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Full-Text Articles in Law

Zinā In The Criminal Legislation Act (1999-2000): An Evaluation Of The Implication For Muslim Women's Right In Nigeria, Paul Orerhime Akpomie May 2022

Zinā In The Criminal Legislation Act (1999-2000): An Evaluation Of The Implication For Muslim Women's Right In Nigeria, Paul Orerhime Akpomie

Theses and Dissertations

The research engages in an exploration of human rights in Islam. Human rights issues are then contrasted with international law positions. The data gotten is then used for investigating women’s human rights issues in Shariʾa penal tradition regarding zinā (adultery) in Nigeria. The re-emergence of Sharia penal codes adopted by 12 Northern states in Nigeria in 1999 as an operative Islamic law has sparked concerns about rulings amounting to stoning to death in several cases of zinā. These events raised concerns about Shariʾa penal traditions’ legality and relationship with other legal traditions operational in Nigeria, a secular political space ...


White Supremacy, Police Brutality, And Family Separation: Preventing Crimes Against Humanity Within The United States, Elena Baylis Jan 2022

White Supremacy, Police Brutality, And Family Separation: Preventing Crimes Against Humanity Within The United States, Elena Baylis

Articles

Although the United States tends to treat crimes against humanity as a danger that exists only in authoritarian or war-torn states, in fact, there is a real risk of crimes against humanity occurring within the United States, as illustrated by events such as systemic police brutality against Black Americans, the federal government’s family separation policy that took thousands of immigrant children from their parents at the southern border, and the dramatic escalation of White supremacist and extremist violence culminating in the January 6, 2021 attack on the U.S. Capitol. In spite of this risk, the United States does ...


Overcoming Obstacles To Reentry Panel, Mackenzie Hobbs Oct 2021

Overcoming Obstacles To Reentry Panel, Mackenzie Hobbs

Tennessee Journal of Race, Gender, & Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Rose Lecture, Mackenzie Hobbs Oct 2021

Rose Lecture, Mackenzie Hobbs

Tennessee Journal of Race, Gender, & Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, Mackenzie Hobbs Oct 2021

Front Matter, Mackenzie Hobbs

Tennessee Journal of Race, Gender, & Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Book Review Of Charged: The New Movement To Transform American Prosecution And End Mass Incarceration, Justin Murray Oct 2021

Book Review Of Charged: The New Movement To Transform American Prosecution And End Mass Incarceration, Justin Murray

Journal of Legal Education

No abstract provided.


Grand Juries Should Not Hear Police Misconduct Cases: Grand Juries Will Indict Anything, But A Police Officer, Kaeleigh Wiliams Oct 2021

Grand Juries Should Not Hear Police Misconduct Cases: Grand Juries Will Indict Anything, But A Police Officer, Kaeleigh Wiliams

SLU Law Journal Online

Grand juries will indict everyone but police officers. In this article, Kaeleigh Williams argues that the time has come for a new mechanism to be used in police officer misconduct cases.


Criminal Law’S Core Principles, Paul H. Robinson Oct 2021

Criminal Law’S Core Principles, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Modern criminal law scholars and policymakers assume they are free to construct criminal law rules by focusing exclusively on the criminal justice theory of the day. But this “blank slate” conception of criminal lawmaking is dangerously misguided. In fact, lawmakers are writing on a slate on which core principles are already indelibly written and realistically they are free only to add detail in the implementation of those principles and to add additional provisions not inconsistent with them. Attempts to do otherwise are destined to produce tragic results from both utilitarian and retributivist views.

Many writers dispute that such core principles ...


Man Camps And Bad Men: Litigating Violence Against American Indian Women, Ana Condes Oct 2021

Man Camps And Bad Men: Litigating Violence Against American Indian Women, Ana Condes

Northwestern University Law Review

The crisis of sexual violence plaguing Indian Country is made drastically worse by oil-pipeline construction, which often occurs near reservations. The “man camps” constructed to house pipeline workers are hotbeds of rape, domestic violence, and sex trafficking, and American Indian women are frequently targeted due to a perception that men will not be prosecuted for assaulting them. Victims have little recourse, facing underfunded police departments, indifferent prosecutors, and a federal government all too willing to turn a blind eye to the ongoing violence.

This Note proposes a litigation strategy for tribes to address the crisis and compel federal action. Litigation ...


Identifying The Most Democratic Institution To Lead Criminal Justice Reform, Harry B. Dodsworth Oct 2021

Identifying The Most Democratic Institution To Lead Criminal Justice Reform, Harry B. Dodsworth

Northwestern University Law Review

American criminal justice is in crisis, and most scholars agree why: unduly severe laws, mass incarceration, and disproportionate effects on minority groups. But they don’t agree on a solution. One group of scholars—known as the “democratizers”—thinks the answer is to make the criminal justice system more democratic. According to democratizers, layperson participation and local democratic control will impart sensibility into criminal justice reform. In short, a transfer of power away from distant lawmakers and toward local communities, which would craft their own criminal codes and elect their own prosecutors. This argument assumes that more local means more ...


