Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Criminal Law

Series

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 7550

Full-Text Articles in Law

The New Pornography Wars, Julie A. Dahlstrom Jan 2023

The New Pornography Wars, Julie A. Dahlstrom

Faculty Scholarship

The world’s largest online pornography conglomerate, MindGeek, has come under fire for the publishing of “rape videos,” child pornography, and nonconsensual pornography on its website, Pornhub. As in the “pornography wars” of the 1970s and 1980s, lawyers and activists have now turned to civil remedies and filed creative anti-trafficking lawsuits against MindGeek and third parties, like payment processing company, Visa. These lawsuits seek not only to achieve legal accountability for online sex trafficking but also to reframe a broader array of online harms as sex trafficking.

This Article explores what these new trafficking lawsuits mean for the future regulation of …


Criminality And Inequity Under Canada's Legalization Of Cannabis: A Study Of Vancouver's Downtown Eastside, Stephanie Lake, Margot Young Jan 2023

Criminality And Inequity Under Canada's Legalization Of Cannabis: A Study Of Vancouver's Downtown Eastside, Stephanie Lake, Margot Young

All Faculty Publications

The origin of this essay reminds us of the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration to the development and assessment of public policy. It also demonstrates the serendipitous beginnings of many interesting inquiries. This collaboration was thus fortuitous: authors Lake and Young met during Lake’s doctoral dissertation defence. Young was on the examining committee. Lake presented a series of epidemiological studies (three of which are summarized below) involving the use of cannabis for therapeutic and harm reduction purposes among marginalized people who use drugs (PWUD) in Vancouver. Young’s lines of questioning involving the legal implications of Lake’s findings spurred the idea to …


A New Wound For Old Scars: Why Act 1036 Of 2021 Is Unconstitutional And Why The Arkansas Retroactive-Legislation Doctrine Should Change, Bryce Jefferson Jan 2023

A New Wound For Old Scars: Why Act 1036 Of 2021 Is Unconstitutional And Why The Arkansas Retroactive-Legislation Doctrine Should Change, Bryce Jefferson

Arkansas Law Notes

In 2021, the Arkansas General Assembly overwhelmingly approved Act 1036, the Justice for Vulnerable Victims of Sexual Abuse Act. This Act amends the statute of limitations for “vulnerable victims” of sexual abuse. The Act allows a person who was either disabled, a minor, or both at the time he or she was a victim of sexual abuse to bring a civil action against an alleged abuser until the age of fifty-five (55)—replacing the former statutory age limit of twenty-one (21). The Act also revives previously time-barred claims for a period not earlier than six (6) months after and not later …


Sexual Abuse Of Female Inmates In Federal Prisons, Brenda Smith Dec 2022

Sexual Abuse Of Female Inmates In Federal Prisons, Brenda Smith

Congressional and Other Testimony

This Article discusses the modest aspirations of the Prison Rape Elimination Act (“PREA”) that passed unanimously in the United States Congress in 2003. The Article posits that PREA created opportunities for holding correctional authorities accountable by creating a baseline for safety and setting more transparent expectations for agencies’ practices for protecting prisoners from sexual abuse. Additionally, the Article posits that PREA enhanced the evolving standards of decency for the Eighth Amendment and articulated clear expectations of correctional authorities to provide sexual safety for people in custody.


Designing For Justice: Pandemic Lessons For Criminal Courts, Cynthia Alkon Dec 2022

Designing For Justice: Pandemic Lessons For Criminal Courts, Cynthia Alkon

Faculty Scholarship

March 2020 brought an unprecedented crisis to the United States: COVID-19. In a two-week period, criminal courts across the country closed. But, that is where the uniformity ended. Criminal courts did not have a clear process to decide how to conduct necessary business. As a result, criminal courts across the country took different approaches to deciding how to continue necessary operations and in doing so many did not consider the impact on justice of the operational changes that were made to manage the COVID-19 crisis. One key problem was that many courts did not use inclusive processes and include all …


Law School News: 'More Than I Ever Could Have Asked For...', Michael M. Bowden Nov 2022

Law School News: 'More Than I Ever Could Have Asked For...', Michael M. Bowden

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


The Intersecting And Additive Nature Of Vulnerability: Dehumanizing Or Protecting?, Megan Berry-Cohen Nov 2022

The Intersecting And Additive Nature Of Vulnerability: Dehumanizing Or Protecting?, Megan Berry-Cohen

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

Recent research has examined how extra-legal factors such as emotions and stereotypes impact legal judgment decisions regarding traditionally vulnerable populations. Less work has explored not only what makes a group vulnerable, but how people perceive, interpret, and apply that vulnerability. The current research therefore integrates psychological theory and legal models to understand vulnerability and its implications. Three studies examined the roles of various factors, including dehumanization and empathy, in understanding how people respond to vulnerable individuals in general and then to women who have survived sexual violence.

