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Indiana Law Journal

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Patent Inconsistency, Saurabh Vishnubhakat Jan 2022

Patent Inconsistency, Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Indiana Law Journal

Despite the promise of efficiency through the use of expert agency adjudication in U.S. patent law, administrative substitution continues to fall short. In a variety of ways, the decade-old system of Patent Office adjudication is simply an additional place to litigate rather than the robust technocratic alternative it was meant to be. These problems have arisen from important defects in the statutory design, but also from the enormous expansion and ascendancy of the Patent Office itself. Moreover, while duplicative litigation over patent validity is recognized and criticized, its scale and scope has eluded detailed empirical analysis until now. This Article …


Mandating Board Diversity, Sung Eun (Summer) Kim Jan 2022

Mandating Board Diversity, Sung Eun (Summer) Kim

Indiana Law Journal

California’s Assembly Bill 979 (AB-979) requires companies that are based in California to have a specified minimum number of directors from underrepresented communities. A “director from an underrepresented community” is defined as an individual who self-identifies as Black, African American, Hispanic, Latino, Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, Native Hawaiian, or Alaska Native, or who selfidentifies as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender. AB-979 received much attention for being the first law to mandate greater diversity on corporate boards in terms of race and sexual orientation. Senate Bill 826 (SB-826), which was introduced two years prior, was the first U.S. legislative effort …


Stealing Organs?, Benjamin Mcmichael Jan 2022

Stealing Organs?, Benjamin Mcmichael

Indiana Law Journal

Every nine minutes, a new person joins a waitlist for an organ transplant, and every day, seventeen people die waiting for an organ that will never come. Because the need for organ transplants far outstrips the number of available organs, the policies and rules governing organ allocation in the United States are critically important and highly contentious. Recently, proponents of a new allocation system—one focused more on sharing organs across the nation instead of allocating organs primarily to local transplant candidates—have gained ground. Bolstered by two separate lawsuits in the past five years, advocates of greater national sharing have succeeded …


Lexipol's Fight Against Police Reform, Ingrid V. Eagly, Joanna C. Schwartz Jan 2022

Lexipol's Fight Against Police Reform, Ingrid V. Eagly, Joanna C. Schwartz

Indiana Law Journal

We are in the midst of a critically important moment in police reform. National and local attention is fixed on how to reduce the number of people killed and injured by the police. One approach—which has been recognized for decades to reduce police killings—is to limit police power to use force.

This Article is the first to uncover how an often-overlooked private company, Lexipol LLC, has become one of the most powerful voices pushing against reform of use-of-force standards. Founded in 2003, Lexipol now writes police policies and trainings for over one-fifth of American law enforcement agencies. As this Article …


"On The Eve Of Destruction": Courts Confronting The Climate Emergency, Mary Christina Wood Jan 2022

"On The Eve Of Destruction": Courts Confronting The Climate Emergency, Mary Christina Wood

Indiana Law Journal

In the dim and smokey twilight, with only bare necessities in tow, a family rushes to escape the wildfire racing toward them. Elsewhere, a household evacuates just ahead of a category five hurricane, perhaps not for the first time. Along the coastlines, countless others are resigned to looking on as their homesites erode into the inexorably rising surf. At this moment, millions of Americans are forced to reckon with the horrors of the climate catastrophe, and the number of such people who now viscerally grasp our grim climate reality grows every day. Even the judges of this nation prove no …


Rethinking Juvenile Rehabilitation: Presumptive Waiver And Alternative Sentencing In Indiana, S. Reese Sobol Ii Jan 2022

Rethinking Juvenile Rehabilitation: Presumptive Waiver And Alternative Sentencing In Indiana, S. Reese Sobol Ii

Indiana Law Journal

Indiana’s juvenile justice system, like all systems of juvenile justice, is premised on rehabilitation. And while Indiana is far from an outdated, overly punitive system, there are several tangible opportunities for improvement. Indiana enacted an alternative sentencing scheme for juvenile offenders waived into adult court in 2013, but alternative sentencing has not been implemented in an effective manner yet. Furthermore, Indiana’s statutory system of waiver contains several aspects that are inconsistent with, or simply fail to account for, modern social science understandings.

