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Full-Text Articles in Law

Quo Vadis? Assessing New York’S Civil Forfeiture Law, Steven L. Kessler Apr 2022

Quo Vadis? Assessing New York’S Civil Forfeiture Law, Steven L. Kessler

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Improper Distinction Under The Ada Leads To An Irrational Outcome: Favoring One Life Over Another, Daniel Frederick Parise Jan 2022

Improper Distinction Under The Ada Leads To An Irrational Outcome: Favoring One Life Over Another, Daniel Frederick Parise

Touro Law Review

Society has a distorted view of those battling addiction and essentially marks them with a sign of disgrace; however, what society may not fully understand is that addiction is a disability beyond the afflicted individual’s control. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health indicates that 19.7 million Americans have battled a substance use disorder in their life. Of the 19.7 million Americans who battled illicit substance use disorders, approximately seventy-four percent also struggled with alcohol use disorder.

Based on these statistics, it is clear that illicit drug use disorders are often interconnected with alcohol use disorders. However, Congress makes …


Once Mentally Ill, Always A Danger? Lifetime Bans On Gun Ownership Under Fire Following Involuntary Commitment, Amanda Pendel Jan 2022

Once Mentally Ill, Always A Danger? Lifetime Bans On Gun Ownership Under Fire Following Involuntary Commitment, Amanda Pendel

Touro Law Review

18 U.S.C. § 922(g)(4) imposes a lifetime ban on those who have been involuntarily committed to a mental institution from purchasing, or possessing a firearm, regardless of an extended passage of time, or a finding that the individual is unlikely to pose a danger to themselves or the public. Three circuits have created a split concerning the constitutionality of this statute. The Third Circuit held in Beers v. Attorney General United States that those involuntarily committed were outside of the scope of the Second Amendment; therefore, the § 922(g)(4)’s categorical ban is constitutional. Next, the Ninth Circuit in Mai v. …


This Is Your Captain Speaking, Please Remain Physically Restrained While The Robbery Is In Progress, Conner J. Purcell Jan 2022

This Is Your Captain Speaking, Please Remain Physically Restrained While The Robbery Is In Progress, Conner J. Purcell

Touro Law Review

This note analyzes the current circuit split over the application of the “Physical Restraint” sentence enhancement as applied to the crime of robbery. In the first camp, the circuit courts apply a broad or constructive meaning of physical restraint: allowing words or demands with the use of a firearm to trigger the enhancement. In many cases, the courts focus on the victim’s reaction to the perpetrator rather than the perpetrator’s actual conduct, suggesting psychological restraint rather than physical restraint. In the second camp, the circuit courts apply a plain meaning interpretation of physical restraint. These cases routinely find that the …


“I Was Just A Kid”: Addressing The Collateral Consequences Of A Juvenile Record On Employment, Lauren Wray Jan 2022

“I Was Just A Kid”: Addressing The Collateral Consequences Of A Juvenile Record On Employment, Lauren Wray

Touro Law Review

There is a common myth that juvenile records are confidential, when in fact only nine states fully prohibit public access to juvenile records. Landlords, employers, and educators in a majority of states may ask questions about a juvenile’s record. Studies have shown that employers are less likely to hire an applicant who has a juvenile delinquency, and that many employers may not be able to differentiate between a juvenile and adult record. This Note reviews the intersectional flaws of the New York juvenile justice system and the New York labor laws. Specifically, it evaluates policies New York has implemented with …


Monasky’S Totality Of Circumstances Is Vague – The Child’S Perspective Should Be The Main Test, Sabrina Salvi Jan 2022

Monasky’S Totality Of Circumstances Is Vague – The Child’S Perspective Should Be The Main Test, Sabrina Salvi

Touro Law Review

After decades of confusion, the Supreme Court ruled on child custody in an international setting in Monasky v. Taglieri, by attempting to establish the definition of a child’s “habitual residence.” The Court held that a child’s “residence in a particular country can be deemed ‘habitual, however, only when her residence there is more than transitory.’” Further, the Court stated that, ‘“[h]abitual’ implies customary, usual, of the nature of a habit.”’ However, the Supreme Court’s ruling remains unclear. The 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (“HCCAICA” or “The Hague Convention”), which is adopted in ninety-eight …


Inducing Acts In Rabbinic Law, Amy Birkan Jan 2021

Inducing Acts In Rabbinic Law, Amy Birkan

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


National Animal Abuse Registry Reform: To Be Effective And Provide Prospective, A National Animal Abuse Registry Must Be The Next Directive, Kaleigh M. Gorman Jan 2021

National Animal Abuse Registry Reform: To Be Effective And Provide Prospective, A National Animal Abuse Registry Must Be The Next Directive, Kaleigh M. Gorman

