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Regulating Noncompetes Beyond The Common Law: The Uniform Restrictive Employment Agreement Act, Stewart J. Schwab Jan 2022

Regulating Noncompetes Beyond The Common Law: The Uniform Restrictive Employment Agreement Act, Stewart J. Schwab

Indiana Law Journal

The common law has never treated a post-employment noncompete agreement between employer and employee like an ordinary contract. Rather, a court will enforce a noncompete only if it is reasonably tailored in time, geography, and scope of business to further a legitimate employer interest. Suppressing competition is an understandable but not legitimate interest.

While the common-law approach works well enough for some occupations, it is problematic for both workers and employers in many cases. It is a challenge for workers who don’t know about the noncompete until after starting work, for lowwage workers who are unlikely to have trade secrets …


Illusory Privacy, Thomas Haley Jan 2022

Illusory Privacy, Thomas Haley

Indiana Law Journal

For decades, regulators, consumer advocates, and privacy theorists have grappled with one of privacy’s most important questions: how to protect private information that consumers unwittingly give away with the click of an “I accept” button. Reform efforts remain mired in a morass of text, focusing on the increasing volume and complexity of firms’ terms of service and privacy policies. This Article moves beyond such existing approaches. By analyzing terms of service and privacy policies from hundreds of top websites—which this Article calls “platform terms”—this Article demonstrates that the prevailing “notice and consent” paradigm of privacy regulation cannot provide meaningful protection. …


Do Social Movements Spur Corporate Change? The Rise Of “Metoo Termination Rights” In Ceo Contracts, Rachel Arnow-Richman, James Hicks, Steven Davidoff Solomon Jan 2022

Do Social Movements Spur Corporate Change? The Rise Of “Metoo Termination Rights” In Ceo Contracts, Rachel Arnow-Richman, James Hicks, Steven Davidoff Solomon

Indiana Law Journal

Do social movements spur corporate change? This Article sheds new empirical and theoretical light on the issue through an original study of executive contracts before and after MeToo. The MeToo movement, beginning in late 2017, exposed a workplace culture seemingly permissive of high-level, sex-based misconduct. Companies typically responded slowly and imposed few consequences on perpetrators, often allowing them to depart with lucrative exit packages. Why did companies reward rather than penalize bad actors, and has the movement disrupted this culture of complicity?

The passage of time since the height of the movement allows us to investigate these issues empirically, using …


Enforcing Outbound Forum Selection Clauses In State Court, John Coyle, Katherine Robinson Jul 2021

Enforcing Outbound Forum Selection Clauses In State Court, John Coyle, Katherine Robinson

Indiana Law Journal

Forum selection clauses are a staple of modern business law. Parties agree, ex ante, on where they can sue one another and then rely on the courts to enforce these agreements. Although the number of contracts containing forum selection clauses has skyrocketed in recent years, there is a dearth of empirical information about enforcement practice at the state level. Are there any states that refuse to enforce them? How frequently are they enforced? Under what circumstances, if any, will these clauses be deemed unenforceable? The existing literature provides few answers to these questions.

This Article aims to fill that gap. …


Contract Law’S Transferability Bias, Paul Macmahon Apr 2020

Contract Law’S Transferability Bias, Paul Macmahon

Indiana Law Journal

When A makes a contract with B, it comes as no surprise that she is liable to B. If B can transfer her contractual rights to C, A is now liable to C. Parties in A’s position often have strong reasons to avoid being liable to suit by C. Contract law, however, seems determined to minimize and override these concerns. Under current doctrine on the assignment of contractual rights—the focus of this Article—the law often imposes its own preference for transferability on the parties. The law generally assumes that contractual rights are assignable, construes exceptions to that general rule narrowly, …


Arbitration And The Federal Balance, Alyssa King Oct 2019

Arbitration And The Federal Balance, Alyssa King

Indiana Law Journal

Mandatory arbitration of statutory rights in contracts between parties of unequal bargaining power has drawn political attention at both the federal and state level. The importance of such reforms has only been heightened by the Supreme Court’s expansion of preemption under the FAA and of arbitral authority. This case law creates incentives for courts at all levels to prefer expansive readings of an arbitration clause. As attempts at federal regulation have stalled, state legislatures and regulatory agencies can expect to be subject to renewed focus. If state legislatures cannot easily limit arbitrability, an alternative is to try reforms that seek …