This Comment seeks to expound upon relevant social science principles within the context of juvenile justice in order …


Delusions, Moral Incapacity, And The Case For Moral Wrongfulness, Lea Johnston Jan 2022

Delusions, Moral Incapacity, And The Case For Moral Wrongfulness, Lea Johnston

Indiana Law Journal

Responsibility is a legal—not medical—construct. However, science can be useful in exposing faulty assumptions underlying current doctrine or practice, illuminating changes in practice or evidentiary standards to better effectuate the law’s animating purpose, and even suggesting updates to legal standards to account for modern understandings of functionalities of concern. This Article uses the science of delusions to assess the law regarding, and practice of establishing, criminal irresponsibility for defendants with psychosis. Over the last two decades, researchers from the cognitive sciences have compiled strong evidence that a host of cognitive and emotional impairments contribute to the origin and maintenance of …


Acquisitions Entrepreneurship: One Solution To The Looming Business Succession Crisis, David Nows Jan 2022

Acquisitions Entrepreneurship: One Solution To The Looming Business Succession Crisis, David Nows

Indiana Law Journal

In the coming years, there will be a growing supply of small businesses held by aging owners that need to execute a succession plan, transitioning the business to a new owner that can carry the business forward in future years. Unfortunately, very few of these Baby Boomer-led businesses have a plan for who will take over for the primary business owner when the time comes, creating an emerging leadership crisis. However, there is an underutilized acquisition strategy that allows for a motivated and skilled entrepreneur to team with a small group of investors to search for (and ultimately to purchase) …


Do Social Movements Spur Corporate Change? The Rise Of “Metoo Termination Rights” In Ceo Contracts, Rachel Arnow-Richman, James Hicks, Steven Davidoff Solomon Jan 2022

Do Social Movements Spur Corporate Change? The Rise Of “Metoo Termination Rights” In Ceo Contracts, Rachel Arnow-Richman, James Hicks, Steven Davidoff Solomon

Indiana Law Journal

Do social movements spur corporate change? This Article sheds new empirical and theoretical light on the issue through an original study of executive contracts before and after MeToo. The MeToo movement, beginning in late 2017, exposed a workplace culture seemingly permissive of high-level, sex-based misconduct. Companies typically responded slowly and imposed few consequences on perpetrators, often allowing them to depart with lucrative exit packages. Why did companies reward rather than penalize bad actors, and has the movement disrupted this culture of complicity?

The passage of time since the height of the movement allows us to investigate these issues empirically, using …


The Limits Of Regulation By Insurance, Kenneth S. Abraham, Daniel Benjamin Schwarcz Jan 2022

The Limits Of Regulation By Insurance, Kenneth S. Abraham, Daniel Benjamin Schwarcz

Indiana Law Journal

Insurance is an enormously powerful and beneficial method of spreading risk and compensating for loss. But even insurance has its limits. A new and misleading aspiration for insurance—that it also can and often does substitute for or significantly complement health and safety regulation—is increasingly in vogue. This vision starts from the uncontroversial recognition that insurers typically adopt measures designed to counteract “moral hazard,” the tendency of insurance to blunt policyholders’ incentives to take care. But proponents of this vision go on to contend that the risk-reducing potential of insurance is significantly more extensive than is traditionally imagined, because insurers are …


Regulating Noncompetes Beyond The Common Law: The Uniform Restrictive Employment Agreement Act, Stewart J. Schwab Jan 2022

Regulating Noncompetes Beyond The Common Law: The Uniform Restrictive Employment Agreement Act, Stewart J. Schwab

Indiana Law Journal

The common law has never treated a post-employment noncompete agreement between employer and employee like an ordinary contract. Rather, a court will enforce a noncompete only if it is reasonably tailored in time, geography, and scope of business to further a legitimate employer interest. Suppressing competition is an understandable but not legitimate interest.

While the common-law approach works well enough for some occupations, it is problematic for both workers and employers in many cases. It is a challenge for workers who don’t know about the noncompete until after starting work, for lowwage workers who are unlikely to have trade secrets …


The Next Pandemic Might Be A Petdemic, Hillary Greene Jan 2022

The Next Pandemic Might Be A Petdemic, Hillary Greene

Indiana Law Journal

A new scientific study shows that COVID-19 can be transmitted from cats to humans. Luckily, this channel of transmission seems extremely rare, at least thus far. But next time—and there will be a next time—we may not be so fortunate. This Article addresses this underappreciated risk of what I term a “petdemic”—a pandemic or epidemic that involves significant disease transmission between pets and humans. With nearly 70% of U.S. households owning pets, a petdemic could be catastrophic. One of our go-to responses for even perceived petdemics, honed over the last century, is to slaughter our pets. This pioneering Article proposes …


