of my work centers on the effects of alcohol on the BK channel and comprises studies that examine how subcellular location affects acute ethanol sensitivity and how duration of acute alcohol exposure impacts the development of rapid tolerance. My results also provide potential mechanisms which underlie acute sensitivity and rapid tolerance.

I first explore BK channel sensitivity to ethanol in the three compartments (dendrite, cell ...


New National Extension Site Has Information On Dealing With Economic Crisis, Elbert Dickey, Dan Moser Dec 2008

New National Extension Site Has Information On Dealing With Economic Crisis, Elbert Dickey, Dan Moser

IANR News Releases

Lincoln, Ne & the nation's land-grant universities, including the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, have gathered myriad resources on-line to help Americans deal with the financial crisis.

The site is available through eXtension.org, via a link at www.extension.unl.edu (http://www.extension.unl.edu/).

Elbert Dickey, dean and director of UNL Extension, said the site is an excellent example of what eXtension does best.

"UNL Extension and our counterparts across the country created eXtension for just this purpose to get the 'best of the best' research-based, unbiased information from all over the U.S. into the hands of Americans ...


S Corporation Distributions And Liquidations, Neil E. Harl Dec 2008

S Corporation Distributions And Liquidations, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

The handling of distributions and liquidations in S corporations can be confusing at best and our article in the May 30, 2008 Agricultural Law Digest1 in retrospect did little to clarify the situation. The important point is that S corporation distributions are handled differently than S corporation liquidations.2


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Dec 2008

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Elections And Economic Turbulence In Brazil: Candidates, Voters, And Investors, Tony Petros Spanakos, Lucio R. Renno Dec 2008

Elections And Economic Turbulence In Brazil: Candidates, Voters, And Investors, Tony Petros Spanakos, Lucio R. Renno

Department of Political Science and Law Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The relation between elections and the economy in Latin America might be understood by considering the agency of candidates and the issue of policy preference congruence between investors and voters. The preference congruence model proposed in this article highlights political risk in emerging markets. Certain risk features increase the role of candidate campaign rhetoric and investor preferences in elections. When politicians propose policies that can appease voters and investors, elections may have a limited effect on economic indicators, such as inflation. But when voter and investor priorities differ significantly, deterioration of economic indicators is more likely. Moreover, voter and investor ...


Organization And Postembryonic Development Of Glial Cells In The Adult Central Brain Of Drosophila, Takeshi Awasaki, Sen-Lin Lai, Kei Ito, Tzumin Lee Dec 2008

Organization And Postembryonic Development Of Glial Cells In The Adult Central Brain Of Drosophila, Takeshi Awasaki, Sen-Lin Lai, Kei Ito, Tzumin Lee

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Glial cells exist throughout the nervous system, and play essential roles in various aspects of neural development and function. Distinct types of glia may govern diverse glial functions. To determine the roles of glia requires systematic characterization of glia diversity and development. In the adult Drosophila central brain, we identify five different types of glia based on its location, morphology, marker expression, and development. Perineurial and subperineurial glia reside in two separate single-cell layers on the brain surface, cortex glia form a glial mesh in the brain cortex where neuronal cell bodies reside, while ensheathing and astrocyte-like glia enwrap and ...


Quantitative Analysis Of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Within Copy Number Variation, Soohyun Lee, Simon Kasif, Zhiping Weng, Charles R. Cantor Dec 2008

Quantitative Analysis Of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Within Copy Number Variation, Soohyun Lee, Simon Kasif, Zhiping Weng, Charles R. Cantor

Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology Publications

BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used extensively in genetics and epidemiology studies. Traditionally, SNPs that did not pass the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test were excluded from these analyses. Many investigators have addressed possible causes for departure from HWE, including genotyping errors, population admixture and segmental duplication. Recent large-scale surveys have revealed abundant structural variations in the human genome, including copy number variations (CNVs). This suggests that a significant number of SNPs must be within these regions, which may cause deviation from HWE.