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Racial Bias Still Exists In Criminal Justice System? A Review Of Recent Empirical Research, Yu Du Jan 2021

Racial Bias Still Exists In Criminal Justice System? A Review Of Recent Empirical Research, Yu Du

Touro Law Review

The debate on whether racial bias is still embedded in the criminal justice (CJ) system today has reached its plateau. One recent article in the Washington Post has claimed an overwhelming evidence of racial bias in the CJ system. Whereas some scholars argue that racial disparity is an epitome of real crime rates, others indicate that implicit and/or explicit racial bias against Blacks held by law enforcement agents persists in the system. This review considers both supporting arguments and relevant counterarguments. After evaluating empirical and rigorous research during the past five years, the review maintains that racial bias still exists …


The Robber Wants To Be Punished, Uri Weiss Jan 2021

The Robber Wants To Be Punished, Uri Weiss

Touro Law Review

It is a commonly held intuition that increasing punishment leads to less crime. Let us move our glance from the punishment for the crime itself to the punishment for the attempt to commit a crime, or to the punishment for the threat to carry it out. We argue that the greater the punishment for the attempted robbery, i.e., for the threat, "give me your money or else," the greater the number of robberies and threats there will be. The punishment for the threat makes the withdrawal from it more expensive for the criminal, making the relative cost of committing the …


The Talmudic Prisoner's Dilemma, Uri Weiss Jan 2021

The Talmudic Prisoner's Dilemma, Uri Weiss

Touro Law Review

We argue that there is a stream in the Talmud that attributes the responsibility to one player alone in the case of a joint crime/joint tort and even in dividing the credits for a joint Mitzvah. We used the game theory to investigate which incentives are provided by this approach, which games are created, which games are blocked, and to which results this approach leads. In this paper, we present some Talmudic games.

Although in Jewish law, a sinner cannot be a witness, one Talmudic rabbi proposes a rule that, in the case of a joint crime, one of …


(Un)Masking The Truth - The Cruel And Unusual Punishment Of Prisoners Amidst The Covid-19 Pandemic, Ariel Berkowitz Jan 2021

(Un)Masking The Truth - The Cruel And Unusual Punishment Of Prisoners Amidst The Covid-19 Pandemic, Ariel Berkowitz

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Selling Sex: (More) Evidence For Decriminalization, Faelynn Carroll, Walter E. Block Jan 2021

Selling Sex: (More) Evidence For Decriminalization, Faelynn Carroll, Walter E. Block

Touro Law Review

This paper makes a case for decriminalization of sex work in response to recent legislation restricting sex workers’ access to online platforms and to the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a feminist economic lens, we summarize the current understanding of sex work markets and analyze how agency and stigma are affected by increasingly limited access to online platforms as well as by the social and economic restrictions of COVID-19. We analyze sex work from the point of view of the same labor economics that would be applied to any other industry, rather than as a romanticized or demonized group of sexual deviants, …


Globalization And Privatization Of Federal Corporate Prosecutions: The Pressures Eroding Fifth Amendment Rights, Katarina Resar Krasulova Jan 2021

Globalization And Privatization Of Federal Corporate Prosecutions: The Pressures Eroding Fifth Amendment Rights, Katarina Resar Krasulova

Touro Law Review

Over the past several decades, our society has continued to become even more globalized and interconnected. The dynamic put increasing pressure on the fairness of criminal trials in domestic courts. This Article discusses two recent phenomena that illustrate this evolution and their impact on the defendants’ rights against selfincrimination: the globalization and privatization of the federal prosecutions. Globalization is understood as the United States’ Government’s increased reliance on foreign authorities in prosecution of cross-border crimes, while privatization denotes the Government’s reliance on private actors in conducting investigations. Investigations conducted by private entities and foreign governments, and the evidence those investigations …


Yes, “Stealthing” Is Sexual Assault… And We Need To Address It, Mikaela Shapiro Jan 2021

Yes, “Stealthing” Is Sexual Assault… And We Need To Address It, Mikaela Shapiro

Touro Law Review

Nonconsensual condom removal, more popularly known as “stealthing,” exposes victims to potential physical risks such as pregnancy and disease and, as victims make clear, feelings of violation and shame. Such condom removal changes sex from consensual sex into nonconsensual sex. There are currently no laws criminalizing stealthing in the United States. This Note considers possible criminal and civil remedies victims may seek in a court of law. Conditional consent, initial consent to sexual activity that is contingent upon intercourse with a condom and may be revoked once that condom is removed, is a key factor in stealthing cases. Ultimately, this …


No Standing And No Recourse: The Threat To Employee Data Under Current U.S. Cybersecurity Regulation, Georgia D. Reid Jan 2021

No Standing And No Recourse: The Threat To Employee Data Under Current U.S. Cybersecurity Regulation, Georgia D. Reid

