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Stealing Organs?, Benjamin Mcmichael Jan 2022

Stealing Organs?, Benjamin Mcmichael

Indiana Law Journal

Every nine minutes, a new person joins a waitlist for an organ transplant, and every day, seventeen people die waiting for an organ that will never come. Because the need for organ transplants far outstrips the number of available organs, the policies and rules governing organ allocation in the United States are critically important and highly contentious. Recently, proponents of a new allocation system—one focused more on sharing organs across the nation instead of allocating organs primarily to local transplant candidates—have gained ground. Bolstered by two separate lawsuits in the past five years, advocates of greater national sharing have succeeded …


Promoting Regulatory Prediction, Jonathan S. Masur Jan 2022

Promoting Regulatory Prediction, Jonathan S. Masur

Indiana Law Journal

It is essential for environmental protection that private actors be able to anticipate government regulation. If, for instance, the Biden Administration is planning to tighten regulations of greenhouse gas emissions, it is imperative that private companies anticipate this regulatory change now, not a few years from now after they have constructed even more coal- and gas-fired power plants. Those additional power plants will mean more irreversible greenhouse gases, and these plants can be politically challenging to shutter once built. The point is general to private actors making decisions in the shadow of potential government regulation. Better information about future government …


Can Social Science Teach Congress New Tricks?: Addressing The Need For Educational Support Dogs In Classrooms, Elaina H. Wilson Jan 2022

Can Social Science Teach Congress New Tricks?: Addressing The Need For Educational Support Dogs In Classrooms, Elaina H. Wilson

Indiana Law Journal

In the United States, children with disabilities are afforded protections in three federal statutes: the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973; and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. However, these laws fail to provide for educational support dogs in public schools, despite the common and successful use of educational support dogs in other countries. The success of educational support dogs abroad is not suprising, as recent waves of social science research make clear the benefits of dogs in schools, from increased productivity within the classroom to improved morale within the school community …


Reconsidering Nepa, Brigham Daniels, Andrew P. Follett, James Salzman Apr 2021

Reconsidering Nepa, Brigham Daniels, Andrew P. Follett, James Salzman

Indiana Law Journal

The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) ushered in the modern era of environmental law. Thanks to its environmental impact statement (EIS) provision, it remains, by far, the most litigated environmental statute. Many administrations have sought to weaken the law. The Trump administration, for example, put into place regulations that strictly limit the EIS process, which the Biden administration seems poised to roll back. For the most part, however, NEPA has shown remarkable staying power and resilience since its passage just over fifty years ago. As a result, its legislative history remains relevant. But the accepted history of NEPA is deeply …


Consumer Perceptions Of The Right To Repair, Aaron Perzanowski Jan 2021

Consumer Perceptions Of The Right To Repair, Aaron Perzanowski

Indiana Law Journal

Part I of this Article details the strategies upon which device makers rely to frustrate repair. Part II considers legislative interventions intended to push back on existing barriers to repair, with a particular focus on the set of bills introduced in state legislatures across the United States. Part III describes the results of a survey of more than 800 U.S. consumers, focusing on their expectations of and experiences with the repair of electronic devices. The legal and policy implications of those results are discussed in Part IV.


Blockchain Stock Ledgers, Kevin V. Tu Oct 2020

Blockchain Stock Ledgers, Kevin V. Tu

Indiana Law Journal

American corporate law contains a seemingly innocuous mandate. Corporations must maintain appropriate books and records, including a stock ledger with the corporation's shareholders and stock ownership. The importance of accurate stock ownership records is obvious. Corporations must know who owns each of its outstanding shares at any point in time. Among other things, this allows corporations to determine who receives dividends and who is entitled to vote. In theory, keeping accurate records of stock ownership should be a simple matter. But despite diligent efforts, serious share discrepancies plague corporations, and reconciliation is often functionally impossible. Doing so may require the …


Upskirting, Bitcoin, And Crime, Oh My: Judicial Resistance To Applying Old Laws To New Crimes – What Is A Legislature To Do?, Michael Whiteman Jan 2020

Upskirting, Bitcoin, And Crime, Oh My: Judicial Resistance To Applying Old Laws To New Crimes – What Is A Legislature To Do?, Michael Whiteman