In Experiment 1, I manipulated sex (female vs. male), age (older: 60 years …


Advocates’ Perspectives On The Canadian Prison Mother Child Program, Martha Paynter, Clare Heggie, Ruth Martin-Misener, Adelina Iftene, Gail Tomblin Murphy Oct 2022

Advocates’ Perspectives On The Canadian Prison Mother Child Program, Martha Paynter, Clare Heggie, Ruth Martin-Misener, Adelina Iftene, Gail Tomblin Murphy

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Over twenty years ago, Correctional Services Canada launched the Mother Child Program (MCP) to mitigate harms of separating incarcerated mothers from their babies. It has never been subjected to internal evaluation or independent study. The aim of the qualitative study was to explore the experiences of advocates employed by Elizabeth Fry Societies (EFS), community organizations dedicated to the support of incarcerated women, with respect to supporting people who were pregnant or had young children while federally incarcerated and did or did not participate in the MCP.


Treatment Court Program Evaluation In A Mid-Sized Oregon County, Omar Melchor-Ayala, Vivian Djokotoe Oct 2022

Treatment Court Program Evaluation In A Mid-Sized Oregon County, Omar Melchor-Ayala, Vivian Djokotoe

Faculty Research Publications (All Departments)

The analysis revealed that males who spent more days in the program and who were arrested less often had the best chances of successfully completing the program.

Only ‘Program Status’ and ‘Days in the Program’ predicted the odds of being arrested post-program. Those who completed and/or spend more days in the program are arrested less often after leaving the program.

Being arrested while in the program stood out as a common occurrence and as a significant predictor of program failure. More than half of all participants were arrested and spent some time in jail while in the program. Although all …


A Not-So-Clean Slate: A Progress Report Of Pa’S Automated Record Sealing Law, Matt B. Saboe, Tekia Huger-Burton Oct 2022

A Not-So-Clean Slate: A Progress Report Of Pa’S Automated Record Sealing Law, Matt B. Saboe, Tekia Huger-Burton

Sustainability Research & Practice Seminar Presentations

Professor Matt B. Saboe, Economics and Finance, and Tekia Huger-Burton - A Not-So-Clean Slate: A Progress Report of PA’s Automated Record Sealing Law


Law School News: Should Prison Be Abolished? 10-6-2022, Michael M. Bowden Oct 2022

Law School News: Should Prison Be Abolished? 10-6-2022, Michael M. Bowden

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Resurrecting Arbitrariness, Kathryn E. Miller Oct 2022

Resurrecting Arbitrariness, Kathryn E. Miller

Articles

What allows judges to sentence a child to die in prison? For years, they did so without constitutional restriction. That all changed in 2012’s Miller v. Alabama, which banned mandatory sentences of life without parole for children convicted of homicide crimes. Miller held that this extreme sentence was constitutional only for the worst offenders—the “permanently incorrigible.” By embracing individualized sentencing, Miller and its progeny portended a sea change in the way juveniles would be sentenced for serious crimes. But if Miller opened the door to sentencing reform, the Court’s recent decision in Jones v. Mississippi appeared to slam it …


Sentencing Co-Offenders, Ehud Guttel, Ittai Paldor, Gideon Parchomovsky Oct 2022

Sentencing Co-Offenders, Ehud Guttel, Ittai Paldor, Gideon Parchomovsky

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Tort law and criminal law are the two main vehicles utilized by the state to deter wrongful behavior. Despite the many similarities between the two legal fields, they differ in their treatment of collaborations. While tort law divides liability among joint-tortfeasors, criminal law abides by a no-division rule that imposes on each co-offender the full brunt of the sanction. Thus, each of two offenders who jointly steal $1,000, will be subject to the full corresponding penalty (rather than the divided penalty for stealing $500).