Case Study: The International Criminal Tribunal For The Former Yugoslavia’S Court Transcripts In Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian—Part 1: Needs, Feasibility, And Output Assessment, Besmir Fidahić Oct 2021

Case Study: The International Criminal Tribunal For The Former Yugoslavia’S Court Transcripts In Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian—Part 1: Needs, Feasibility, And Output Assessment, Besmir Fidahić

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) remains the most important organization for the past, the present, and the future of the former Yugoslavia. Faced with a country that always lived under totalitarian regimes with very little insight into actions of the groups and individuals who reaped unthinkable havoc on each other at the end of the twentieth century, the ICTY set undisputable historical record about events that took place during the 1991–1999 wars and put the country on an excellent track towards transformation for the better. But even 28 years since the establishment of the ICTY, the ...


Corruption And Its Manifestations In The Field Of Public Education At The Present Stage Of Development Of The Republic Of Uzbekistan, Abdullayeva Malikabonu Erkin Qizi Oct 2021

Corruption And Its Manifestations In The Field Of Public Education At The Present Stage Of Development Of The Republic Of Uzbekistan, Abdullayeva Malikabonu Erkin Qizi

ProAcademy

The article deals with the concept and signs of corruption in national and international legislation. Based on the analysis of legal definitions of the concept of corruption, lists of acts of corruption in conjunction with the provisions of the most significant international legal acts that laid the foundations for understanding corruption, an attempt is made to determine the list and content of essential features of this social and legal phenomenon. As significant signs of corruption, the author singled out: social harm (danger), sphere of existence, subject of corruption, subjects, use by the subject of corruption of official (official) powers or ...


When Provocation Is No Excuse: Making Gun Owners Bear The Risks Of Carrying In Public, Eric A. Johnson Oct 2021

When Provocation Is No Excuse: Making Gun Owners Bear The Risks Of Carrying In Public, Eric A. Johnson

Buffalo Law Review

Markeis McGlockton, an unarmed 28-year-old African-American father of three, was shot to death in front of his five-year-old son by “wannabe police officer” Michael Drejka during an argument over parking. Because McGlockton had shoved Drejka before Drejka shot him, Drejka was convicted only of heat-of-passion manslaughter, not murder. This Article argues that the heat-of-passion defense shouldn’t be available in cases like Drejka’s—cases where the defendant was carrying a loaded gun in public at the time of the provocation and used the gun to kill his provoker. The heat-of-passion defense is a concession to the difficulty of complying ...


Roper’S Unfinished Business: A New Approach To Young Offender Death Penalty Eligibility, Nichole M. Austin Oct 2021

Roper’S Unfinished Business: A New Approach To Young Offender Death Penalty Eligibility, Nichole M. Austin

Buffalo Law Review

No abstract provided.


Barred By Their Brains: Inmates With Traumatic Brain Injury (Tbi), Claire Mikita Oct 2021

Barred By Their Brains: Inmates With Traumatic Brain Injury (Tbi), Claire Mikita

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming.


Disarming Abusers And Triggering The Sixth Amendment: Are Domestic Violence Misdemeanants Guaranteed The Right To A Jury Trial?, Julia Hatheway Oct 2021

Disarming Abusers And Triggering The Sixth Amendment: Are Domestic Violence Misdemeanants Guaranteed The Right To A Jury Trial?, Julia Hatheway

Fordham Law Review

Domestic violence is a global issue, but in the United States it is especially lethal. Hundreds of women are shot and killed in the United States by intimate partners every year. Federal and state legislatures have enacted laws that focus on the issue of domestic violence and gun violence. In 1996, Congress passed the Lautenberg Amendment to the Gun Control Act of 1968, which permanently prohibits individuals convicted of domestic violence misdemeanors from possessing firearms. Twenty-nine states and the District of Columbia have also enacted laws that mirror the Lautenberg Amendment. In many jurisdictions, misdemeanor domestic violence convictions carry a ...


Red Flag Laws And Procedural Due Process: Analyzing Proposed Utah Legislation, John R. Richardson Oct 2021

Red Flag Laws And Procedural Due Process: Analyzing Proposed Utah Legislation, John R. Richardson

Utah Law Review

In this Note, I analyze the validity of criticism against red flag laws based on procedural due process. I proceed as follows: In Part I, I discuss the background of red flag laws, the different versions passed among states, and the few constitutional challenges brought thus far. In Part II, I analyze the statutes’ validity under federal due process standards. I then specifically examine proposed Utah bills that failed to pass in previous legislative sessions. While providing recommendations, I argue that the legislation would likely pass constitutional muster. In Part III, I conclude that red flag laws are generally constitutional ...


