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Purchasing Population Growth, Edward W. De Barbieri Jan 2023

Purchasing Population Growth, Edward W. De Barbieri

Indiana Law Journal

State and local lawmakers compete to attract new populations of workers to purchase homes, grow the tax base, and develop local economies. Even before the pandemic, lawmakers used a variety of tax incentives and other legal levers to attract new residents. Increasingly, in some cases bolstered by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act funds, local governments are attracting high-paid, well-skilled, remote workers with cash gifts and other direct economic benefits.

Although cash incentives for remote workers have been increasing in popularity, they remain unproven with respect to intended outcomes and have yet to face legal challenge. The …


Without Accommodation, Jennifer Bennett Shinall Oct 2022

Without Accommodation, Jennifer Bennett Shinall

Indiana Law Journal

Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), workers with disabilities have the legal right to reasonable workplace accommodations provided by employers. Because this legal right is unique to disabled workers, these workers could, in theory, enjoy greater access to the types of accommodations that are desirable to all workers—including the ability to work from home, to work flexible hours, and to take leave. This Article compares access to these accommodations, which have become increasingly desirable during the COVID-19 pandemic, between disabled workers and nondisabled workers. Using 2017–2018 data from the American Time Use Survey’s Leave and Job Flexibilities Module, I …


Compelled Disclosure And The Workplace Rights It Enables, Catherine Fisk Jul 2022

Compelled Disclosure And The Workplace Rights It Enables, Catherine Fisk

Indiana Law Journal

Worker and consumer protection laws often rely on the regulated entity to notify workers or consumers of their legal rights because it is effective and efficient to provide information at the time and place where it is most likely to be useful. Until the Supreme Court ruled in NIFLA v. Becerra in 2018 that a California law regulating crisis pregnancy centers was an unconstitutional speaker-based, contentdiscriminatory regulation of speech, mandatory disclosure laws were constitutionally uncontroversial economic regulation. Yet, the day after striking down a disclosure law in NIFLA, the Court in Janus v. AFSCME Council 31 expanded the right of …


Ministerial Employees And Discrimination Without Remedy, Charlotte Garden Jul 2022

Ministerial Employees And Discrimination Without Remedy, Charlotte Garden

Indiana Law Journal

The Supreme Court first addressed the ministerial exemption in a 2012 case, Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church and School v. EEOC. The ministerial exemption is a defense that religious employers can invoke in discrimination cases brought by employees who qualify as “ministerial,” and it is rooted in the First Amendment principle that government cannot interfere in a church’s choice of minister. However, Hosanna-Tabor did not set out a test to determine which employees are covered by this exemption, and the decision was susceptible to a reading that the category was narrow. In 2020, the Court again took up the ministerial exemption, …


The Law Of Employee Data: Privacy, Property, Governance, Matthew T. Bodie Apr 2022

The Law Of Employee Data: Privacy, Property, Governance, Matthew T. Bodie

Indiana Law Journal

The availability of data related to the employment relationship has ballooned into an unruly mass of performance metrics, personal characteristics, biometric recordings, and creative output. The law governing this collection of information has been awkwardly split between privacy regulations and intellectual property rights, with employees generally losing on both ends. This Article rejects a binary approach that either carves out private spaces ineffectually or renders data into isolated pieces of ownership. Instead, the law should implement a hybrid system that provides workers with continuing input and control without blocking efforts at joint production. In addition, employers should have fiduciary responsibilities …


Regulating Noncompetes Beyond The Common Law: The Uniform Restrictive Employment Agreement Act, Stewart J. Schwab Jan 2022

Regulating Noncompetes Beyond The Common Law: The Uniform Restrictive Employment Agreement Act, Stewart J. Schwab

Indiana Law Journal

The common law has never treated a post-employment noncompete agreement between employer and employee like an ordinary contract. Rather, a court will enforce a noncompete only if it is reasonably tailored in time, geography, and scope of business to further a legitimate employer interest. Suppressing competition is an understandable but not legitimate interest.