Indiana Law Journal

As technology continues to advance at a break-neck speed, legislatures often find themselves scrambling to write laws to keep up with these advances. Prosecutors are frequently faced with the prospect of charging a defendant with a crime based on an existing law that does not quite fit the circumstances of the defendant’s actions. Judges, cognizant of the fact that legislatures, and not the judiciary, have the primary responsibility for creating crimes, have pushed back. Judges routinely refuse to convict a defendant if the statute does not fairly criminalize the defendant’s actions. To determine if a defendant’s actions fit within a …


Saving Money On Health Insurance Just Got A Lot Easier . . . Or Did It?: The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act And Its Impact On The Future Of Employee Health, Zachary Maciejewski Jan 2020

Saving Money On Health Insurance Just Got A Lot Easier . . . Or Did It?: The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act And Its Impact On The Future Of Employee Health, Zachary Maciejewski

Indiana Law Journal

This Note addresses the growing use of employer-sponsored wellness programs in the American workplace and the concomitant harms and risks these programs impose on employee privacy and insurance costs. Specifically, this Note analyzes the Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act (PEWPA)—a proposed law that would allow employers to require employees to disclose genetic information to qualify for an employer-sponsored wellness program (and the program’s associated insurance premium benefits). This Note ultimately argues that employees and employee advocacy groups must work to thwart PEWPA to preserve employee privacy in the face of mounting corporate pressure to alter the structure of employer-sponsored health …


Rethinking The Highway: Integrating Delivery Drones Into Airspace Above Highways, Daniel Thompson Jan 2020

Rethinking The Highway: Integrating Delivery Drones Into Airspace Above Highways, Daniel Thompson

Indiana Law Journal

It is no secret that drones are occupying the skies, but where are they supposed to fly? Drones will need to share airspace with other aircraft, and, eventually, other drones. Considering that drones come in different shapes and sizes and serve different functions, businesses and lawmakers should coordinate to propose creative solutions. This Note proposes one such solution: municipal, state, and federal governments should lease the airspace above roads and highways to develop an infrastructure capable of supporting the unique characteristics of delivery drones.


Ordinary Causation: A Study In Experimental Statutory Interpretation, James Macleod Jul 2019

Ordinary Causation: A Study In Experimental Statutory Interpretation, James Macleod

Indiana Law Journal

In a series of recent split decisions interpreting criminal and tort-like legislation, the Supreme Court has purported to give statutory causation requirements their ordinary, plain meaning. Armed with dictionaries, examples from everyday speech, and commonsense intuitions, the Court’s majority has explained that statutory phrases like “because of” and “results from” entail but-for causation as a matter of ordinary usage. There’s just one problem: The Court’s majority (and the many state and federal courts following its lead) is wrong on the facts—specifically, the facts about how people ordinarily interpret, understand, and use causal language.

This Article considers a novel approach to …


Money That Costs Too Much: Regulating Financial Incentives, Kristen Underhill Jul 2019

Money That Costs Too Much: Regulating Financial Incentives, Kristen Underhill

Indiana Law Journal

Money may not corrupt. But should we worry if it corrodes? Legal scholars in a range of fields have expressed concern about “motivational crowding-out,” a process by which offering financial rewards for good behavior may undermine laudable social motivations, like professionalism or civic duty. Disquiet about the motivational impacts of incentives has now extended to health law, employment law, tax, torts, contracts, criminal law, property, and beyond. In some cases, the fear of crowding-out has inspired concrete opposition to innovative policies that marshal incentives to change individual behavior. But to date, our fears about crowding-out have been unfocused and amorphous; …


Sticks, Stones, And So-Called Judges: Why The Era Of Trump Necessitates Revisiting Presidential Influence On The Courts, Quinn W. Crowley Jan 2019

Sticks, Stones, And So-Called Judges: Why The Era Of Trump Necessitates Revisiting Presidential Influence On The Courts, Quinn W. Crowley

Indiana Law Journal

This Note will be primarily divided into three main sections. Part I of this Note will begin by discussing the importance of judicial independence in modern society and the role of elected officials in shaping the public perception of the courts. Additionally, as problems of judicial legitimacy are age-old and date back to America’s founding, Part I will include a brief discussion of an early clash between President Thomas Jefferson and the courts.