Revocation And Retribution, Jacob Schuman Oct 2021

Revocation And Retribution, Jacob Schuman

Washington Law Review

Revocation of community supervision is a defining feature of American criminal law. Nearly 4.5 million people in the United States are on parole, probation, or supervised release, and 1/3 eventually have their supervision revoked, sending 350,000 to prison each year. Academics, activists, and attorneys warn that “mass supervision” has become a powerful engine of mass incarceration.

This is the first Article to study theories of punishment in revocation of community supervision, focusing on the federal system of supervised release. Federal courts apply a primarily retributive theory of revocation, aiming to sanction defendants for their “breach of trust ...


"Send Freedom House!": A Study In Police Abolition, Tiffany Yang Oct 2021

"Send Freedom House!": A Study In Police Abolition, Tiffany Yang

Washington Law Review

Sparked by the police killings of George Floyd and Breonna Taylor, the 2020 uprisings accelerated a momentum of abolitionist organizing that demands the defunding and dismantling of policing infrastructures. Although a growing body of legal scholarship recognizes abolitionist frameworks when examining conventional proposals for reform, critics mistakenly continue to disregard police abolition as an unrealistic solution. This Essay helps dispel this myth of “impracticality” and illustrates the pragmatism of abolition by identifying a community-driven effort that achieved a meaningful reduction in policing we now take for granted. I detail the history of the Freedom House Ambulance Service, a Black civilian ...


Police Or Pirates? Reforming Washington's Civil Asset Forfeiture System, Jasmin Chigbrow Oct 2021

Police Or Pirates? Reforming Washington's Civil Asset Forfeiture System, Jasmin Chigbrow

Washington Law Review

Civil asset forfeiture laws permit police officers to seize property they suspect is connected to criminal activity and sell or retain the property for the police department’s use. In many states, including Washington, civil forfeiture occurs independent of any criminal case—many property owners are never charged with the offense police allege occurred. Because the government is not required to file criminal charges, property owners facing civil forfeiture lack the constitutional safeguards normally guaranteed to defendants in the criminal justice system: the right to an attorney, the presumption of innocence, the government’s burden to prove its case beyond ...


How The Gun Control Act Disarms Black Firearm Owners, Maya Itah Oct 2021

How The Gun Control Act Disarms Black Firearm Owners, Maya Itah

Washington Law Review

Through 18 U.S.C. § 924(c), the Gun Control Act (GCA) outlaws the possession of a firearm “in furtherance of” a drug trafficking crime. The statute’s language is broad, and federal courts have interpreted it expansively. By giving prosecutors wide discretion in charging individuals with § 924(c) violations, the language enables the disproportionate incarceration of Black firearm owners.

This Comment addresses this issue in three parts. Part I discusses the ways early gun control laws overtly disarmed Black firearm owners. Additionally, Part I provides context for the passage of the Gun Control Act of 1968, which coincided with ...


Police Officers' Perceptions Of The Law Enforcement Narcan Program And The Effectiveness In Fighting The Opioid Epidemic, James Russo Sep 2021

Police Officers' Perceptions Of The Law Enforcement Narcan Program And The Effectiveness In Fighting The Opioid Epidemic, James Russo

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate how police officers perceived the N.J. Narcan policy and standards in saving lives and deterring opioid use. This study also examined the impact of the law enforcement Narcan program in reducing the opioid overdose death rate. Participant interviews will be conducted, and thematic coding will be utilized to capture the dominant themes associated with the police officers’ perceptions of the N.J. Narcan policy and standards in reducing the opioid overdose death rate. Fifteen police officers will participate in the study, and their anonymity will be maintained to elicit transparent ...


When “Empty Is Not Closed”: Organizing Efforts To (Officially) Close St. Louis’ Infamous Workhouse, Brianna Coppersmith Sep 2021

When “Empty Is Not Closed”: Organizing Efforts To (Officially) Close St. Louis’ Infamous Workhouse, Brianna Coppersmith

SLU Law Journal Online

Despite years of community organizing, legal advocacy, and policy change to close St. Louis’ Medium Security Institution, the jail has reopened. In this article, Brianna Coppersmith provides a brief history of the campaign to close the jail, commonly called the Workhouse, and discusses what its reopening might mean for related pending litigation.