RESULTS: We performed a Bayesian analysis on the potential effect of copy number variation, segmental duplication ...


Semantic Sensor Web, Amit P. Sheth, Cory Henson, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan Dec 2008

Semantic Sensor Web, Amit P. Sheth, Cory Henson, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan

Kno.e.sis Publications

No abstract provided.


Index To Volume 19, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest Dec 2008

Index To Volume 19, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


An Assessment Of A Low-Cost Visual Tracking System (Vts) To Detect And Compensate For Patient Motion During Spect, Joseph E. Mcnamara, Karen Johnson, Bing Feng, Songxiang Gu, Philippe P. Bruyant, Michael A. Gennert, Michael A. King Dec 2008

An Assessment Of A Low-Cost Visual Tracking System (Vts) To Detect And Compensate For Patient Motion During Spect, Joseph E. Mcnamara, Karen Johnson, Bing Feng, Songxiang Gu, Philippe P. Bruyant, Michael A. Gennert, Michael A. King

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Patient motion is inevitable in SPECT and PET due to the lengthy period of time patients are imaged and patient motion can degrade diagnostic accuracy. The goal of our studies is to perfect a methodology for tracking and correcting patient motion when it occurs. In this paper we report on enhancements to the calibration, camera stability, accuracy of motion tracking, and temporal synchronization of a low-cost visual tracking system (VTS) we are developing. The purpose of the VTS is to track the motion of retro-reflective markers on stretchy bands wrapped about the chest and abdomen of patients. We have improved ...


Missed Visits And Mortality Among Patients Establishing Initial Outpatient Hiv Treatment, Michael J. Mugavero, Hui-Yi Lin, James H. Willig, Andrew O. Westfall, Kimberly B. Ulett, Justin S. Routman, Sarah Abroms, James L. Raper, Michael S. Saag, Jeroan J. Allison Dec 2008

Missed Visits And Mortality Among Patients Establishing Initial Outpatient Hiv Treatment, Michael J. Mugavero, Hui-Yi Lin, James H. Willig, Andrew O. Westfall, Kimberly B. Ulett, Justin S. Routman, Sarah Abroms, James L. Raper, Michael S. Saag, Jeroan J. Allison

Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Publications

BACKGROUND: Dramatic increases in the number of patients requiring linkage to treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are anticipated in response to updated Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV testing recommendations that advocate routine, opt-out HIV testing.

METHODS: A retrospective analysis nested within a prospective HIV clinical cohort study evaluated patients who established initial outpatient treatment for HIV infection at the University of Alabama at Birmingham 1917 HIV/AIDS Clinic from 1 January 2000 through 31 December 2005. Survival methods were used to evaluate the impact of missed visits during the first year of care on subsequent mortality ...


Mutation Of A Tadr Protein Leads To Rhodopsin And Gq-Dependent Retinal Degeneration In Drosophila, Lina Ni, Peiyi Guo, Keith Reddig, Mirna Mitra, Hong-Sheng Li Dec 2008

Mutation Of A Tadr Protein Leads To Rhodopsin And Gq-Dependent Retinal Degeneration In Drosophila, Lina Ni, Peiyi Guo, Keith Reddig, Mirna Mitra, Hong-Sheng Li

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The Drosophila photoreceptor is a model system for genetic study of retinal degeneration. Many gene mutations cause fly photoreceptor degeneration, either because of excessive stimulation of the visual transduction (phototransduction) cascade, or through apoptotic pathways that in many cases involve a visual arrestin Arr2. Here we report a gene named tadr (for torn and diminished rhabdomeres), which, when mutated, leads to photoreceptor degeneration through a different mechanism. Degeneration in the tadr mutant is characterized by shrunk and disrupted rhabdomeres, the light sensory organelles of photoreceptor. The TADR protein interacted in vitro with the major light receptor Rh1 rhodopsin, and genetic ...