Parts II and III of this Note will seek to place President Trump’s conduct towards the judicial branch within the proper historical context. Part II examines the …


"You Have The Data"...The Writ Of Habeas Data And Other Data Protection Rights: Is The United States Falling Behind?, Sarah L. Lode Jan 2019

"You Have The Data"...The Writ Of Habeas Data And Other Data Protection Rights: Is The United States Falling Behind?, Sarah L. Lode

Indiana Law Journal

In Part I of this Note, I will discuss the writ of habeas data that has been developed primarily, but not exclusively, in Latin American countries. I will discuss the intricacies of the writ, how it evolved, and how it is applied today. Using Argentina as an example, I will discuss how the writ would be used by an Argentine citizen to protect her personal data. Part II summarizes the previously employed data protection scheme in the European Union, the Data Protection Directive (“the Directive”), and will also discuss the new EU data protection regulation, the General Data Protection Regulation …


Hands On The Wheel: A Call For Greater Regulation Of Semi-Autonomous Cars, Tracy Pearl Jul 2018

Hands On The Wheel: A Call For Greater Regulation Of Semi-Autonomous Cars, Tracy Pearl

Indiana Law Journal

The degree to which a driverless car can function independently of a human driver depends upon its level of automation. In the 2016 Policy, NHTSA adopted the six-level measurement of automation created by SAE International, a professional association of automotive engineers. SAE created these levels to provide “common terminology for automated driving,” and to highlight the differences between semi-autonomous and fully autonomous cars. NHTSA believes that adopting these levels and SAE’s definitions thereof will provide both “clarity and consistency” in discussions about automated vehicles.

In this article, I will be focusing on Level 2 autonomous vehicles: those that are partially …


Congressional Standing To Sue: The Role Of Courts And Congress In U.S. Constitutional Democracy, Vicki C. Jackson Jul 2018

Congressional Standing To Sue: The Role Of Courts And Congress In U.S. Constitutional Democracy, Vicki C. Jackson

Indiana Law Journal

In recent years, legislatures and their members have increasingly asserted standing to sue other branches of government, in controversies involving state legislators or legislatures as party litigants and in controversies involving members of or parts of the U.S. Congress. These cases present challenging questions for the federal Article III courts, whose jurisdiction has been interpreted to be bounded by “justiciability” doctrines, including that the party invoking federal court jurisdiction must have standing to do so. This Essay will focus on congressional standing, discussing case law involving claims by state legislatures or legislators to the extent they are relevant.1 It will …


The Limits On Congress's Power To Do Nothing: A Preliminary Inquiry, William P. Marshall Jan 2018

The Limits On Congress's Power To Do Nothing: A Preliminary Inquiry, William P. Marshall

Indiana Law Journal

As Part I of this Essay will show, arguments for limiting Congress’s authority to do nothing are not readily found in history, text, or constitutional structure. Part I concludes, however, that the need for establishing some constitutional limits on congressional inaction is nevertheless compelling because of the seriousness of the dangers involved. Accordingly, Part II goes on to advance an approach that would limit Congress’s power to do nothing in certain circumstances. Specifically, Part II proposes an approach that would limit Congress’s power to do nothing based on the type of power that Congress is (or is not) exercising. Congress …


The Next Reapportionment Revolution, Ashira Ostrow Jan 2018

The Next Reapportionment Revolution, Ashira Ostrow

Indiana Law Journal

In the 1960s, the Supreme Court famously imposed the one-person, one-vote requirement on federal, state, and local legislatures. The doctrine rapidly resolved the problem of malapportioned districts. Within just a few years, legislatures across the nation were reapportioned to equalize the population between districts. Sadly, however, the national commitment to equal-population districts has led directly to the current crisis of political gerrymandering. The boundaries of equal-population districts must be redrawn every ten years to maintain population equality. Even with rigid adherence to population requirements, district boundaries are easily manipulated to secure incumbent seats and advance partisan interests. Redistricting is rightly …


The Promises And Pitfalls Of Harmonization: What Insurance Guarantee Schemes Tell Us About When Harmonization Works, Jordan Burton Jan 2018

The Promises And Pitfalls Of Harmonization: What Insurance Guarantee Schemes Tell Us About When Harmonization Works, Jordan Burton

Indiana Law Journal

In Part I, this Note considers the mechanisms of harmonization and the regulatory and fairness policy concerns that harmonization is designed to address. Part II explores some of the problems harmonization can create, with an eye toward how those problems manifest in the IGS context. Finally, Part III discusses how IGS address an urgent and inevitable problem that affects actors in the insurance market at every level. By analyzing comments on the Commission’s White Paper, Part III proposes that these three factors—convergence of stakeholder interest, inevitability, and urgency— are key to understanding when member states, EU citizens, and industry actors …


