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Full-Text Articles in Law

Respeaking The Bill Of Rights: A New Doctrine Of Incorporation, Kurt Lash Oct 2022

Respeaking The Bill Of Rights: A New Doctrine Of Incorporation, Kurt Lash

Indiana Law Journal

The incorporation of the Bill of Rights against the states by way of the Fourteenth Amendment raises a host of textual, historical, and doctrinal difficulties. This is true even if (especially if) we accept the Fourteenth Amendment as having made the original Bill of Rights binding against the states. Does this mean we have two Bills of Rights, one applicable against the federal government with a “1791” meaning and a second applicable against the state governments with an “1868” meaning? Do 1791 understandings carry forward into the 1868 amendment? Or do 1868 understandings of the Bill of Rights carry backward …


Systemic Racism In The U.S. Immigration Laws, Kevin R. Johnson Oct 2022

Systemic Racism In The U.S. Immigration Laws, Kevin R. Johnson

Indiana Law Journal

This Essay analyzes how aggressive activism in a California mountain town at the tail end of the nineteenth century commenced a chain reaction resulting in state and ultimately national anti-Chinese immigration laws. The constitutional immunity through which the Supreme Court upheld those laws deeply affected the future trajectory of U.S. immigration law and policy.

Responding to sustained political pressure from the West, Congress in 1882 passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, an infamous piece of unabashedly racist legislation that commenced a long process of barring immigration from all of Asia to the United States. In upholding the Act, the Supreme Court …


Compelled Disclosure And The Workplace Rights It Enables, Catherine Fisk Jul 2022

Compelled Disclosure And The Workplace Rights It Enables, Catherine Fisk

Indiana Law Journal

Worker and consumer protection laws often rely on the regulated entity to notify workers or consumers of their legal rights because it is effective and efficient to provide information at the time and place where it is most likely to be useful. Until the Supreme Court ruled in NIFLA v. Becerra in 2018 that a California law regulating crisis pregnancy centers was an unconstitutional speaker-based, contentdiscriminatory regulation of speech, mandatory disclosure laws were constitutionally uncontroversial economic regulation. Yet, the day after striking down a disclosure law in NIFLA, the Court in Janus v. AFSCME Council 31 expanded the right of …


The Pledge Of Allegiance And Compelled Speech Revisited: Requiring Parental Consent, Caroline Mala Corbin Jul 2022

The Pledge Of Allegiance And Compelled Speech Revisited: Requiring Parental Consent, Caroline Mala Corbin

Indiana Law Journal

Since the Supreme Court decided West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette in 1943, free speech law has been clear: public schools may not force students to recite the Pledge of Allegiance. Nevertheless, in two states—Texas and Florida— students may decline to participate only with parental permission. The Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the law on the grounds that the parental requirement furthered parents’ substantive due process right to control the upbringing of their children.

The Eleventh Circuit decision is flawed both in its understanding of the First Amendment right to be free of compelled speech and the …


Nifla And The Construction Of Compelled Speech Doctrine, Robert Post Jul 2022

Nifla And The Construction Of Compelled Speech Doctrine, Robert Post

Indiana Law Journal

Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette. There are good and convincing explanations for the Court’s decision in Barnette, but the Court’s recent expansion of the doctrine, culminating in National Institute of Family & Life Advocates (NIFLA) v. Becerra, holds that compelled speech is in most instances “content-based” regulation requiring heightened judicial scrutiny.

Using examples ranging from professional malpractice to compulsory tax returns, this Article argues that the doctrinal rule of NIFLA is demonstrably incorrect. It suggests that the doctrinal category of “compelled speech” may itself be confused insofar as it imagines that all legal obligations to communicate are equally …


Tort Law Implications Of Compelled Physician Speech, Nadia N. Sawicki Jul 2022

Tort Law Implications Of Compelled Physician Speech, Nadia N. Sawicki

Indiana Law Journal

Abortion-specific informed consent laws in many states compel physicians to communicate state-mandated information that is arguably inaccurate, immaterial, and inconsistent with their professional obligations. These laws face ongoing First Amendment challenges as violations of the constitutional right against compelled speech. This Article argues that laws compelling physician speech also pose significant problems that should concern scholars of tort law.

State laws that impose tort liability on physicians who refuse to communicate a state-mandated message often do so by deviating from foundational principles of tort law. Not only do they change the substantive disclosure duties of physicians under informed consent law, …


God Is My Roommate? Tax Exemptions For Parsonages Yesterday, Today, And (If Constitutional) Tomorrow, Samuel D. Brunson Jan 2021

God Is My Roommate? Tax Exemptions For Parsonages Yesterday, Today, And (If Constitutional) Tomorrow, Samuel D. Brunson

Indiana Law Journal

In 2019, the Seventh Circuit decided an Establishment Clause question that had been percolating through the courts for two decades. It held that the parsonage allowance, which permits “ministers of the gospel” to receive an untaxed housing allowance, does not violate the Establishment Clause of the Constitution. It grounded its conclusion in part on the “historical significance” test the Supreme Court established in its Town of Greece v. Galloway decision.