While the common-law approach works well enough for some occupations, it is problematic for both workers and employers in many cases. It is a challenge for workers who don’t know about the noncompete until after starting work, for lowwage workers who are unlikely to have trade secrets …


Do Social Movements Spur Corporate Change? The Rise Of “Metoo Termination Rights” In Ceo Contracts, Rachel Arnow-Richman, James Hicks, Steven Davidoff Solomon Jan 2022

Do Social Movements Spur Corporate Change? The Rise Of “Metoo Termination Rights” In Ceo Contracts, Rachel Arnow-Richman, James Hicks, Steven Davidoff Solomon

Indiana Law Journal

Do social movements spur corporate change? This Article sheds new empirical and theoretical light on the issue through an original study of executive contracts before and after MeToo. The MeToo movement, beginning in late 2017, exposed a workplace culture seemingly permissive of high-level, sex-based misconduct. Companies typically responded slowly and imposed few consequences on perpetrators, often allowing them to depart with lucrative exit packages. Why did companies reward rather than penalize bad actors, and has the movement disrupted this culture of complicity?

The passage of time since the height of the movement allows us to investigate these issues empirically, using …


Sexual Harassment: A Doctrinal Examination Of The Law, An Empirical Examination Of Employer Liability, And A Question About Ndas— Because Complex Problems Do Not Have Simple Solutions, Michael Heise, David S. Sherwyn Jul 2021

Sexual Harassment: A Doctrinal Examination Of The Law, An Empirical Examination Of Employer Liability, And A Question About Ndas— Because Complex Problems Do Not Have Simple Solutions, Michael Heise, David S. Sherwyn

Indiana Law Journal

The #MeToo movement casts critical light on the pervasive nature of sexual harassment, particularly in the employment context, and continues to motivate a number of initiatives that address important social and workplace ills. The problems this movement has uncovered, however, run much deeper and likely exceed the scope and capacity of many of the proposed “fixes” it has inspired. Worse still, however, is that some of the proposed fixes may prove counterproductive. This Article examines the history and development of the relevant employment laws, empirically assesses judicial holdings on the employers’ affirmative defense to liability, and argues that many employees …


Title Vii And The Unenvisaged Case: Is Anti-Lgbtq Discrimination Unlawful Sex Discrimination, Ronald Turner Jan 2020

Title Vii And The Unenvisaged Case: Is Anti-Lgbtq Discrimination Unlawful Sex Discrimination, Ronald Turner

Indiana Law Journal

As discussed herein, courts and individual judges recognizing or not finding actionable Title VII anti-LGBTQ14 claims have offered different rationales in support of their conflicting positions, including three justifications discussed in this project: (1) the meaning of Title VII’s “because of sex” prohibition, (2) the Supreme Court’s and circuit courts’ construction of the “because of sex” provision in the context of sex stereotyping and gender nonconformity discrimination as applied to the anti- LGBTQ question, and (3) associational discrimination theory. Claim-recognizing jurists have looked to Title VII’s text, Supreme Court and circuit court precedent, and the views of the Equal Employment …


Saving Money On Health Insurance Just Got A Lot Easier . . . Or Did It?: The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act And Its Impact On The Future Of Employee Health, Zachary Maciejewski Jan 2020

Saving Money On Health Insurance Just Got A Lot Easier . . . Or Did It?: The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act And Its Impact On The Future Of Employee Health, Zachary Maciejewski

Indiana Law Journal

This Note addresses the growing use of employer-sponsored wellness programs in the American workplace and the concomitant harms and risks these programs impose on employee privacy and insurance costs. Specifically, this Note analyzes the Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act (PEWPA)—a proposed law that would allow employers to require employees to disclose genetic information to qualify for an employer-sponsored wellness program (and the program’s associated insurance premium benefits). This Note ultimately argues that employees and employee advocacy groups must work to thwart PEWPA to preserve employee privacy in the face of mounting corporate pressure to alter the structure of employer-sponsored health …


Anticompetitive Mergers In Labor Markets, Ioana Marinescu, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Jul 2019

Anticompetitive Mergers In Labor Markets, Ioana Marinescu, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Indiana Law Journal

Mergers of competitors are conventionally challenged under the federal antitrust laws when they threaten to lessen competition in some product or service market in which the merging firms sell. In many of these cases the threat is that in concentrated markets—those with only a few sellers—the merger increases the likelihood of collusion or collusion-like behavior. The result will be that the post-merger firm will reduce the volume of sales in the affected market and prices will rise.