The Death Of Rules And Standards, Anthony J. Casey, Anthony Niblett Oct 2017

The Death Of Rules And Standards, Anthony J. Casey, Anthony Niblett

Indiana Law Journal

Scholars have examined the lawmakers’ choice between rules and standards for decades. This Article, however, explores the possibility of a new form of law that renders that choice unnecessary. Advances in technology (such as big data and artificial intelligence) will give rise to this new form—the microdirective—which will provide the benefits of both rules and standards without the costs of either. Lawmakers will be able to use predictive and communication technologies to enact complex legislative goals that are translated by machines into a vast catalog of simple commands for all possible scenarios. When an individual citizen faces a legal choice, …


Dictation And Delegation In Securities Regulation, Usha Rodrigues Apr 2017

Dictation And Delegation In Securities Regulation, Usha Rodrigues

Indiana Law Journal

When Congress undertakes major financial reform, either it dictates the precise con-tours of the law itself or it delegates the bulk of the rule making to an administrative agency. This choice has critical consequences. Making the law self-executing in federal legislation is swift, not subject to administrative tinkering, and less vulnerable than rule making to judicial second-guessing. Agency action is, in contrast, deliberate, subject to ongoing bureaucratic fiddling, and more vulnerable than statutes to judicial challenge.

This Article offers the first empirical analysis of the extent of congressional delegation in securities law from 1970 to the present day, examining nine …


Beyond Transparency: The Semantics Of Rulemaking For An Open Internet, Reza Rajabiun Jan 2016

Beyond Transparency: The Semantics Of Rulemaking For An Open Internet, Reza Rajabiun

Indiana Law Journal

In trying to promote the development of an open Internet, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has primarily tried to encourage network providers to be transparent about their traffic management practices and quality of service prioritization policies. Dominant network operators have successfully challenged this minimalist approach to addressing end-user concerns about the rise of a two-tiered Internet, motivating the FCC to engage in yet another public consultation process to assess its future approach to the problem. This article maps the debate using Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools that allow us to build a systematic picture of the positions of the …


The Double-Edged Sword Of Health Care Integration: Consolidation And Cost Control, Erin C. Fuse Brown, Jaime S. King Jan 2016

The Double-Edged Sword Of Health Care Integration: Consolidation And Cost Control, Erin C. Fuse Brown, Jaime S. King

Indiana Law Journal

The average family of four in the United States spends $25,826 per year on health care. American health care costs so much because we both overuse and overpay for health care goods and services. The Affordable Care Act’s cost control policies focus on curbing overutilization by encouraging health care providers to integrate to pro-mote efficiency and eliminate waste, but the cost control policies largely ignore prices. This article examines this overlooked half of health care cost control policy: rising prices and the policy levers held by the states to address them. We challenge the conventional wisdom that reducing overutilization through …


Superstatute Theory And Administrative Common Law, Kathryn E. Kovacs Jul 2015

Superstatute Theory And Administrative Common Law, Kathryn E. Kovacs

Indiana Law Journal

This Article employs William Eskridge and John Ferejohn’s theory of superstatutes as a tool to argue that administrative common law that contradicts or ignores the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) is illegitimate. Eskridge and Ferejohn conceive of statutes that emerge from a lengthy, public debate and take on great normative weight over time as “superstatutes.” Superstatute theory highlights the deficiency in deliberation about the meaning of the APA. The APA bears all the hallmarks of a superstatute. Unlike the typical federal superstatute, however, the APA is not administered by a single agency. Thus, to respect and encourage the civic-republican style of …


I Did My Time: The Transformation Of Indiana’S Expungement Law, Joseph C. Dugan Jul 2015

I Did My Time: The Transformation Of Indiana’S Expungement Law, Joseph C. Dugan

Indiana Law Journal

This Note evaluates the transformation of Indiana’s expungement law. Part I addresses the socioeconomic impacts of a criminal record. Part II presents normative arguments both for and against expungement, concluding that the balance tips in favor of forgiveness. Parts III–IV discuss Indiana’s original expungement provisions, the 2013 statute, and the 2014 amendments. Part V explores the reaction to the new law. Finally, Part VI offers recommendations to improve the statute so that its second-chance promise is equitable, accessible, and robust.