Intelligence Sharing In Multinational Military Operations And Complicity Under International Law, Marko Milanovic Sep 2021

Intelligence Sharing In Multinational Military Operations And Complicity Under International Law, Marko Milanovic

International Law Studies

This article examines the international legal framework applicable to intelligence sharing in multinational military operations, with a particular focus on complicity scenarios. It first provides a theoretical overview of the role of fault in complicity, of how intent and knowledge can be conceptualized, and of the attribution of fault to States. It then looks in detail at the rule codified in Article 16 of the International Law Commission’s Articles on State Responsibility, and argues that this rule is best understood as employing multiple modes of fault (direct and indirect intent and wilful blindness). The article also argues that international ...


Forms Of International Legal And Organizational Interaction In The Field Of Counteraction Illicit Drug Trafficking, Psychotropic Substances And Precursors, Musaev Djamaliddin Kamalovich Sep 2021

Forms Of International Legal And Organizational Interaction In The Field Of Counteraction Illicit Drug Trafficking, Psychotropic Substances And Precursors, Musaev Djamaliddin Kamalovich

ProAcademy

The author raises the problem of international cooperation of states in the field of illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. References are given to the main conventions related to this problem, signed in different years. The mechanisms of adoption and the form of practical application of these conventions are disclosed, as well as an analysis of the situation in the world in relation to drug trafficking is given, options for resolving the problem by strengthening the international system for controlling drug trafficking are proposed. A comprehensive analysis of international cooperation on legal and organizational approaches to combating the ...


Police Use Of Force Laws In Texas, Gerald S. Reamey Sep 2021

Police Use Of Force Laws In Texas, Gerald S. Reamey

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract forthcoming.


Factors Associated With Police Shooting Mortality: A Focus On Race And A Plea For More Comprehensive Data, Justin Nix, John Shjarback Sep 2021

Factors Associated With Police Shooting Mortality: A Focus On Race And A Plea For More Comprehensive Data, Justin Nix, John Shjarback

College of Humanities and Social Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Objectives. To quantify nonfatal injurious police shootings of people and examine the factors associated with victim mortality. Methods. We gathered victim-level data on fatal and nonfatal injurious police shootings from four states that have such information publicly available: Florida (2009-14), Colorado (2010-19), Texas (2015-19), and California (2016-19). For each state, we examined bivariate associations between mortality and race/ethnicity, gender, age, weapon, and access to trauma care. We also estimated logistic regression models predicting victim mortality in each state. Results. Forty-five percent of these police shooting victims (N=1,322) did not die. Black-white disparities were more pronounced in nonfatal ...


Call For Action: Provinces And Territories Must Protect Our Genetic Information, Leah Hutt, Elaine Gibson, Erin Kennedy Sep 2021

Call For Action: Provinces And Territories Must Protect Our Genetic Information, Leah Hutt, Elaine Gibson, Erin Kennedy

Dalhousie Law Journal

The Genetic Non-Discrimination Act (GNDA), passed by Parliament in 2017, seeks to protect Canadians’ genetic information. The GNDA establishes certain criminal prohibitions to the use of genetic information and also amends federal employment and human rights legislation to protect against genetic discrimination. However, we argue that the GNDA alone is insufficient to protect Canadians given constitutional limitations on the powers of the federal government. Areas of profound importance relating to genetic discrimination are governed by the provinces and territories. We identify three key areas of provincial/territorial jurisdiction relevant to protection against genetic discrimination and outline the applicable legislative environments ...


Death By Police: When “Protecting And Serving” Goes Wrong, Hesper Mallis Aug 2021

Death By Police: When “Protecting And Serving” Goes Wrong, Hesper Mallis

Symposium of Student Scholars

The recent cases of law enforcement using lethal force in the United States have gained massive public attention. My dataset is from the Mapping Police Violence website. The website’s focus was to create a heat map to display where police killings occurred most frequently. The website has a dataset with information on 7,664 deaths of suspects. The variables in the dataset include age, sex and race of the suspect; geographic location; alleged threat level; alleged weapon; cause of death; and criminal charges against the officer. In addition, the variables include whether the individual had a mental illness, was ...


Marijuana Arrests In Toronto Canada: A Look Into The Canadian Criminal Justice System, Steven Tully Aug 2021

Marijuana Arrests In Toronto Canada: A Look Into The Canadian Criminal Justice System, Steven Tully

Symposium of Student Scholars

Marijuana related drug offenses made up fifty-eight percent of all Controlled Drugs and Substances Act offenses in Canada in 2016. On October 17, 2018, Canada legalized marijuana. As part of the efforts to legalize marijuana, descriptive statistics of single variables, like the age of the arrestees and the number of people arrested per year, were reported by the Toronto Star newspaper. The dataset analyzed in this research predates the legalization of marijuana and was collected from 1997 to 2002 on 5,226 individuals arrested in Toronto, Canada for simple possession of small quantities of marijuana. When an offender was arrested ...