Sec6p Anchors The Assembled Exocyst Complex At Sites Of Secretion, Jennifer A. Songer, Mary Munson Dec 2008

Sec6p Anchors The Assembled Exocyst Complex At Sites Of Secretion, Jennifer A. Songer, Mary Munson

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The exocyst is an essential protein complex required for targeting and fusion of secretory vesicles to sites of exocytosis at the plasma membrane. To study the function of the exocyst complex, we performed a structure-based mutational analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae exocyst subunit Sec6p. Two "patches" of highly conserved residues are present on the surface of Sec6p; mutation of either patch does not compromise protein stability. Nevertheless, replacement of SEC6 with the patch mutants results in severe temperature-sensitive growth and secretion defects. At nonpermissive conditions, although trafficking of secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane is unimpaired, none of the exocyst ...


Average Value Of Iowa Farmland Nears $4,500 An Acre In 2008 Survey, Michael Duffy Dec 2008

Average Value Of Iowa Farmland Nears $4,500 An Acre In 2008 Survey, Michael Duffy

Integrated Crop Management News

The average value of an acre of farmland in Iowa reached $4,468 in 2008, continuing to increase for the ninth year in a row, according to an annual survey conducted by Iowa State University Extension. Mike Duffy, ISU Extension farm economist who conducts the survey, said the indicators toward the end of the year imply the upward trend may be slowing as the national economy battles recessionary pressures.


The Role Of Msa In Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Formation, Karthik Sambanthamoorthy, Antony Schwartz, Vijayaraj Nagarajan, Mohamed O. Elasri Dec 2008

The Role Of Msa In Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Formation, Karthik Sambanthamoorthy, Antony Schwartz, Vijayaraj Nagarajan, Mohamed O. Elasri

Faculty Publications

Background

Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that forms biofilms. The global regulator sarA is essential for biofilm formation. Since the modulator of sarA (msa) is required for full expression of sarA and regulates several virulence factors, we examined the capacity of the msa mutant to form biofilm.

Results

We found that mutation of msa results in reduced expression of sarA in biofilm and that the msa mutant formed a weak and unstable biofilm. The msa mutant is able to adhere to surfaces and begins to form biofilm but fails to mature indicating that the defect of the msa mutant ...


Gokilaht®-S 5ec Testing On Culex Quinquefasciatus Say Larvae For An Early Detection In Esterase And Monooxygenase Resistance System, Soam Prakash, Gavendra Singh Dec 2008

Gokilaht®-S 5ec Testing On Culex Quinquefasciatus Say Larvae For An Early Detection In Esterase And Monooxygenase Resistance System, Soam Prakash, Gavendra Singh

Soam Prakash

In this paper, we have studied the efficacy of
Gokilaht®-S 5EC (d,d-trans-cyphenothrin), a synthetic
pyrethroid, when applied on all larval instars of Culex
quinquefasciatus Say in laboratory conditions. We could
observe this with six statistically significant concentrations
at 0.0005, 0.0025, 0.075, 0.075, 0.1, and 0.2 μL/L,
respectively. The esterase was detected by SDS-PAGE
analysis and monooxygenase with microtiter plate assay.
The esterase and monooxygenase were detected at concentrations
of 0.005 and 0.075 μL/L, respectively. The outcome
of these assays was discussed and we could see a pattern for ...


A New Species Of Gobiid Fish,Luciogobius From Ryukyus, Japan(Teleostei: Gobiidae), I-Shiung Chen, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Hiroshi Senou Dec 2008

A New Species Of Gobiid Fish,Luciogobius From Ryukyus, Japan(Teleostei: Gobiidae), I-Shiung Chen, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Hiroshi Senou

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

A new gobiid fish has been collected from Ryukyu Archipelagos of Japan. This species is described herein as a new species, Luciogobius ryukyuensis sp. nov. It is characterized by the following unique combination of features: (1) second dorsal fin rays: I/11 and anal fin rays I/11; (2) pectoral fin rays 16 and with one upper, very short free soft ray; (3) vertebral count 37; and (4) specific coloration: head and body with many rounded light creamy white spots above creamy yellow to yellowish brown background. A diagnostic key to all nominal species of Luciogobius from West Pacific are ...