In coming to that conclusion, the Seventh Circuit cited a 200-year unbroken history of property tax exemptions for religious property. According to the Seventh Circuit, that history demonstrated that both …


Gerrymandering & Justiciability: The Political Question Doctrine After Rucho V. Common Cause, G. Michael Parsons Oct 2020

Gerrymandering & Justiciability: The Political Question Doctrine After Rucho V. Common Cause, G. Michael Parsons

Indiana Law Journal

This Article deconstructs Rucho’s articulation and application of the political question doctrine and makes two contributions. First, the Article disentangles the political question doctrine from neighboring justiciability doctrines. The result is a set of substantive principles that should guide federal courts as they exercise a range of routine judicial functions—remedial, adjudicative, and interpretive. Rather than unrealistically attempting to draw crisp jurisdictional boundaries between exercises of “political” and “judicial” power, the political question doctrine should seek to moderate their inevitable (and frequent) clash. Standing doctrine should continue to guide courts in determining whether they have authority over a case involving a …


The Fourth Amendment At Home, Thomas P. Crocker Oct 2020

The Fourth Amendment At Home, Thomas P. Crocker

Indiana Law Journal

A refuge, a domain of personal privacy, and the seat of familial life, the home holds a special place in Fourth Amendment jurisprudence. Supreme Court opinions are replete with statements affirming the special status of the home. Fourth Amendment text places special emphasis on securing protections for the home in addition to persons, papers, and effects against unwarranted government intrusion. Beyond the Fourth Amendment, the home has a unique place within constitutional structure. The home receives privacy protections in addition to sheltering other constitutional values protected by the Due Process Clause and the First Amendment. For example, under the Due …


Policing The Wombs Of The World's Women: The Mexico City Policy, Samantha Lalisan Jul 2020

Policing The Wombs Of The World's Women: The Mexico City Policy, Samantha Lalisan

Indiana Law Journal

This Comment argues that the Policy should be repealed because it undermines

firmly held First Amendment values and would be considered unconstitutional if

applied to domestic nongovernmental organizations (DNGOs). It proceeds in four

parts. Part I describes the inception of the Policy and contextualizes it among other

antiabortion policies that resulted as a backlash to the U.S. Supreme Court’s

landmark decision in Roe v. Wade. Part II explains the Policy’s actual effect on

FNGOs, particularly focusing on organizations based in Nepal and Peru, and argues

that the Policy undermines democratic processes abroad and fails to achieve its stated

objective: reducing …


Constitutionally Unaccountable: Privatized Immigration Detention, Danielle C. Jefferis Jan 2020

Constitutionally Unaccountable: Privatized Immigration Detention, Danielle C. Jefferis

Indiana Law Journal

For-profit, civil immigration detention is one of this nation’s fastest growing industries. About two-thirds of the more than 50,000 people in the civil custody of federal immigration authorities find themselves at one point or another in a private, corporate-run prison that contracts with the federal government. Conditions of confinement in many of these facilities are dismal. Detainees have suffered from untreated medical conditions and endured months, in some cases years, of detention in environments that are unsafe and, at times, violent. Some have died. Yet, the spaces are largely unregulated. This Article exposes and examines the absence of a constitutional …


The Recent Unpleasantness: Understanding The Cycles Of Constitutional Time, Jack M. Balkin Jan 2019

The Recent Unpleasantness: Understanding The Cycles Of Constitutional Time, Jack M. Balkin

Indiana Law Journal

In this Article, I will talk about what I expect is going to happen in the next five to ten years. Unlike eclipses, however, one can’t be entirely sure of the future. Politics is not astronomy, and human affairs do not operate like clockwork. Moreover, we can’t assume that everything is already foreordained: that if people simply sit on their hands and do nothing, the cycles I describe in this lecture will take care of themselves. Quite the contrary. I am telling a story about what happens in the long run, but it is not a deterministic story. The actions …


Immigration As Commerce: A New Look At The Federal Immigration Power And The Constitution, Jennifer Gordon Jul 2018

Immigration As Commerce: A New Look At The Federal Immigration Power And The Constitution, Jennifer Gordon

Indiana Law Journal

When the United States government sets immigration law and policy, how much attention must it pay to constitutional rights? This question has been much debated since President Donald Trump issued a series of immigration-related executive orders in his first week in office, including a bar on entry by citizens of a set of majority-Muslim countries, but it was controversial long before then. In important part, the answer depends on what the Constitution says about the scope and limits of the power of the federal government over immigration. Therein lies the tale. On this subject, the country’s founding documents say very …