Boilerplate Indignity, Erik Encarnacion Oct 2019

Boilerplate Indignity, Erik Encarnacion

Indiana Law Journal

Commentators have long tried to sound the alarm about boilerplate contracts, pointing out threats ranging from the loss of privacy rights to the erosion of public law and democratic self-governance. This Article argues that this list of concerns misses something important: that imposing certain boilerplate terms on individuals is incompatible with their dignity. After explaining and defending the conception of dignity presupposed here, this Article shows how boilerplate accountability waivers—like arbitration clauses—prevent people from accessing the distinctive dignity-vindicating role of courts and degrade their status as legal persons. And because governments may legitimately protect dignity interests, proposed reforms like the …


Protecting Consumers As Sellers, Jim Hawkins Oct 2019

Protecting Consumers As Sellers, Jim Hawkins

Indiana Law Journal

When the majority of modern contract and consumer protection laws were written in the 1950s, ’60s, and ’70s, consumers almost always acted as buyers, and businesses almost always acted as sellers. As a result, these laws reflect a model of strong sellers and weak buyers. But paradigms are shifting. Advances in technology and constraints on consumers’ financial lives have pushed consumers into new roles. Consumers today often act as sellers—hawking gold to make ends meet, peddling durable goods on eBay, or offering services in the sharing economy to make a profit. Consumers and business models have changed, but the laws …


Bitcoin: Order Without Law In The Digital Age, John O. Mcginnis, Kyle Roche Oct 2019

Bitcoin: Order Without Law In The Digital Age, John O. Mcginnis, Kyle Roche

Indiana Law Journal

Modern law makes currency a creature of the state and ultimately the value of its currency depends on the public’s trust in that state. While some nations are more capable than others at instilling public trust in the stability of their monetary institutions, it is nonetheless impossible for any legal system to make the pre-commitments necessary to completely isolate the governance of its money supply from political pressure. This proposition is true not only today, where nearly all government institutions manage their money supply in the form of central banking, but also true of past private banking regimes circulating their …


Licenses And The Property/Contract Interface, Christina M. Mulligan Jan 2018

Licenses And The Property/Contract Interface, Christina M. Mulligan

Indiana Law Journal

INTRODUCTION

I. THE ROLE OF FORMAL CATEGORIES

II. THE COMPOUND-PAUCITAL LICENSE

A. IDIOSYNCRASY AND INFORMATION ASYMMETRIES

B. REGULATING LICENSES

1. THE NOTICE STRATEGY

2. THE PROTECTION STRATEGY

III. RESTRAINTS ON ALIENATION AND USE

A. HARMS CAUSED BY RESTRAINTS ON ALIENATION AND USE

1. INCREASED INFORMATION COSTS

2.WASTE

B. LIMITING HARM WITH PROTECTIVE STANDARDIZATION

1. THE LICENSE V. SALE DISTINCTION IN PRACTICE

2.WHAT IS A DIGITAL SALE?

3. FAVORING SALES WITHOUT LOSING FLEXIBILITY

C. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN IN REM AND IN PERSONAM LICENSE TERMS

IV. LICENSE REVOCATION

A. TIMING REVOCATION

B. BENEFITS AND CONCERNS

1.MANAGING SHARED RESOURCES VS. UPSET RELIANCE INTERESTS

2. …


Collapsing Illusions: Standards For Setting Efficient Contract And Other Defaults, Steven J. Burton Apr 2016

Collapsing Illusions: Standards For Setting Efficient Contract And Other Defaults, Steven J. Burton

Indiana Law Journal

In this Essay, Professor Burton analyzes and evaluates four commonly used standards for setting efficient default rules and standards. Based on two theoretical insights, he shows that three of them collapse upon analysis into the fourth, a Coasian standard that turns out to be a dead end. The theoretical upshot is that the Coase Theorem often is a good reason to use defaults rather than mandatory rules or standards. But neither the theorem nor reference to a transaction-costless world sustains particular defaults. To set an efficient default, the law should guide courts toward supplying terms that parties should have adopted …