This Article demonstrates that in property and financial crimes, the no-division regime of criminal law harms …


Courts Without Court, Andrew Ferguson Oct 2022

Courts Without Court, Andrew Ferguson

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

What role does the physical courthouse play in the administration of criminal justice? This Article uses recent experiments with virtual courts to reimagine a future without criminal courthouses at the center. The key insight of this Article is to reveal how integral physical courts are to carceral control and how the rise of virtual courts helps to decenter power away from judges. This Article examines the effects of online courts on defendants, lawyers, judges, witnesses, victims, and courthouse officials and offers a framework for a better and less court-centered future. By studying post-COVID-19 disruptions around traditional conceptions of place, time, …


The Law And Politics Of Ransomware, Asaf Lubin Oct 2022

The Law And Politics Of Ransomware, Asaf Lubin

Articles by Maurer Faculty

What do Lady Gaga, the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, the city of Valdez in Alaska, and the court system of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul all have in common? They have all been victims of ransomware attacks, which are growing both in number and severity. In 2016, hackers perpetrated roughly four thousand ransomware attacks a day worldwide, a figure which was already alarming. By 2020, however, ransomware attacks reached a staggering number, between 20,000 and 30,000 per day in the United States alone. That is a ransomware attack every eleven seconds, each of which cost victims …


Negligence And Culpability: Reflections On Alexander And Ferzan, Mitchell N. Berman Oct 2022

Negligence And Culpability: Reflections On Alexander And Ferzan, Mitchell N. Berman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Philosophers of criminal punishment disagree about whether infliction of punishment for negligence can be morally justified. One contending view holds that it cannot be because punishment requires culpability and culpability requires, at a minimum, advertence to the facts that make one’s conduct wrongful. Larry Alexander and Kim Ferzan are prominent champions of this position. This essay challenges that view and their arguments for it. Invoking a conceptual distinction between an agent’s being blameworthy for an act and their deserving punishment (or suffering) for that act, it explains that an agent can be blameworthy for negligent conduct, and thus liable to …


War Crimes: History, Basic Concepts, And Structures, Richard J. Wilson Oct 2022

War Crimes: History, Basic Concepts, And Structures, Richard J. Wilson

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

On May 24, 20022, the Washington Post carried front-page news that a court in Ukraine had sentenced a 21-year-old Russian soldier, Vadim Shishimarin, to life imprisonment for the war crime of premeditated murder of a civilian, 62-year-old Oleksandr Shelipov. The session was the first war crimes trial in Ukraine since Russia's invasion three months earlier.


Abolition, And A Mule: Guest Lecturer In Race And The Foundations Of American Law Course 09-28-2022, Paul Butler, Roger Williams University School Of Law Sep 2022

Abolition, And A Mule: Guest Lecturer In Race And The Foundations Of American Law Course 09-28-2022, Paul Butler, Roger Williams University School Of Law

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


Drawing The Line Between Talent And Desire 09-23-2022, Michelle Choate Sep 2022

Drawing The Line Between Talent And Desire 09-23-2022, Michelle Choate

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


'To Empower And Amplify Lgbtq+ Voices' 09-16-2022, Michelle Choate Sep 2022

'To Empower And Amplify Lgbtq+ Voices' 09-16-2022, Michelle Choate

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


The Imagined Juror: How Hypothetical Juries Influence Federal Prosecutors (Book Review), Jeffrey Bellin Sep 2022

The Imagined Juror: How Hypothetical Juries Influence Federal Prosecutors (Book Review), Jeffrey Bellin

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Artificial Justice: The Quandary Of Ai In The Courtroom, Paul W. Grimm, Maura R. Grossman, Sabine Gless, Mireille Hildebrandt Sep 2022

Artificial Justice: The Quandary Of Ai In The Courtroom, Paul W. Grimm, Maura R. Grossman, Sabine Gless, Mireille Hildebrandt

Judicature International

No abstract provided.


Prosecutorial Nonenforcement And Residual Criminalization, Justin Murray Sep 2022

Prosecutorial Nonenforcement And Residual Criminalization, Justin Murray

Articles & Chapters

In recent years a small but influential group of locally elected prosecutors committed to criminal justice reform have openly refused to enforce various criminal laws—laws prohibiting marijuana possession, sentence enhancements, laws authorizing the death penalty, and much more—because they see those laws as unjust and incompatible with core reform objectives. Condemned by many on the political right for allegedly usurping the legislature’s lawmaking role and praised by many on the left for bypassing dysfunctional state legislatures in favor of local solutions, these prosecutorial nonenforcement policies are commonly said to have the same effect as nullifying, or even repealing, the laws …


'The Stop Woke Act': Hb 7, Race, And Florida's 21st Century Anti-Literacy Campaign, Katheryn Russell-Brown Sep 2022

'The Stop Woke Act': Hb 7, Race, And Florida's 21st Century Anti-Literacy Campaign, Katheryn Russell-Brown

UF Law Faculty Publications

Florida’s Stop the Wrongs to Our Kids and Employees Act (Stop WOKE) took effect July 1, 2022. The new law, known as House Bill 7 (HB 7), regulates how race issues can be taught in the K-20 educational system and imposes stiff sanctions for violations. This Article provides an incisive analysis of HB 7, with a particular focus on the law school classroom. It begins with a discussion of anti-literacy laws adopted during slavery and how these laws prohibited enslaved Blacks from learning to read and write. The historical analysis establishes that HB 7 is a modern-day iteration of anti-literacy …


Police Killings As Felony Murder, Guyora Binder, Ekow Yankah Aug 2022

Police Killings As Felony Murder, Guyora Binder, Ekow Yankah

Journal Articles

The widely applauded conviction of officer Derek Chauvin for the murder of George Floyd employedthe widely criticized felony murder rule. Should we use felony murder as a tool to check discriminatory and violent policing? The authors object that felony murder—although perhaps the only murder charge available for this killing under Minnesota law—understated Chauvin’s culpability and thereby inadequately denounced his crime. They show that further opportunities to prosecute police for felony murder are quite limited. Further, a substantial minority of states impose felony murder liability for any death proximately caused by a felony, even if the actual killer was a police …


Criminal Court System Failures During Covid-19: An Empirical Study, Cynthia Alkon Aug 2022

Criminal Court System Failures During Covid-19: An Empirical Study, Cynthia Alkon

Faculty Scholarship

How did the criminal legal system respond to the early months of pandemic in 2020? This article reports the results of a unique national survey of judges, defense lawyers, and prosecutors that gives a snapshot of how the criminal legal system responded to the COVID-19 in the first five chaotic months. Criminal courts in the United States rely on in-person proceedings and formal and informal in-person communications to manage caseloads. The survey results detail, in ways not previously fully understood, how crucial these in-person communications are and how ill-prepared the criminal courts and legal professionals were to deal with the …


Sena (Christopher) V. State, 138 Nev. Adv. Op. 34 (May 26, 2022), Servando Martinez Jul 2022

Sena (Christopher) V. State, 138 Nev. Adv. Op. 34 (May 26, 2022), Servando Martinez

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

In an opinion drafted by Justice Herndon, the Court clarified their application of the statute of limitations to crimes involving sexual abuse of children, concluding that the statute of limitations did not preclude any of the charges originally brought against Sena and that, under the doctrine of lenity, the unit of prosecution is per victim, not per instance. Therefore, the Court vacated six of the nine incest convictions, two counts of possession of visual presentation depicting the sexual conduct of a child, and one count of child abuse or neglect. The Court ultimately remanded this case for further proceedings.


Freedom From Speech, Mary Anne Franks Jul 2022

Freedom From Speech, Mary Anne Franks

Articles

The importance of freedom of speech in a democratic society is usually taken as a given, but freedom from speech is no less important in safeguarding the values of truth, autonomy, and democracy. Freedom from speech includes both the right of the individual to not be forced to speak and the freedom to avoid the speech of others. This essay attempts to highlight the significance of freedom from speech in order to clarify the importance of the First Amendment right against compelled speech; provide an explanation for when the right of free speech yields to other rights; and offer a …


Defense Counsel's Cross Purposes: Prior Conviction Impeachment Of Prosecution Witnesses, Anna Roberts Jul 2022

Defense Counsel's Cross Purposes: Prior Conviction Impeachment Of Prosecution Witnesses, Anna Roberts

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Role Of The "Victim" In The Criminal Legal System, Kate Mogulescu Jul 2022

The Role Of The "Victim" In The Criminal Legal System, Kate Mogulescu

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.