Illusory Privacy, Thomas Haley Jan 2022

Illusory Privacy, Thomas Haley

Indiana Law Journal

For decades, regulators, consumer advocates, and privacy theorists have grappled with one of privacy’s most important questions: how to protect private information that consumers unwittingly give away with the click of an “I accept” button. Reform efforts remain mired in a morass of text, focusing on the increasing volume and complexity of firms’ terms of service and privacy policies. This Article moves beyond such existing approaches. By analyzing terms of service and privacy policies from hundreds of top websites—which this Article calls “platform terms”—this Article demonstrates that the prevailing “notice and consent” paradigm of privacy regulation cannot provide meaningful protection. …


Cannabis Derivatives And Trademark Registration: The Case Of Delta-8-Thc, W. Michael Schuster Jan 2022

Cannabis Derivatives And Trademark Registration: The Case Of Delta-8-Thc, W. Michael Schuster

Indiana Law Journal

The legal environment surrounding the cannabis industry is ambiguous and constantly changing. While cannabis is prohibited under federal law, a 2018 statute legalized a variant of the cannabis plant (“hemp”) that is low in its most common intoxicating agents. Recognizing this, entrepreneurs began to process hemp to extract and sell chemicals contained therein. Included in this trend is the extraction of Delta-8 Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC)—a psychoactive drug with an increasing market presence in states where most cannabis (e.g., “marijuana”) is illegal.

As competition in the Δ8-THC field emerged, firms sought to distinguish their wares through brand recognition and federal trademark registration. …


Promoting Regulatory Prediction, Jonathan S. Masur Jan 2022

Promoting Regulatory Prediction, Jonathan S. Masur

Indiana Law Journal

It is essential for environmental protection that private actors be able to anticipate government regulation. If, for instance, the Biden Administration is planning to tighten regulations of greenhouse gas emissions, it is imperative that private companies anticipate this regulatory change now, not a few years from now after they have constructed even more coal- and gas-fired power plants. Those additional power plants will mean more irreversible greenhouse gases, and these plants can be politically challenging to shutter once built. The point is general to private actors making decisions in the shadow of potential government regulation. Better information about future government …


Using The Internal Revenue Code To Limit Coaching Salaries: A Proposal To Bring Amateurism Back Into College Football, Blaire Mikesell Jan 2022

Using The Internal Revenue Code To Limit Coaching Salaries: A Proposal To Bring Amateurism Back Into College Football, Blaire Mikesell

Indiana Law Journal

Since formal collegiate athletic competitions began in 1852, they have gained popularity and become a mainstay in American culture. This rise in popularity coupled with increased media coverage allowed college athletics, and particularly college football, to grow into a successful business that generates billions of dollars in revenue each year. Colleges and institutions earn this athletic revenue as tax-free income due to their tax-exempt status under the Internal Revenue Code § 501(c)(3) tax-exemption statute. The basic policy underlying this statute is as follows: colleges and universities provide an important benefit to the public by providing education, and in exchange for …


Bostock And Contact Theory: How Will A Single U.S. Supreme Court Decision Reduce Prejudice Against Lgbtq People?, Mantas Grigorovicius Jan 2022

Bostock And Contact Theory: How Will A Single U.S. Supreme Court Decision Reduce Prejudice Against Lgbtq People?, Mantas Grigorovicius

Indiana Law Journal

In 1954, Gordon Allport, one of the nation’s leading social psychologists, laid out a hypothesis explaining how prejudice could be reduced by intergroup contact. Decades later, his hypothesis became a theory with thousands of research hours behind it. Under contact theory, one of the factors that facilitates a reduction in prejudice between two groups is support of authorities or law. This Comment focuses on Bostock v. Clayton County, a recent Supreme Court decision holding that Title VII prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation. Allport suggested that antidiscrimination laws help to “lead and guide the folkways,” and this Comment explores how …


What Will The “Foreseeable Future” Bring For Climate- Imperiled Species?, Olivia Bauer Jan 2022

What Will The “Foreseeable Future” Bring For Climate- Imperiled Species?, Olivia Bauer

Indiana Law Journal

The Endangered Species Act (ESA) is the strongest source of federal protection for species that are at risk of extinction, and the ESA is becoming increasingly important as climate change threatens species and their habitats more than ever. In 2019, the Trump Administration amended the ESA to provide clarity and predictability when making decisions to list a species as threatened or endangered under the ESA. The Administration defined “foreseeable future” in a way that starkly limits how far into the future the listing agencies may look when assessing risks to species. Prior to the 2019 definition of “foreseeable future,” the …


The Oslo Accords: A Modern-Day Story Of Occupation Told Through Violations Of The Right To Freedom Of Privacy, Catherine Demetrovich Jan 2022