Mergers can also injure competition in markets in which the firms purchase, however. Although that principle is widely recognized, very few litigated cases …


Energy Re-Investment, Hari M. Osofsky, Jacqueline Peel, Brett H. Mcdonnell, Anita Foerster Apr 2019

Energy Re-Investment, Hari M. Osofsky, Jacqueline Peel, Brett H. Mcdonnell, Anita Foerster

Indiana Law Journal

Despite worsening climate change threats, investment in energy—in the United States and globally—is dominated by fossil fuels. This Article provides a novel analysis of two pathways in corporate and securities law that together have the potential to shift patterns of energy investment.

The first pathway targets current investments and corporate decision-making. It includes efforts to influence investors to divest from owning shares in fossil fuel companies and to influence companies to address climate change risks in their internal decision-making processes. This pathway has received increasing attention, especially in light of the Paris Agreement and the Trump Administration’s decision to withdraw …


Legislatively Overturning Fort Stewart Schools: The Trump Administration's Assault On Federal Employee Collective Bargaining, Richard J. Hirn Jan 2019

Legislatively Overturning Fort Stewart Schools: The Trump Administration's Assault On Federal Employee Collective Bargaining, Richard J. Hirn

Indiana Law Journal

In his Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Submission, President Trump noted that about 60 percent of Federal employees belong to a union and lamented that dealing with Federal employee unions ostensibly “consume[s] considerable management time and taxpayer resources, and may negatively impact efficiency, effectiveness, cost of operations, and employee accountability and performance.” Although he acknowledged that Federal employee unions can negotiate over fewer matters than can unions in the private sector, he nonetheless claimed that collective bargaining contracts can negatively impact agency performance, workplace productivity, and employee satisfaction. The President told Congress that “[a]gency managers will be encouraged to restore management …


Conflicting Approaches To Addressing Ex-Offender Unemployment: The Work Opportunity Tax Credit And Ban The Box, Katherine English Apr 2018

Conflicting Approaches To Addressing Ex-Offender Unemployment: The Work Opportunity Tax Credit And Ban The Box, Katherine English

Indiana Law Journal

Each year, roughly 700,000 prisoners are released from their six-by-eight-foot cells and back into society. Sadly, though, many of these ex-prisoners are not truly free. Upon returning to society, they often encounter several challenges that prevent them from resuming a normal, reintegrated lifestyle. For many, the difficulties associated with reentry prove to be too much, and within a short three years of their release, two-thirds of ex-offenders are rearrested, reconvicted, and thrown back into the familiar six-by-eight-foot cell. Recidivism might appear to be entirely the exoffenders’ fault, but ex-offenders are not solely responsible for these recidivism rates or the solution …


Beyond "Best Practices": Employment-Discrimination Law In The Neoliberal Era, Deborah Dinner Jul 2017

Beyond "Best Practices": Employment-Discrimination Law In The Neoliberal Era, Deborah Dinner

Indiana Law Journal

Why does U.S. legal culture tolerate unprecedented economic inequality even as it valorizes social equality along identity lines? This Article takes a significant step toward answering this question by examining the relationship between U.S. employment-discrimination law and neoliberalism. It shows that the rise of anti-discrimination ideals in the late twentieth century was intertwined with the de-regulation of labor and with cutbacks in the welfare state. The Article argues that even “best practices” to prevent employment discrimination are insufficient to realize a labor market responsive to the needs of low-income workers for adequate wages, safe work conditions, and work hours and …


College Football Coaches’ Pay And Contracts: Are They Overpaid And Unfairly Treated?􀀃, Randall Thomas, Lawrence Van Horn Jan 2016

College Football Coaches’ Pay And Contracts: Are They Overpaid And Unfairly Treated?􀀃, Randall Thomas, Lawrence Van Horn

Indiana Law Journal

College football coaches’ employment contracts and compensation garner public attention and scrutiny in much the same way as those of corporate CEOs. In both cases, the public perception is that they must be overpaid and pampered. Economic theory claims that for coaches and CEOs to be overpaid, they must be receiving compensation in excess of the value they create for their organizations. However, both receive pay-for-performance compensation, which structurally aligns their compensation with value creation. This means we need to examine the underlying structure of the contract that gives rise to the observed compensation to determine whether they are appropriately …