College Football Coaches’ Pay And Contracts: Are They Overpaid And Unfairly Treated?􀀃, Randall Thomas, Lawrence Van Horn Jan 2016

College Football Coaches’ Pay And Contracts: Are They Overpaid And Unfairly Treated?􀀃, Randall Thomas, Lawrence Van Horn

Indiana Law Journal

College football coaches’ employment contracts and compensation garner public attention and scrutiny in much the same way as those of corporate CEOs. In both cases, the public perception is that they must be overpaid and pampered. Economic theory claims that for coaches and CEOs to be overpaid, they must be receiving compensation in excess of the value they create for their organizations. However, both receive pay-for-performance compensation, which structurally aligns their compensation with value creation. This means we need to examine the underlying structure of the contract that gives rise to the observed compensation to determine whether they are appropriately …


Why The State Cannot “Abolish Marriage”: A Partial Defense Of Legal Marriage, Gregg P. Strauss Jul 2015

Why The State Cannot “Abolish Marriage”: A Partial Defense Of Legal Marriage, Gregg P. Strauss

Indiana Law Journal

Does a liberal state have a legitimate interest in defining the terms of intimate relationships? Recently, several scholars have answered this question with a no and concluded that the state should abolish marriage, along with all other categories of intimate status. While politically infeasible, these proposals offer a powerful thought experiment. In this Article, I use this thought experiment to argue that the law cannot avoid relying on intimate-status norms and has legitimate reasons to retain an intimate status like marriage.

The argument has three parts. The primary lesson of the thought experiment is that the state cannot abolish intimate …


Good-Cause Statutes Revisited: An Empirical Assessment, Adi Ayal, Uri Benoliel Jul 2015

Good-Cause Statutes Revisited: An Empirical Assessment, Adi Ayal, Uri Benoliel

Indiana Law Journal

One of the most vital debates in franchise law focuses on whether state or federal law should adopt “good-cause statutes” (GCSs), which require franchisors to show good cause before terminating contractual relations with a franchisee. The traditional law-and-economics analysis suggests that GCSs are inefficient. This inefficiency argument is based upon one central hypothesis: GCSs increase franchisee free riding since they limit the franchisor’s ability to terminate the franchise contract easily. The free-riding hypothesis has been significantly influential in the development of franchise law, as is evident in state and federal statutory regimes. To date, the majority of states and the …


Legislating Labors Of Love: Revisiting Commercial Surrogacy In New York, Deborah Machalow Jan 2015

Legislating Labors Of Love: Revisiting Commercial Surrogacy In New York, Deborah Machalow

Indiana Law Journal

After over twenty years of status quo, the New York Legislature has an opportunity to liberalize its surrogacy laws whether during this legislative session or the next. By adopting the proposals with the suggested changes, the Legislature would simultaneously bring the law into conformity with the desires of many New Yorkers and recognize important technological developments. The proposals are marked improvements on the present prohibitory regime; however, they are not perfect. The legislature should consider further protections for the parties to surrogacy arrangements and amend the proposals accordingly. The legislature’s renewed interest in the topic is refreshing; this interest should …


New Thinking On Commercial Surrogacy, Richard F. Storrow Oct 2013

New Thinking On Commercial Surrogacy, Richard F. Storrow

Indiana Law Journal

Roundtable on Regulating Assisted Reproductive Technology 2012


Mothering For Money: Regulating Commercial Intimacy, Surrogacy, Adoption,, Pamela Laufer-Ukeles Oct 2013

Mothering For Money: Regulating Commercial Intimacy, Surrogacy, Adoption,, Pamela Laufer-Ukeles

Indiana Law Journal

Roundtable on Regulating Assisted Reproductive Technology 2012


A Lesson On Some Limits Of Economic Analysis: Schwartz And Scott On Contract Interpretation, Steven J. Burton Jan 2013

A Lesson On Some Limits Of Economic Analysis: Schwartz And Scott On Contract Interpretation, Steven J. Burton

Indiana Law Journal

Contract interpretation has been a hot topic of scholarly debate since 2003, when Professors Alan Schwartz of Yale and Robert E. Scott of Columbia published their provocative article, Contract Theory and the Limits of Contract Law, much of which develops an efficiency theory of contract interpretation. In 2010, they published a restatement of this theory and reply to critics, which has not yet drawn much commentary. This Article suggests that, even as restated, their theory offers an object lesson on some limits of economic analyses of the law. The Article assumes that their central argument is mathematically and economically impeccable. …