Identification Of G1-Regulated Genes In Normally Cycling Human Cells, Maroun J. Beyrouthy, Karen E. Alexander, Amy Baldwin, Michael L. Whitfield, Hank W. Bass, Dan Mcgee, Myra M. Hurt Dec 2008

Identification Of G1-Regulated Genes In Normally Cycling Human Cells, Maroun J. Beyrouthy, Karen E. Alexander, Amy Baldwin, Michael L. Whitfield, Hank W. Bass, Dan Mcgee, Myra M. Hurt

Dartmouth Scholarship

Background: Obtaining synchronous cell populations is essential for cell-cycle studies. Methods such as serum withdrawal or use of drugs which block cells at specific points in the cell cycle alter cellular events upon re-entry into the cell cycle. Regulatory events occurring in early G1 phase of a new cell cycle could have been overlooked. Methodology and Findings: We used a robotic mitotic shake-off apparatus to select cells in late mitosis for genome-wide gene expression studies. Two separate microarray experiments were conducted, one which involved isolation of RNA hourly for several hours from synchronous cell populations, and one experiment which examined ...


Comparison Of Two Training Programs On Acceleration Out Of The Break In American Football, Micah Adam Alba Dec 2008

Comparison Of Two Training Programs On Acceleration Out Of The Break In American Football, Micah Adam Alba

Theses and Dissertations

Athletes of American football need the ability to stop, start, and reach top speed in an efficient manner. Football players on the defensive side of the ball require the skill of stopping a backward run and accelerating to a forward run. This action is termed the break. Football players receive year-round training in an effort to improve performance. Yet, many times, these athletes may not focus specifically on the muscular systems that are unique to the position they play. The law of specificity states that the more specific the training is for the action required, the more beneficial the outcome ...


Smokejumper Obituary: Parker, Charles D. "Chuck" (Missoula 1947), National Smokejumper Association Dec 2008

Smokejumper Obituary: Parker, Charles D. "Chuck" (Missoula 1947), National Smokejumper Association

Smokejumper Obituaries

No abstract provided.


Smokejumper Obituary: Cross, Gordon C. (Cave Junction 1951), National Smokejumper Association Dec 2008

Smokejumper Obituary: Cross, Gordon C. (Cave Junction 1951), National Smokejumper Association

Smokejumper Obituaries

No abstract provided.


Elucidating The Role Of The Α7 Nicotinic Receptor In The Etiology Of Schizophrenia., Michelle Johnson Chandley Dec 2008

Elucidating The Role Of The Α7 Nicotinic Receptor In The Etiology Of Schizophrenia., Michelle Johnson Chandley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The α7 subunit of the nicotinic receptor, a ligand gated ion channel with an affinity for nicotine, has long been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia due to the extremely high rate of smoking within the patient population. However, the exact role of the receptor has never fully been determined. In the following studies, various functions the receptor may assume in disease state are evaluated. There is a strong relationship between the immune system and schizophrenia, with the α7 subunit possibly serving as the link between the two. One of the following studies looks at the possibility of the receptor ...


Urinary Excretion Of (1-3)-Beta-D-Glucans., Debra K. Head Dec 2008

Urinary Excretion Of (1-3)-Beta-D-Glucans., Debra K. Head

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

(1→3)-β-D-Glucans are carbohydrate polymers that are present in the cell wall of various fungi and bacteria; they are pathogen associated molecular patterns that circulate during infection and modulate immunity. Our laboratory has previously established the pharmacokinetics of intravenously and orally administered glucans; the present studies investigated the renal excretion of (1→3)-β-D-glucans following intravenous and oral administration. Three fluorescently-labeled glucans were administered to adult male rats in the presence or absence of toxic challenge. Urine specimens were collected and analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography and GPC/MALLS. 71 ± 3% of fluorescence remained in the >5K MWCO ...