Disability Rights And Labor: Is This Conflict Really Necessary?, Samuel R. Bagenstos Jan 2016

Disability Rights And Labor: Is This Conflict Really Necessary?, Samuel R. Bagenstos

Indiana Law Journal

In this Essay, I hope to do two things: First, I try to put the current labor-disability controversy into that broader context. Second, and perhaps more important, I take a position on how disability rights advocates should approach both the current contro-versy and labor-disability tensions more broadly. As to the narrow dispute over wage-and-hour protections for personal-assistance workers, I argue both that those workers have a compelling normative claim to full FLSA protection—a claim that disability rights advocates should recognize—and that supporting the claim of those workers is pragmatically in the best interests of the disability rights movement. As to …


Rethinking Employment Discrimination Harms, Jessica Roberts Jan 2016

Rethinking Employment Discrimination Harms, Jessica Roberts

Indiana Law Journal

Establishing harm is essential to many legal claims. This Article urges the law to adopt a more expansive notion of the harms of employment discrimination to better reflect the cognitive functions of individuals who face discrimination. While the effect of implicit bias on the mental state of potential discriminators is well-worn territory in antidiscrimination scholarship, little has been written about a sister theory: stereotype threat. More than a decade’s worth of social psychology research indicates that when a person is conscious of her membership in a particular group and the group is the subject of a widely recognized stereotype, that …


The Behavioral Economic Case For Paternalistic Workplace Retirement Plans, Paul M. Secunda Jan 2016

The Behavioral Economic Case For Paternalistic Workplace Retirement Plans, Paul M. Secunda

Indiana Law Journal

Dependence on 401(k) retirement accounts continues to cause a massive retirement crisis in the United States by leaving most workers unprepared for retirement. The voluntary, inaccessible, employer-centered, expensive, and consumer-driven natures of these plans have combined to make retirement a type of corporate-inspired elder abuse in America.

Behavioral economics considers the utility of permitting individual choice in decision-making settings. Many, however, have been misled to believe that greater choice is always better. Yet, according to one prominent commentator, this consumer-driven paradigm will lead to 48% of current workers between the ages of fifty and sixty-four being poor when they reach …


It Saves To Be Healthy: Using The Tax Code To Incentivize Employer-Provided Wellness Benefits, Hilary R. Shepherd Jan 2016

It Saves To Be Healthy: Using The Tax Code To Incentivize Employer-Provided Wellness Benefits, Hilary R. Shepherd

Indiana Law Journal

With lifestyle-related disease on the rise and an increasing number of employers being held responsible for providing health insurance to their employees, we as a society have incentives to promote wellness, even if only to cut health care costs. Part I of this Note outlines a brief history of employer-provided wellness benefits and provides a concise summary of the employer-provided wellness benefits available. Part II analyzes the relevant federal income tax law, specifically, the fringe benefits provision of the Internal Revenue Code, and concludes that under existing tax law, on-premises gym facilities do not yield any taxable income to employees, …


From Weight Checking To Wage Checking: Arming Workers To Combat Wage Theft, Matt Finkin Apr 2015

From Weight Checking To Wage Checking: Arming Workers To Combat Wage Theft, Matt Finkin

Indiana Law Journal

Wage theft refers to employer practices that result in employees taking home less than they are legally entitled to under federal and state law: paying below the legal minimum; not paying for time worked by having workers work “off the clock” before checking in, after clocking out, or by requiring work during unpaid break time; not paying for overtime work at the statutory overtime rate; for tipped employees, expropriating tips that should be the employee’s; or just not paying at all. In tandem with the massive shift in the economy from well-paid manufacturing jobs to low-wage service jobs, wage theft …


From The Seat Of The Chair: An Insider’S Perspective On Ncaa Student-Athlete Voices, Scott Krapf Jan 2015

From The Seat Of The Chair: An Insider’S Perspective On Ncaa Student-Athlete Voices, Scott Krapf

Indiana Law Journal

This Article explains how student-athletes already have a significantly influential voice. The Author calls upon his personal experience as a former Division I student-athlete and Chair of the NCAA Division I National Student-Athlete Advisory Committee to show that student athletes are capable of effectuating change by expressing themselves through existing means, rather than unionization.