Interfaith Marriage In Islam: An Examination Of The Legal Theory Behind The Traditional And Reformist Positions, Alex B. Leeman Apr 2009

Interfaith Marriage In Islam: An Examination Of The Legal Theory Behind The Traditional And Reformist Positions, Alex B. Leeman

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Myth Of Home Ownership And Why Home Ownership Is Not Always A Good Thing, A. Mechele Dickerson Jan 2009

The Myth Of Home Ownership And Why Home Ownership Is Not Always A Good Thing, A. Mechele Dickerson

Indiana Law Journal

Home ownership is viewed as key to achieving the "American Dream " and is now an essential element of the American cultural norm of what it means to be a success. The metastasizing mortgage crisis suggests, however, that our home ownership policies are out-dated, misguided, and largely ignore the actual market realities many potential homeowners now face. After briefly describing the current home ownership crisis, this Article argues that the United States should radically revise and restrict home ownership subsidies. Rather than encouraging universal home ownership, the Article argues that the government should replace existing home ownership subsidies with targeted …


On Virtual Worlds: Copyright And Contract Law At The Dawn Of The Virtual Age, Erez Reuveni Apr 2007

On Virtual Worlds: Copyright And Contract Law At The Dawn Of The Virtual Age, Erez Reuveni

Indiana Law Journal

This Article argues that copyright law can and should apply to artistic and literary creations occurring entirely in virtual worlds. First, the Article introduces the concept of virtual worlds as places millions of people visit not only for entertainment but also for life and work. Second, the Article reviews the philosophical justifications for copyright, examines objections to applying copyright to virtual, rather than real, creative works, and concludes that neither precludes copyright for virtual creations. Third, the Article articulates how copyright law would function within virtual spaces and reviews copyrightable creations from the perspective of both game developers and players. …


One More Time: Alimony, Intuition, And The Remarriage-Termination Rules, Judicial Termination Rules, Al Termination Rule, Cynthia Lee Starnes Jul 2006

One More Time: Alimony, Intuition, And The Remarriage-Termination Rules, Judicial Termination Rules, Al Termination Rule, Cynthia Lee Starnes

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Contract Theory In Nineteenth-Century Indiana Courts: An Argument For Non-Bargain Based Promissory Liability, Paul Dubbeling Apr 2005

Contract Theory In Nineteenth-Century Indiana Courts: An Argument For Non-Bargain Based Promissory Liability, Paul Dubbeling

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Lean And Green? Environmental Law And Policy And The Flexible Production Economy, Dennis D. Hirsch Jul 2004

Lean And Green? Environmental Law And Policy And The Flexible Production Economy, Dennis D. Hirsch

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Death Of Offers, Val D. Ricks Jul 2004

The Death Of Offers, Val D. Ricks

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Reconsidering The Mythical Advantages Of Cohabitation: Why Marriage Is More Efficient Than Cohabitation, Eric P. Voigt Oct 2003

Reconsidering The Mythical Advantages Of Cohabitation: Why Marriage Is More Efficient Than Cohabitation, Eric P. Voigt

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Reconcilable Differences: The Supreme Court Should Allow The Marriage Of Brady And Plea Bargaining, Andrew P. O'Brien Jul 2003

Reconcilable Differences: The Supreme Court Should Allow The Marriage Of Brady And Plea Bargaining, Andrew P. O'Brien

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Rehnquist's Vietnam: Constitutional Separatism And The Stealth Advance Of Martial Law, Diane H. Mazur Oct 2002

Rehnquist's Vietnam: Constitutional Separatism And The Stealth Advance Of Martial Law, Diane H. Mazur

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Contracts-Breach Distinguished From Rescission Nov 2001

Contracts-Breach Distinguished From Rescission

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


A "Frozen Exception" For The Frozen Embryo: The Davis "Reasonable Alternatives Exception", Jennifer L. Medenwald Apr 2001

A "Frozen Exception" For The Frozen Embryo: The Davis "Reasonable Alternatives Exception", Jennifer L. Medenwald

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.