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Numerical Reconstruction Of Spalled Particle Trajectories In An Arc-Jet Environment, Raghava S. C. Davuluri, Sean C. C. Bailey, Kaveh A. Tagavi, Alexandre Martin 2021 University of Kentucky

Numerical Reconstruction Of Spalled Particle Trajectories In An Arc-Jet Environment, Raghava S. C. Davuluri, Sean C. C. Bailey, Kaveh A. Tagavi, Alexandre Martin

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

To evaluate the effects of spallation on ablative material, it is necessary to evaluate the mass loss. To do so, a Lagrangian particle trajectory code is used to reconstruct trajectories that match the experimental data for all kinematic parameters. The results from spallation experiments conducted at the NASA HYMETS facility over a wedge sample were used. A data-driven adaptive methodology was used to adapts the ejection parameters until the numerical trajectory matches the experimental data. The preliminary reconstruction results show that the size of the particles seemed to be correlated with the location of the ejection event. The size of …


Simulation Of A Trailing Edge Flap Using A Compliant Mechanism, Sam Blackwell 2021 University of Alabama in Huntsville

Simulation Of A Trailing Edge Flap Using A Compliant Mechanism, Sam Blackwell

Summer Community of Scholars Posters (RCEU and HCR Combined Programs)

No abstract provided.


Structural Optimization Of Space Transit Vehicle Concept, Hercules, James Philip Rogers 2021 University of Kentucky

Structural Optimization Of Space Transit Vehicle Concept, Hercules, James Philip Rogers

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION OF SPACE TRANSIT VEHICLE CONCEPT, HERCULES:

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STRUCTURAL OPTIONS

Hercules is a vehicle concept developed by NASA Langley's Vehicle Analysis Branch to satisfy the need for sustainable transit between Earth, the moon, and Mars. Hercules features unprecedented abort capabilities and mission flexibility to aid in NASA's Mars campaign. By utilizing modern software to perform structural analysis and optimization for a large selection of stiffened panel concepts, beam concepts, and materials trends in the structural optimization emerge. These trends will be invaluable for the design of future spacecraft needed to fulfill similar roles.

The structural optimization …


Role Of Eta Phase Evolution On Creep Properties Of Nickel Base Superalloys Used In Advanced Electric Power Generation Plants, Ninad Mohale 2021 Michigan Technological University

Role Of Eta Phase Evolution On Creep Properties Of Nickel Base Superalloys Used In Advanced Electric Power Generation Plants, Ninad Mohale

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Advanced fossil energy power generation plants require materials that withstand high temperatures and corrosive environments. One such material that is used in steam turbines is Nimonic 263. It is a nickel-base superalloy that is principally strengthened by gamma primephase (Ni3(Ti, Al)) and has an L12structure. At extended times and at turbine operating temperatures however, eta (Ni3Ti) phase is known to form at the expense of gamma prime. Eta has a complex DO24structure and is the stable phase between 750°C and 900°C, but with slow kinetics of formation. Little is understood about eta …


The Kentucky Re-Entry Universal Payload System (Krups): Orbital Flight, James Tyler Nichols 2021 University of Kentucky

The Kentucky Re-Entry Universal Payload System (Krups): Orbital Flight, James Tyler Nichols

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Due to the uniqueness of atmospheric entry environments, ground facilities cannot accurately replicate re-entry conditions. Consequently, scientists primarily rely on numerical models to predict these conditions and inform Thermal Protection System (TPS) designs. These models often lack flight validation, which is necessary for increasing their fidelity. Thus, there is a substantial need to obtain such data to advance modeling capabilities.