Bottom-Up Workplace Law Enforcement, Charlotte S. Alexander, Arthi Prasad Jul 2014

Bottom-Up Workplace Law Enforcement, Charlotte S. Alexander, Arthi Prasad

Indiana Law Journal

This Article presents an original analysis of newly available data from a landmark survey of 4387 low-wage, front-line workers in the three largest U.S. cities. We analyze data on worker claims, retaliation, and legal knowledge to investigate what we call “bottom-up” workplace law enforcement, or the reliance of many labor and employment statutes on workers themselves to enforce their rights. We conclude that bottom-up workplace law enforcement may fail to protect the workers who are most vulnerable to workplace rights violations, as they often lack the legal knowledge and incentives to complain that are prerequisites for enforcement activity.


Retaliation In An Eeo World, Deborah L. Brake Jan 2014

Retaliation In An Eeo World, Deborah L. Brake

Indiana Law Journal

This Article examines how the prevalence of internal policies and complaint procedures for addressing discrimination in the workplace are affecting legal protections from retaliation. Retaliation has been an unusually active field of law lately. The Supreme Court’s heightened interest in taking retaliation cases in recent years has highlighted the central importance of retaliation protections to the integrity of discrimination law. The Court’s string of plaintiff victories in retaliation cases has earned it the reputation as a pragmatic, pro-employee Court when it comes to retaliation law. However, this view does not account for the proliferation and influence of employer EEO policies …


Redeeming A Lost Generation: "The Year Of Law School Litigation" And The Future Of The Law School Transparency Movement, Andrew S. Murphy Apr 2013

Redeeming A Lost Generation: "The Year Of Law School Litigation" And The Future Of The Law School Transparency Movement, Andrew S. Murphy

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Using The Resource-Based Theory To Determine Covenant Not To Compete Legitimacy, Norman D. Bishara, David Orozco Professor Jul 2012

Using The Resource-Based Theory To Determine Covenant Not To Compete Legitimacy, Norman D. Bishara, David Orozco Professor

Indiana Law Journal

This Article addresses the legitimacy of competing interests involved in the enforcement of covenants not to compete (“noncompetes”). To date, the courts and legislatures have not relied on a principled theoretical framework to identify and assess the competing interests between firms and individuals in this setting. This Article fills the research void by providing a theoretical framework that identifies the legitimacy of these competing claims. The framework integrates managerial research involving the resource-based theory of the firm and the knowledge-based perspective of competitive advantage with the legal analysis and enforcement of noncompete terms. A descriptive framework of the parties’ competing …


Moving Beyond The Zero-Sum Game: Joint Management-Employee Committees In The Twenty-First Century, Karl G. Nelson Jan 2012

Moving Beyond The Zero-Sum Game: Joint Management-Employee Committees In The Twenty-First Century, Karl G. Nelson

Indiana Law Journal

Labor and Employment Law Under the Obama Administration: A Time for Hope and Change? Symposium held November 12-13, 2010, Indiana University Maurer School of Law, Bloomington, Indiana.


Comments On Proposed Changes To Captive Audience Speech Rules And Use Of Card Checks, Rik Lineback Jan 2012

Comments On Proposed Changes To Captive Audience Speech Rules And Use Of Card Checks, Rik Lineback

Indiana Law Journal

Labor and Employment Law Under the Obama Administration: A Time for Hope and Change? Symposium held November 12-13, 2010, Indiana University Maurer School of Law, Bloomington, Indiana.


Public-Sector Labor In The Age Of Obama, Joseph E. Slater Jan 2012

Public-Sector Labor In The Age Of Obama, Joseph E. Slater

Indiana Law Journal

Labor and Employment Law Under the Obama Administration: A Time for Hope and Change? Symposium held November 12-13, 2010, Indiana University Maurer School of Law, Bloomington, Indiana.


Reading Ricci And Pyett To Provide Racial Justice Through Union Arbitration, Michael Z. Green Jan 2012

Reading Ricci And Pyett To Provide Racial Justice Through Union Arbitration, Michael Z. Green

Indiana Law Journal

Labor and Employment Law Under the Obama Administration: A Time for Hope and Change? Symposium held November 12-13, 2010, Indiana University Maurer School of Law, Bloomington, Indiana