The Oslo Accords: A Modern-Day Story Of Occupation Told Through Violations Of The Right To Freedom Of Privacy, Catherine Demetrovich

Indiana Law Journal

The Israeli-Palestinian conflict began in the early 1900s when the disputed land, what is now the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, fell under British rule. After the Six- Day War in 1967, Israel took control of the West Bank, Golan Heights, and the Gaza Strip. Since then, tensions between Israel and Palestine have continued to grow. This Note explores a modern-day occupation question: Israel’s control over Palestine’s information and communication technology (ICT) sector. Along with privacy and human rights violations, Israel’s control is in direct violation of the Oslo Accords— guaranteeing Palestinians limited self-governance in Gaza and the West …


Rethinking Copyright Harmonization, Clark Asay Jul 2021

Rethinking Copyright Harmonization, Clark Asay

Indiana Law Journal

For nearly half a century, the United States has been one of the main proponents of harmonizing the world’s copyright laws. To that end, the U.S. government has worked diligently to persuade (and, in some cases, bully) most of the world’s countries to adopt copyright standards that resemble those found in the United States. The primary reason for this push to harmonize the world’s copyright laws is simple: the United States has long been a net exporter of copyrighted works, and so the U.S. government has sought to ensure that other countries provide U.S. authors with the same economic rights …


Privacy Vs. Transparency: Handling Protected Materials In Agency Rulemaking, Christopher S. Yoo, Kellen Mccoy Jul 2021

Privacy Vs. Transparency: Handling Protected Materials In Agency Rulemaking, Christopher S. Yoo, Kellen Mccoy

Indiana Law Journal

Agencies conducting informal rulemaking proceedings increasingly confront conflicting duties with respect to protected materials included in information submitted in public rulemaking dockets. They must reconcile the broad commitment to openness and transparency reflected in federal law with the duty to protect confidential business information (CBI) and personally identifiable information (PII) against improper disclosure.

This Article presents an analysis of how agencies can best balance these often countervailing considerations. Part I explores the statutory duties to disclose and withhold information submitted in public rulemaking dockets placed on agencies. It also examines judicial decisions and other legal interpretations regarding the proper way …


Polish Road Toward An Illiberal State: Methods And Resistance, Adam Bodnar Jul 2021

Polish Road Toward An Illiberal State: Methods And Resistance, Adam Bodnar

Indiana Law Journal

Since 2015, Poland has experienced a backsliding in democratic and rule of law standards. The ruling party, “Law and Justice,” has adopted a series of legislative changes affecting the independence of courts and checks and balances mechanisms. Some reforms were copied from Hungary, which, as the first Member State of the European Union, started the way toward illiberal democracy in contemporary Europe. Despite pressure from international organizations, the process of changes in Poland did not stop. However, it is important to look at methods implemented to dismantling democracy, as they can be used in other countries. This paper also analyzes …


Enforcing Outbound Forum Selection Clauses In State Court, John Coyle, Katherine Robinson Jul 2021

Enforcing Outbound Forum Selection Clauses In State Court, John Coyle, Katherine Robinson

Indiana Law Journal

Forum selection clauses are a staple of modern business law. Parties agree, ex ante, on where they can sue one another and then rely on the courts to enforce these agreements. Although the number of contracts containing forum selection clauses has skyrocketed in recent years, there is a dearth of empirical information about enforcement practice at the state level. Are there any states that refuse to enforce them? How frequently are they enforced? Under what circumstances, if any, will these clauses be deemed unenforceable? The existing literature provides few answers to these questions.

This Article aims to fill that gap. …


Can Speech Act Theory Save Notice Pleading?, Susan E. Provenzano Jul 2021

Can Speech Act Theory Save Notice Pleading?, Susan E. Provenzano

Indiana Law Journal

Countless scholars have debated—and lower courts have attempted to apply—the plausibility pleading regime that the Supreme Court introduced in Twombly and Iqbal. Iqbal took Twombly’s requirement that a complaint plead plausibly and turned it into a two-step test. Under that test, the life or death of a lawsuit rests on the distinction between “well-pleaded” and “conclusory” allegations. Only the former are assumed true on a motion to dismiss. Seven decades of pleading precedent had taken a sensible, if unstable, approach to the truth assumption, making a single cut between factual contentions (assumed true) and legal conclusions (ignored). But Iqbal redrew …