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Harmful Addiction To The War On Drugs, Walter E. Block, Alan G. Futerman Jan 2021

The Harmful Addiction To The War On Drugs, Walter E. Block, Alan G. Futerman

Touro Law Review

Most modern societies prohibit the use of addictive drugs such as cocaine and heroin. We contend this is a mistake. They should all be legalized, forthwith, since their usage constitutes a victimless crime. But more, we also maintain that these jurisdictions are actually addicted to these unjust and harmful laws since, no matter what the logic or the evidence about the perniciousness of this legislation, it still remains on the books


The Icc Should Not Encourage Occupation, Uri Weiss Jan 2021

The Icc Should Not Encourage Occupation, Uri Weiss

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Analyzing Wrongful Convictions Beyond The Traditional Canonical List Of Errors, For Enduring Structural And Sociological Attributes, (Juveniles, Racism, Adversary System, Policing Policies), Leona D. Jochnowitz, Tonya Kendall Jan 2021

Analyzing Wrongful Convictions Beyond The Traditional Canonical List Of Errors, For Enduring Structural And Sociological Attributes, (Juveniles, Racism, Adversary System, Policing Policies), Leona D. Jochnowitz, Tonya Kendall

Touro Law Review

Researchers identify possible structural causes for wrongful convictions: racism, justice system culture, adversary system, plea bargaining, media, juvenile and mentally impaired accused, and wars on drugs and crime. They indicate that unless the root causes of conviction error are identified, the routine explanations of error (e.g., eyewitness identifications; false confessions) will continue to re-occur. Identifying structural problems may help to prevent future wrongful convictions. The research involves the coding of archival data from the Innocence Project for seventeen cases, including the one for the Central Park Five exonerees. The data were coded by Hartwick College and Northern Vermont University students …


Mercy In American Law: The Promise Of The Adoption Of The Outlook Of Jewish Law, Yehiel Kaplan Jan 2021

Mercy In American Law: The Promise Of The Adoption Of The Outlook Of Jewish Law, Yehiel Kaplan

Touro Law Review

Under Jewish law, mercy and compassion are essential principles to ensure the presence of a just legal system. Not only do mercy and compassion in the law preserve traditional values of human dignity, implementing a more compassionate legal system has practical benefits in both the spheres of legal judgment and of legal punishment. This article will compare the Jewish legal system’s application of these necessary doctrines to how other modern legal systems, including the American legal system, implement mercy and compassion. As a result of this in-depth comparison, this article recommends that the American legal system, and other modern legal …


Urge To Reform Life Without Parole So Nonviolent Addict Offenders Never Serve Lifetime Behind Bars, Johanna Poremba Jan 2020

Urge To Reform Life Without Parole So Nonviolent Addict Offenders Never Serve Lifetime Behind Bars, Johanna Poremba

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Applying Maimonides’ Hilkhot Teshuvah–Laws Of Repentance – In The Criminal Law System Of The State Of Israel: An Israeli Judge’S Perspectives, Moshe Drori Jan 2020

Applying Maimonides’ Hilkhot Teshuvah–Laws Of Repentance – In The Criminal Law System Of The State Of Israel: An Israeli Judge’S Perspectives, Moshe Drori

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Criminal Usury And Its Impact On New York Business Transactions, Christopher Basile Jan 2020

Criminal Usury And Its Impact On New York Business Transactions, Christopher Basile

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Growth And Need For Veterans Treatment Courts, Chad Lennon Jan 2020

The Growth And Need For Veterans Treatment Courts, Chad Lennon

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Herman Melville’S Billy Budd: Why This Classic Law And Literature Novel Endures And Is Still Relevant Today, Rodger Citron Jan 2020

Herman Melville’S Billy Budd: Why This Classic Law And Literature Novel Endures And Is Still Relevant Today, Rodger Citron

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


How To Deter Pedestrian Deaths: A Utilitarian Perspective On Careless Driving, John Clennan Jan 2020

How To Deter Pedestrian Deaths: A Utilitarian Perspective On Careless Driving, John Clennan

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Book Review Essay: Jewish And American Law: A Comparative Study. (Vols. 1 And 2) By Samuel J. Levine, Marie A. Failinger Jan 2020

Book Review Essay: Jewish And American Law: A Comparative Study. (Vols. 1 And 2) By Samuel J. Levine, Marie A. Failinger

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Due Process Supreme Court Appellate Division Jul 2019

Due Process Supreme Court Appellate Division

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Due Process Pringle V. Wolfe (Decided 28, 1996) Jul 2019

Due Process Pringle V. Wolfe (Decided 28, 1996)

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Due Process People V. Scott (Decided June 5, 1996) Jul 2019

Due Process People V. Scott (Decided June 5, 1996)

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.