The Kentucky Re-entry Universal Payload System (KRUPS) is an adaptable test-bed for scientific experimentation with initial application to TPS. This vehicle was designed at the University of Kentucky to serve as an inexpensive means of obtaining validation data to enhance …


A Computational Fluid-Structure Interaction Method For Simulating Supersonic Parachute Inflation, Jonathan Boustani 2021 University of Kentucky

A Computational Fluid-Structure Interaction Method For Simulating Supersonic Parachute Inflation, Jonathan Boustani

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Following the successful landing of the Curiosity rover on the Martian surface in 2012, NASA/JPL conducted the low-density supersonic decelerator (LDSD) missions to develop large diameter parachutes to land the increasingly heavier payloads being sent to the Martian surface. Unexpectedly, both of the tested parachutes failed far below their design loads. It became clear that there was an inability to model and predict loads that occur during supersonic parachute inflation. In this dissertation, a new computational method that was developed to provide NASA with the capability to simulate supersonic parachute inflation is presented and validated. The method considers the loose …


Mechanical Properties Of Nanomodified Hybrid Gfrp Composite Materials, Micah Rop Kimutai 2021 Georgia Southern University

Mechanical Properties Of Nanomodified Hybrid Gfrp Composite Materials, Micah Rop Kimutai

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The mechanical behavior of the nanomodified hybrid epoxy matrix was investigated in glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP). In this study, five nanocomposites enriched with as received halloysite, nanomer I.28E, HNT-APTES, and the hybrid combinations of the two HNTs with the nanomer I.28E were successfully fabricated. To evaluate the effects and morphological characteristics of the individual fillers and the hybrid configurations on the epoxy resin matrix, TGA, DSC, and DMA were analyzed. To understand the effect of the five configurations on the neat GFRP laminate, mode I interlaminar fracture toughness, tensile, and vibration properties were investigated. Electron microscopy testing techniques were …


Discontinuous Recycled And Repurposed Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Organosheet Composites, Philip R. Barnett 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Discontinuous Recycled And Repurposed Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Organosheet Composites, Philip R. Barnett

Doctoral Dissertations

There is a significant need for low cost, high volume composites in the automotive industry to aid in vehicle lightweighting and safety. The current state-of-the-art severely compromises the mechanical properties of composites to achieve cost and cycle time goals. In this dissertation, a novel composite format, termed discontinuous carbon fiber organosheets, using recycled and repurposed carbon fibers in a thermoplastic matrix is developed and studied. Unlike traditional composites, the long fiber length and rapid processing time yield mechanical properties and cycle times competitive with automotive metals.

Several studies were performed to characterize this new material format. First, samples were manufactured …


Hexakis Icosahedron Frame-Skin Vacuum Lighter Than Air Vehicle, Brian Cranston, Anthony N. Palazotto 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Hexakis Icosahedron Frame-Skin Vacuum Lighter Than Air Vehicle, Brian Cranston, Anthony N. Palazotto

AFIT Patents

A vacuum lighter than air vehicle (VLTAV) includes a rigid frame of rods connected together to form a hexakis icosahedron. A membrane skin covers the rigid frame and defines therewith a vessel configured to hold an internal vacuum that allows the vessel to float in the air. The plurality of rods and membrane skin have weights and dimensions that result in a neutral and/or positive buoyancy for the vessel while preventing geometric instability.


Development Of High-Density Propulsion System Technologies For Interplanetary Small Satellites And Cubesats, Morgan Andrew Roddy 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Development Of High-Density Propulsion System Technologies For Interplanetary Small Satellites And Cubesats, Morgan Andrew Roddy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research was to support the development of a novel propulsion system for small satellites (<180 kg) and CubeSats. This was pursued by conducting a collection of studies that were designed to provide engineering data that would be critical in designing a functional prototype. The novel propulsion system was conceived by the author to provide best-in-class performance for the small satellite and CubeSat families of spacecraft. This context presents specific design requirements that the presented technology attempts to satisfy. The most critical among these is high density; the propellant was designed to be stored with high density and the thruster was designed to be as compact as possible. The propulsion system is composed of two primary elements, a propellant generator and a thruster. The propellant generator works by sublimating a solid crystal into vapor and then using this vapor to etch a dense metal. The resulting gaseous byproducts of this reaction are the propellant. This dissertation used xenon difluoride (XeF2) vapor to etch tungsten (W) which react to form xenon gas (Xe) and tungsten hexafluoride (WF6). This approach gave a theoretical propellant storage density 5.40 g/cm3; and 5.17 g/cm3 was demonstrated. The sublimation dynamics of the XeF2 were studied as a function of surface area and temperature and it was found to be suitable for the intended application due to its high effluence rate; that is, it sublimates fast enough to be useful. The sublimation rates are on the order of 10’s of µg/s. The etch rate of XeF2 on W was also studied and found to be suitably fast to provide useful amounts of reactants for use as a propellant, again on the order of 1’s of µg/s. The thruster is an electrostatic radio frequency (RF) ion thruster design and is manufactured with Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC) materials system and manufacturing technology. Manufacturing samples of the thruster were built at the University of Arkansas in July 2015 and tested at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in May 2018. Testing validated the viability of the LTCC thruster and provided valuable information on how to improve the thruster’s design.