Sexual Harassment: A Doctrinal Examination Of The Law, An Empirical Examination Of Employer Liability, And A Question About Ndas— Because Complex Problems Do Not Have Simple Solutions, Michael Heise, David S. Sherwyn Jul 2021

Sexual Harassment: A Doctrinal Examination Of The Law, An Empirical Examination Of Employer Liability, And A Question About Ndas— Because Complex Problems Do Not Have Simple Solutions, Michael Heise, David S. Sherwyn

Indiana Law Journal

The #MeToo movement casts critical light on the pervasive nature of sexual harassment, particularly in the employment context, and continues to motivate a number of initiatives that address important social and workplace ills. The problems this movement has uncovered, however, run much deeper and likely exceed the scope and capacity of many of the proposed “fixes” it has inspired. Worse still, however, is that some of the proposed fixes may prove counterproductive. This Article examines the history and development of the relevant employment laws, empirically assesses judicial holdings on the employers’ affirmative defense to liability, and argues that many employees …


Unilateral Burdens And Third-Party Harms: Abortion Conscience Laws As Policy Outliers, Nadia Sawicki Jul 2021

Unilateral Burdens And Third-Party Harms: Abortion Conscience Laws As Policy Outliers, Nadia Sawicki

Indiana Law Journal

Most conscience laws establish nearly absolute protections for health care providers unwilling to participate in abortion. Providers’ rights to refuse—and relatedly, their immunity from civil liability, employment discrimination, and other adverse consequences—are often unqualified, even in situations where patients are likely to be harmed. These laws impose unilateral burdens on third parties in an effort to protect the rights of conscientious refusers. As such, they are outliers in the universe of federal and state anti-discrimination and religious freedom statutes, all of which strike a more even balance between individual rights and the prevention of harm to third parties. This Article …


Abdication Through Enforcement, Shalini Ray Jul 2021

Abdication Through Enforcement, Shalini Ray

Indiana Law Journal

Presidential abdication in immigration law has long been synonymous with the perceived nonenforcement of certain provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act. President Obama’s never-implemented policy of deferred action, known as DAPA, serves as the prime example in the literature. But can the President abdicate the duty of faithful execution in immigration law by enforcing the law, i.e., by deporting deportable noncitizens? This Article argues “yes.” Every leading theory of the presidency recognizes the President’s role as supervisor of the bureaucracy, an idea crystallized by several scholars. When the President fails to establish meaningful enforcement priorities, essentially making every deportable …


The Settlement Trap, Lindsey Simon Apr 2021

The Settlement Trap, Lindsey Simon

Indiana Law Journal

Mass tort victims often wait years for resolution of their personal injury claims, but many who successfully navigate this arduous process will not receive a single dollar of their settlement award. According to applicable bankruptcy and state law, settlement payments may be an asset of the estate that the trustee, exercising its significant authority, administers and distributes to creditors instead of a claimant who had filed for bankruptcy. This distribution power maximizes repayment, a critical counterbalance to the robust protections and benefits that debtors receive in bankruptcy.

Setting aside the perceived unfairness of taking desperately needed money from tort victims, …


Enhanced Public Defense Improves Pretrial Outcomes And Reduces Racial Disparities, Paul Heaton Apr 2021

Enhanced Public Defense Improves Pretrial Outcomes And Reduces Racial Disparities, Paul Heaton

Indiana Law Journal

Numerous jurisdictions are working to reform pretrial processes to reduce or eliminate money bail and decrease pretrial detention. Although reforms such as the abandonment of bail schedules or adoption of actuarial risk assessment tools have been widely enacted, the role of defense counsel in the pretrial process has received less attention.

This Article considers an approach to pretrial reform focused on improving the quality of defense counsel. In Philadelphia, a substantial fraction of people facing criminal charges are detained following rapid preliminary hearings where initial release conditions are set by bail magistrates operating with limited information. Beginning in 2017, the …


Rehabilitating Charge Bargaining, Nancy Combs Apr 2021

Rehabilitating Charge Bargaining, Nancy Combs

Indiana Law Journal

Nobody likes plea bargaining. Scholars worldwide have excoriated the practice, calling it coercive and unjust, among other pejorative adjectives. Despite its unpopularity, plea bargaining constitutes a central component of the American criminal justice system, and the United States has exported the practice to a host of countries worldwide. Indeed, plea bargaining has even appeared at international criminal tribunals, created to prosecute genocide and crimes against humanity—the gravest crimes known to humankind. Although all forms of plea bargaining are unpopular, commentators reserve their harshest criticism for charge bargaining because charge bargaining is said to distort the factual basis of the defendant’s …