Federalism And Family Status, Courtney G. Joslin Apr 2015

Federalism And Family Status, Courtney G. Joslin

Indiana Law Journal

The myth of family law’s inherent localism is sticky. In the past, it was common to hear sweeping claims about the exclusively local nature of all family matters. In response to persuasive critiques, a narrower iteration of family law localism emerged. The new, refined version acknowledges the existence of some federal family law but contends that certain “core” family law matters—specifically, family status determinations—are inherently local. I call this family status localism. Proponents of family status localism rely on history, asserting that the federal government has always deferred to state family status determinations. Family status localism made its most recent …


The New State Sovereignty Movement, Austin L. Raynor Apr 2015

The New State Sovereignty Movement, Austin L. Raynor

Indiana Law Journal

In the past decade, states across the country have enacted a flood of legislation to resist perceived federal encroachments on their sovereignty. These opposition statutes assume a variety of forms: some, for instance, merely prohibit state officers from assisting in the enforcement of federal law, while others purport to nullify particular federal regulations. In the fields of controlled substances, immigration, and healthcare, among others, state acts of protest have stimulated the national debate and influenced legal obligations in important ways.

This Article provides the first comprehensive overview of this nascent state sovereignty movement. It categorizes opposition enactments according to the …


The Increasing Weight Of Regulation: Countries Combat The Global Obesity Epidemic, Allyn L. Taylor, Emily Whelan Parento, Laura A. Schmidt Jan 2015

The Increasing Weight Of Regulation: Countries Combat The Global Obesity Epidemic, Allyn L. Taylor, Emily Whelan Parento, Laura A. Schmidt

Indiana Law Journal

Obesity is a global epidemic, exacting an enormous human and economic toll. In the absence of a comprehensive global governance strategy, states have increasingly employed a wide array of legal strategies targeting the drivers of obesity. This Article identifies recent global trends in obesity-related legislation and makes the normative case for an updated global governance strategy.

National governments have responded to the epidemic both by strengthening traditional interventions and by developing novel legislative strategies. This response consists of nine important trends: (1) strengthened and tailored tax measures; (2) broadened use of counter-advertising and health campaigns; (3) expanded food labeling; (4) …


Domestic Violence, Gun Possession, And The Importance Of Context, Wesley M. Oliver Jan 2015

Domestic Violence, Gun Possession, And The Importance Of Context, Wesley M. Oliver

Indiana Law Journal

Context is everything.

A federal law prohibits those convicted of committing an act of domestic violence from possessing weapons. 1 This term, the U.S. Supreme Court decided that this statute would apply even to those convicted of crimes that did not necessarily involve violent acts.2 This conclusion strains the ordinary meaning of language, but is quite consistent with a long tradition in criminal cases that favors a pro-government interpretation of a statute when the public welfare is at stake. And domestic violence, Justice Sotomayor stressed in her opinion, has reached epidemic levels, prompting Congress to get guns out of the …


Environmental Law Outside The Canon, Todd S. Aagaard Jul 2014

Environmental Law Outside The Canon, Todd S. Aagaard

Indiana Law Journal

It is time to rethink the domination of environmental law by a canon of major federal statutes enacted in the 1970s. Environmental law is in a malaise. Despite widespread agreement that existing laws are inadequate to address current environmental problems, Congress has not passed a major environmental statute in more than twenty years. If it is to succeed, the environmental law of this new century may need to evolve into something that looks quite different than the extant environmental law canon. The next generation of environmental laws must be viable for creation and implementation even in an antagonistic political climate; …


Doctoring Discrimination In The Same-Sex Marriage Debates, Elizabeth Sepper Apr 2014

Doctoring Discrimination In The Same-Sex Marriage Debates, Elizabeth Sepper

Indiana Law Journal

As the legalization of same-sex marriage spreads across the states, some religious believers refuse to serve same-sex married couples. In the academy, a group of law and religion scholars frames these refusals as “conscientious objection” to the act of marriage. They propose “marriage conscience protection” that would allow public employees and private individuals or businesses to refuse to “facilitate” same-sex marriages. They rely on the theoretical premise that commercial actors’ objections to marriage are equivalent to doctors’ objections to controversial medical procedures. They model their proposal on medical conscience legislation, which allows doctors to refuse to perform abortions. Such legislation, …