Filament Winding Composite Airframes For Sounding Rockets, Eric Ford 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Filament Winding Composite Airframes For Sounding Rockets, Eric Ford

Student Works

This study’s objective was to determine the feasibility of manufacturing carbon fiber cylinders using an X-Winder filament winder for a structural airframe in sounding rockets. Multiple carbon fiber tubes were manufactured using the X-Winder and tested. The results of this testing successfully demonstrated that tubes manufactured with the X-Winder are capable of performing as an airframe for small sounding rockets. Five tube samples were destructively tested in compression, and the average maximum compressive strength of the tubes was 9,854 lbf. One of the tubes was used as the airframe in a small sounding rocket which flew to 4,042 feet above …


Miniaturized Ultraviolet Imager Phase Iii, Bradley D. Albright, Nicolas A. Armenta, Colin W. Harrop 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Miniaturized Ultraviolet Imager Phase Iii, Bradley D. Albright, Nicolas A. Armenta, Colin W. Harrop

Mechanical Engineering

This document details the work to date, June 9, 2020, done by the Cal Poly Mechanical Engineering senior project team, Miniaturized Ultraviolet Imager: Phase III (MUVI III), sponsored by the University of California, Berkeley – Space Sciences Laboratory (UCB SSL). MUVI III is the third senior project team of an ongoing design, MUVI: the prototype of a 2U sized CubeSat intended to capture aurora images in the ionosphere. The first team, MUVI I, finished development of the UV imager. The second team, MUVI II, designed the mirror mounting and deployable door mechanisms. The goal of MUVI phase III is to …


Vibration Isolation System, Bradley Y. Kwan, Bailey Groh, Max Wu, Nicole Yen 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Vibration Isolation System, Bradley Y. Kwan, Bailey Groh, Max Wu, Nicole Yen

Mechanical Engineering

The Vibration Isolation System Senior Project is a collaborative group project between its sponsor, Maxar Technologies, and a team of students from Cal Poly - SLO to effectively design, manufacture, and test a structural assembly for satellites, isolating vibrations during launch and orbit conditions. After initial sponsor contact, requirements and needs were set which dictated deliverables for the senior project group. The group performed analyses to validate all design decisions, including a modified concept and design direction, selection of a prototype viscoelastic damping material, preliminary testing to validate design specifications, and detailed design and analysis toward a finalized design. Instead …


Design, Validation, And Verification Of The Cal Poly Educational Cubesat Kit Structure, Nicholas B. Snyder 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Design, Validation, And Verification Of The Cal Poly Educational Cubesat Kit Structure, Nicholas B. Snyder

Master's Theses

In this thesis, the development of a structure for use in an educational CubeSat kit is explored. The potential uses of this kit include augmenting existing curricula with aspects of hands on learning, developing new ways of training students on proper space systems engineering practices, and overall contributing to academic capacity building at Cal Poly and its collaborators. The design improves on existing CubeSat kit structures by increasing accessibility to internal components by implementing a modular backplane system, as well as adding the ability to be environmentally tested. Manufacturing of the structure is completed with both additive (Fused Deposition Modeling …


Studies Of Oval Tube And Fin Heat Exchangers, Phillip Nielsen 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Studies Of Oval Tube And Fin Heat Exchangers, Phillip Nielsen

Undergraduate Student Works

Heating Ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) is a system which changes the temperature of the surroundings for the purposes of cooling or heating. This system requires energy to maintain a temperature difference from the outside temperature. Optimizing the flow over the evaporator coils is one way to increase the cooling efficiency. This will reduce the power required to have a sustainable system. Optimizing the flow to increase the energy transfer between the fins and the incoming air could result in a greater Coefficient of Performance (COP). This will be achieved by changing the geometry of the tubes for greater interaction with …


Thermal Modeling Of Additive Manufacturing Using Graph Theory: Validation With Directed Energy Deposition, Jordan Severson 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Thermal Modeling Of Additive Manufacturing Using Graph Theory: Validation With Directed Energy Deposition, Jordan Severson

Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Metal additive manufacturing (AM/3D printing) offers unparalleled advantages over conventional manufacturing, including greater design freedom and a lower lead time. However, the use of AM parts in safety-critical industries, such as aerospace and biomedical, is limited by the tendency of the process to create flaws that can lead to sudden failure during use. The root cause of flaw formation in metal AM parts, such as porosity and deformation, is linked to the temperature inside the part during the process, called the thermal history. The thermal history is a function of the process parameters and part design.

Consequently, the first step …


Experimental Study On Compression And Shear Strength Of Cfrp, Joseph Gentile, Ethan Garber 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Experimental Study On Compression And Shear Strength Of Cfrp, Joseph Gentile, Ethan Garber

Discovery Day - Prescott

The increasing use of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) in the aerospace industry requires a better understanding of its damage properties. Many modern aircraft under high loads are utilizing this material for their primary structures due to its high strength to weight ratio. However, CFRPs are sensitive to out-of-plane loading such as low-velocity impact and indentation. These damages can reduce the compressive strength significantly without leaving a visible mark on the surface, which is known as Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID). The behavior and residual strength of CFRPs after impact damage under compressive loading are still not fully understood. Studies of …


Sae Aero West Heavy Lift Competition Team - Eaglenautics, Anthony Pirone, Evan Stuart, Jessica Millard, Nathaniel Scott 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Sae Aero West Heavy Lift Competition Team - Eaglenautics, Anthony Pirone, Evan Stuart, Jessica Millard, Nathaniel Scott

Discovery Day - Prescott

ERAU’s SAE Aero Design West Competition team encourages students of all majors who have an interest in the design of heavy-lift cargo and passenger aircraft to design, build, and fly a large RC aircraft to meet a new set of regulations each competition year. Since the team, Eaglenautics, was founded in 2017 it has successfully been to competition once in April 2019 in California. The team’s aircraft flew 4 out of 5 flight rounds, passed all technical inspections, and is now on display in ERAU’s Aero-Fab in the AXFAB. The 2020 competition requirements are unique in that the cargo’s weight-to-volume …


The Effect Of Oxygen On Properties Of Zirconium Metal, Jie ZHAO 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Effect Of Oxygen On Properties Of Zirconium Metal, Jie Zhao

Doctoral Dissertations

The influence of oxygen on the thermophysical properties of zirconium has been investigated using MSL-EML (Material Science Laboratory Electromagnetic Levitator) on ISS (International Space Station) in collaboration with NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), ESA (European Space Agency), and DLR (German Aerospace Center). Zirconium samples with different oxygen concentrations was subjected to multiple melt cycles during which the thermophysical properties, such as density, viscosity and surface tension, have been measured at various undercooled and superheated temperatures. Also, there are melt cycles for verifying the solidification mechanism. Similar samples were found to show anomalous nucleation of the solid for certain ranges …


Development And Testing Of Novel Antimicrobial Materials For Additive Manufacturing With Application In Space, Michael Thompson, Jorge Zuniga, