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Full-Text Articles in Law

The United States And Its Obligations Under The Optional Protocol To The Convention On The Rights Of The Child On The Sale Of Children, Child Prostitution And Child Pornography To Combat Child Exploitation In The Digital World, Audrey Cunningham Jun 2022

The United States And Its Obligations Under The Optional Protocol To The Convention On The Rights Of The Child On The Sale Of Children, Child Prostitution And Child Pornography To Combat Child Exploitation In The Digital World, Audrey Cunningham

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Institutional Doxing And Attribution: Searching For Solutions To A Law-Free Zone, Kimberlee Styple Jan 2022

Institutional Doxing And Attribution: Searching For Solutions To A Law-Free Zone, Kimberlee Styple

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Lifting The Veil Of Mona Lisa: A Multifaceted Investigation Of The "Beyond A Reasonable Doubt" Standard, Zhuhao Wang, Eric Zhi Jan 2022

Lifting The Veil Of Mona Lisa: A Multifaceted Investigation Of The "Beyond A Reasonable Doubt" Standard, Zhuhao Wang, Eric Zhi

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

For a long period of time, the golden standard in judicial fact-finding of criminal cases in the United States and many other countries has been the “Beyond a Reasonable Doubt” (BARD) standard – every person accused of a crime is presumed to be innocent unless, and until, his or her guilt is established beyond a reasonable doubt. The BARD standard’s undergirding principle is one of error distribution, where wrongful conviction of the innocent is a much greater wrong than failed conviction of the guilty. This concept was famously expressed by the English jurist William Blackstone in 1760s: “It is better …


Bargaining For Abolition, Zohra Ahmed Jan 2022

Bargaining For Abolition, Zohra Ahmed

Scholarly Works

What if instead of seeing criminal court as an institution driven by the operation of rules, we saw it as a workplace where people labor to criminalize those with the misfortune to be prosecuted? I offer three different ways to think about labor in criminal court: (1) labor as a source of sociological value, (2) labor as an input that generates certain measurable outcomes, and (3) labor as a vehicle to advance abolitionist reforms. First, through their quotidian activities, criminal courts’ workers enact a practical philosophy that communicates lessons about who and how we value each other. Drawing on ethnographic …


Hiv No Longer A Death Sentence But Still A Life Sentence: The Constitutionality Of Hiv Criminalization Under The Eighth Amendment, Lauren Taylor Jan 2022

Hiv No Longer A Death Sentence But Still A Life Sentence: The Constitutionality Of Hiv Criminalization Under The Eighth Amendment, Lauren Taylor

Georgia Law Review

When the HIV/AIDS epidemic began in the 1980s in the United States, there was mass confusion and hysteria regarding HIV transmission and prevention, leading many states to enact HIV criminalization statutes to prosecute persons living with HIV who either exposed another person to HIV or put someone in danger of being exposed to HIV. Yet, almost forty years later, these statutes are still used to criminalize and control the behaviors of people living with HIV, and in some cases, impose lengthy prison sentences hinging on the possibility of exposure. These HIV criminalization statutes and subsequent criminal cases often do not …


Complicated Mercy: Compensating The Wrongfully Convicted In Georgia, Elizabeth O'Roark Jan 2022

Complicated Mercy: Compensating The Wrongfully Convicted In Georgia, Elizabeth O'Roark

Georgia Law Review

An exoneree’s story does not end when they walk out of prison and back into society. After spending years in prison for a crime they did not commit, the exoneree must rebuild a life with years of lost income, little credit, and no retirement. Georgia is one of the few states that does not have a statute setting out how to fairly and efficiently compensate its exonerees. Exonerees must instead ask state representatives to present a resolution to the General Assembly. If the resolution passes through both chambers of the legislature, then the exoneree can receive some compensation for the …


Suspicionless Policing, Julian A. Cook Dec 2021

Suspicionless Policing, Julian A. Cook

Scholarly Works

The tragic death of Elijah McClain—a twenty-three-year-old, slightly built, unarmed African American male who was walking home along a sidewalk when he was accosted by three Aurora, Colorado police officers—epitomizes the problems with policing that have become a prominent topic of national conversation. Embedded within far too many police organizations is a culture that promotes aggressive investigative behaviors and a disregard for individual liberties. Incentivized by a Supreme Court that has, over the course of several decades, empowered the police with expansive powers, law enforcement organizations have often tested—and crossed—the constitutional limits of their investigative authorities. And too often it …


Transfer Of Child Offenders To Adult Criminal Courts In The Usa: An Unnecessary Exercise, Unconstitutional Practice, International Law Violation, Or All Of The Above?, Roger-Claude Liwanga, Patrick Ibe Jun 2021

Transfer Of Child Offenders To Adult Criminal Courts In The Usa: An Unnecessary Exercise, Unconstitutional Practice, International Law Violation, Or All Of The Above?, Roger-Claude Liwanga, Patrick Ibe

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

There is an ongoing debate over the legality and effectiveness of the use of judicial waiver as a tool to fight violent crimes, including those committed by children in the United States. Judicial waiver or transfer of juveniles is a process by which child offenders are transferred from the juvenile court to adult criminal courts to be tried and sentenced as adult offenders. Despite the implicit recognition of the constitutionality of this practice by the United States Supreme Court, this paper contends that the transfer of child offenders to adult criminal courts violates key provisions of the Convention on the …


Criminal Law Drafting Manual, Jean Mangan Jan 2021

Criminal Law Drafting Manual, Jean Mangan

Books

This textbook was created under a Round 19 Mini-Grant. It is hosted on the Open ALG (Affordable Learning Georgia) Projects platform.


Sacrificing Secrecy, Daniel S. Harawa Jan 2021

Sacrificing Secrecy, Daniel S. Harawa

Georgia Law Review

Juries have deliberated in secret since medieval times. The
historical reason for the secrecy is that it promotes impartiality,
which in turn protects a defendant’s right to a fair trial. But as
it turns out, jurors are not always impartial. Lurid examples
exist of jurors condemning defendants based on the defendant’s
race, sexuality, ethnicity, and religion.
Generally speaking, courts cannot hear evidence of what
transpired during deliberations. In 2017, however, the U.S.
Supreme Court created an exception to this rule, holding that
the Sixth Amendment requires courts to hear evidence of jurors
making racially biased statements. But this exception means …


Justice As Message Symposium: What We See When We See Law … Through The Eyes Of Dame Laura Knight, Diane Marie Amann Dec 2020

Justice As Message Symposium: What We See When We See Law … Through The Eyes Of Dame Laura Knight, Diane Marie Amann

Scholarly Works

The eye cannot help but be drawn to the cover of Justice as Message, the new analysis by Carsten Stahn of, to quote the subtitle, Expressivist Foundations of International Criminal Justice. On the high-gloss paper jacket we see a tableau of blacks and browns and olive drab, accented only by the purple of a lawyer’s robe and the teal of a dossier perched on the bar behind him. In front, we see that the bench is buried in paper – paper that turns to ashes as the back wall gives way to a vision of buildings in ruin …


Book A Stay And Win U.S. Citizenship: Examining Birth Tourism As A Business Subject To Federal Regulatory Controls, Nicole Marie Laudick Feb 2020

Book A Stay And Win U.S. Citizenship: Examining Birth Tourism As A Business Subject To Federal Regulatory Controls, Nicole Marie Laudick

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


You Made Gideon A Promise, Eh?: Advocating For Mandated Publicly Appointed Counsel At Bail Hearings In The United States Through Domestic Comparisons With Canadian Practices And Legal Considerations, Lauren Elizabeth Lisauskas Feb 2020

You Made Gideon A Promise, Eh?: Advocating For Mandated Publicly Appointed Counsel At Bail Hearings In The United States Through Domestic Comparisons With Canadian Practices And Legal Considerations, Lauren Elizabeth Lisauskas

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Causing A Sanctions Violation With U.S. Dollars: Differences In Regulatory Language Across Ofac Sanctions Programs, Christine Abely Feb 2020

Causing A Sanctions Violation With U.S. Dollars: Differences In Regulatory Language Across Ofac Sanctions Programs, Christine Abely

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The International Criminal Court Appeals Chamber Ruling In Ntaganda: An Opportunity To Improve Accountability For Sexual And Gender-Based Crimes Against Men And Boys, Elizabeth Modzeleski Jan 2020

The International Criminal Court Appeals Chamber Ruling In Ntaganda: An Opportunity To Improve Accountability For Sexual And Gender-Based Crimes Against Men And Boys, Elizabeth Modzeleski

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Looking Forward And Looking Back: How Can The International Criminal Court (Icc) Navigate In A Complicated And Largely Hostile World?, David Tolbert Jan 2020

Looking Forward And Looking Back: How Can The International Criminal Court (Icc) Navigate In A Complicated And Largely Hostile World?, David Tolbert

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The United States And The International Criminal Court: Why Undermining The Icc Undercuts U.S. Interests, Jane Stromseth Jan 2020

The United States And The International Criminal Court: Why Undermining The Icc Undercuts U.S. Interests, Jane Stromseth

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


States Parties, Non-States Parties, And The Idea Of International Community, Saira Mohamed Jan 2020

States Parties, Non-States Parties, And The Idea Of International Community, Saira Mohamed

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Icc And Non-Party States: Consistency And Consensus Revisited, Chimène I. Keitner Jan 2020

The Icc And Non-Party States: Consistency And Consensus Revisited, Chimène I. Keitner

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Defense Issues At The International Criminal Court, Megan A. Fairlie Jan 2020

Defense Issues At The International Criminal Court, Megan A. Fairlie

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Icc In Latin America: An Old Friend With New Challenges, Naomi Roht-Arriaza Jan 2020

The Icc In Latin America: An Old Friend With New Challenges, Naomi Roht-Arriaza

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Boots And Bail On The Ground: Assessing The Implementation Of Misdemeanor Bail Reforms In Georgia, Sandra Mayson, Andrea Woods, Lauren Sudeall, Guthrie Armstrong, Anthony Potts Jan 2020

Boots And Bail On The Ground: Assessing The Implementation Of Misdemeanor Bail Reforms In Georgia, Sandra Mayson, Andrea Woods, Lauren Sudeall, Guthrie Armstrong, Anthony Potts

Scholarly Works

This Article presents a mixed-methods study of misdemeanor bail practice across Georgia in the wake of reform. We observed bail hearings and interviewed system actors in a representative sample of fifty-five counties in order to assess the extent to which pretrial practice conforms to legal standards clarified in Senate Bill 407 and Walker v. Calhoun. We also analyzed jail population data published by county jails and by the Georgia Department of Community Affairs. We found that a handful of counties have made promising headway in adhering to law and best practices, but that the majority have some distance to …


Detention By Any Other Name, Sandra G. Mayson Jan 2020

Detention By Any Other Name, Sandra G. Mayson

Scholarly Works

An unaffordable bail requirement has precisely the same effect as an order of pretrial detention: the accused person is jailed pending trial. It follows as a logical matter that an order requiring an unaffordable bail bond as a condition of release should be subject to the same substantive and procedural protections as an order denying bail altogether. Yet this has not been the practice.

This Article lays out the logical and legal case for the proposition that an order that functionally imposes detention must be treated as an order of detention. It addresses counterarguments and complexities, including both empirical and …


Confronting Memory Loss, Paul F. Rothstein, Ronald J. Coleman Jan 2020

Confronting Memory Loss, Paul F. Rothstein, Ronald J. Coleman

Georgia Law Review

The Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment grants
“the accused” in “all criminal prosecutions” a right “to be
confronted with the witnesses against him.” A particular
problem occurs when there is a gap in time between the
testimony that is offered and the cross-examination of it, as
where—pursuant to a hearsay exception or exemption—
evidence of a current witness’s prior statement is offered and,
for some intervening reason, her current memory is impaired.
Does this fatally affect the opportunity to “confront” the
witness? The U.S. Supreme Court has, to date, left unclear the
extent to which a memory-impaired witness can …


Reform Prosecutors And Separation Of Powers, Logan E. Sawyer Iii Jan 2020

Reform Prosecutors And Separation Of Powers, Logan E. Sawyer Iii

Scholarly Works

For decades, state and local prosecutors won election by promising to be tough on crime. Today, a new breed of prosecutor has gained prominence by campaigning on, and then implementing, reform agendas. Rather than emphasize the crimes they plan to prosecute, these reform prosecutors promise to use their discretion to stop the prosecution of certain crimes and halt the application of certain sanctions. They base their decision not on a lack of resources, but rather on a belief that the enforcement of those laws is unwise or unjust. Critics have decried such policies as both inappropriate and undemocratic. Prosecutors, critics …


Boots And Bail On The Ground: Assessing The Implementation Of Misdemeanor Bail Reforms In Georgia, Andrea Woods, Sandra G. Mayson, Lauren Sudeall, Guthrie Armstrong, Anthony Potts Jan 2020

Boots And Bail On The Ground: Assessing The Implementation Of Misdemeanor Bail Reforms In Georgia, Andrea Woods, Sandra G. Mayson, Lauren Sudeall, Guthrie Armstrong, Anthony Potts

Scholarly Works

This Article presents a mixed-methods study of misdemeanor bail practice across Georgia in the wake of reform. We observed bail hearings and interviewed system actors in a representative sample of fifty-five counties in order to assess the extent to which pretrial practice conforms to legal standards clarified in Senate Bill 407 and Walker v. Calhoun. We also analyzed jail population data published by county jails and by the Georgia Department of Community Affairs. We found that a handful of counties have made promising headway in adhering to law and best practices, but that the majority have some distance to …


Presidential Crimes Matter, Julian A. Cook Jan 2020

Presidential Crimes Matter, Julian A. Cook

Scholarly Works

The resignations of United States Attorneys Geoffrey Berman and Jessie Liu from their respective positions in the Southern District of New York and the District of Columbia, and Attorney General William Barr’s and President Donald Trump’s persistent undermining of Special Counsel Robert Mueller’s Russian interference and obstruction of justice investigations and prosecutions are clarion calls to reform the process by which the executive branch criminally investigates itself. But there is another critical circumstance—the Special Counsel regulations—that has been largely overlooked and has been grossly underappreciated in the public discussion about undue executive branch influence. These regulations are foundational, their impact …


The Concept Of Criminal Law, Sandra Mayson Jan 2020

The Concept Of Criminal Law, Sandra Mayson

Scholarly Works

What distinguishes “criminal law” from all other law? This question should be central to both criminal law theory and criminal justice reform. Clarity about the distinctive feature(s) of criminal law is especially important in the current moment, as the nation awakens to the damage that the carceral state has wrought and reformers debate the value and the future of criminal law institutions. Foundational though it is, however, the question has received limited attention. There is no clear consensus among contemporary scholars or reformers about what makes the criminal law unique. This Essay argues that Antony Duff’s The Realm of Criminal …


The Persistence Of Fatal Police Taserings In 2018, Donald E. Wilkes Jr. Feb 2019

The Persistence Of Fatal Police Taserings In 2018, Donald E. Wilkes Jr.

Popular Media

Fatal police taserings have been a persistent phenomenon in the United States for nearly two decades. Steadily, relentlessly, year after year, month after month, our police kill citizens with tasers. This article reviews the history of fatal police taserings and those that occurred in 2018.


The Case That Stirred The State Of Georgia, Donald E. Wilkes Jr. Jan 2019

The Case That Stirred The State Of Georgia, Donald E. Wilkes Jr.

Popular Media

In the second half of the 19th Century, hundreds of murders occurred in Georgia, but only two murder cases electrified the entire state. Both cases were the subject of massive amounts of publicity in Georgia newspapers, and for years both cases were ceaselessly talked about in every part of this state.

One of these two notable murder cases was the Woolfolk murder case, involving Tom Woolfolk, nicknamed Bloody Woolfolk, who in 1887 murdered nine members of his family with an axe in Bibb County and after two trials was hanged in 1890. In 1997, I published a book review in …