Constitutional Possibilities, Lawrence B. Solum Jan 2008

Constitutional Possibilities, Lawrence B. Solum

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Lost Constitutional Moorings: Recovering The War Power, Louis Fisher Oct 2006

Lost Constitutional Moorings: Recovering The War Power, Louis Fisher

Indiana Law Journal

For the past half century, Presidents have claimed constitutional authority to take the country from a state of peace to a state of war against another nation. That was precisely the power that the Framers denied to the President and vested exclusively in Congress. That allocation of power was understood by all three branches until President Harry Truman went to war against North Korea in 1950. He never came to Congress for authority before he acted or at any time thereafter. Similar false claims of authority have been made by Presidents since that time. These constitutional violations have been assisted …


Architexture, Akhil Reed Amar Oct 2002

Architexture, Akhil Reed Amar

Indiana Law Journal

Addison C. Harris Lecture, March 20, 2002


Ronald Dworkin's The Moral Reading Of The Constitution: A Critique, Raoul Berger Oct 1997

Ronald Dworkin's The Moral Reading Of The Constitution: A Critique, Raoul Berger

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Jack Rakove's Rendition Of Original Meaning, Raoul Berger Jul 1997

Jack Rakove's Rendition Of Original Meaning, Raoul Berger

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Uniform Commercial Code Meets The Seventh Amendment: The Demise Of Jury Trials Under Article 5?, Margaret L. Moses Jul 1997

The Uniform Commercial Code Meets The Seventh Amendment: The Demise Of Jury Trials Under Article 5?, Margaret L. Moses

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Draw And Drawbacks Of Religious Enclaves In A Constitutional Democracy: Hasidic Public Schools In Kiryas Joel, Judith Lynn Failer Apr 1997

The Draw And Drawbacks Of Religious Enclaves In A Constitutional Democracy: Hasidic Public Schools In Kiryas Joel, Judith Lynn Failer

Indiana Law Journal

Symposium: Law and Civil Society


On Political Boundary Lines, Multiculturalism, And The Liberal State, Sanford Levinson Apr 1997

On Political Boundary Lines, Multiculturalism, And The Liberal State, Sanford Levinson

Indiana Law Journal

Symposium: Law and Civil Society


The Rhetorical Constitution Of "Civil Society" At The Founding: One Lawyer's Anxious Vision, Stephen A. Conrad Apr 1997

The Rhetorical Constitution Of "Civil Society" At The Founding: One Lawyer's Anxious Vision, Stephen A. Conrad

Indiana Law Journal

Symposium: Law and Civil Society


Constitutional Barriers To Smooth Sailing: 14 U.S.C. § 89(A) And The Fourth Amendment, Megan Jaye Kight Apr 1997

Constitutional Barriers To Smooth Sailing: 14 U.S.C. § 89(A) And The Fourth Amendment, Megan Jaye Kight

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Civil Society And The American Foundings, Jack P. Greene Apr 1997

Civil Society And The American Foundings, Jack P. Greene

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Presence Of A Web Site As A Constitutionally Permissible Basis For Personal Jurisdiction, Christine E. Mayewski Jan 1997

The Presence Of A Web Site As A Constitutionally Permissible Basis For Personal Jurisdiction, Christine E. Mayewski

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Religious Visitation Constraints On The Noncustodial Parent: The Need For National Application Of A Uniform Compelling Interest Test, Kevin S. Smith Jul 1996

Religious Visitation Constraints On The Noncustodial Parent: The Need For National Application Of A Uniform Compelling Interest Test, Kevin S. Smith

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Title Ix Tug-Of-War And Intercollegiate Athletics In The 1990'S: Nonrevenue Men's Teams Join Women Athletes In The Scramble For Survival, Susan M. Shook Jul 1996

The Title Ix Tug-Of-War And Intercollegiate Athletics In The 1990'S: Nonrevenue Men's Teams Join Women Athletes In The Scramble For Survival, Susan M. Shook

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Choice Of Law And The Forgiving Constitution, Gene R. Shreve Apr 1996

Choice Of Law And The Forgiving Constitution, Gene R. Shreve

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Measured Constitutional Steps, Lisa A. Kloppenberg Apr 1996

Measured Constitutional Steps, Lisa A. Kloppenberg

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Preventing Sexual Violence: Setting Principled Constitutional Boundaries On Sex Offender Commitments, Eric S. Janus Jan 1996

Preventing Sexual Violence: Setting Principled Constitutional Boundaries On Sex Offender Commitments, Eric S. Janus

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.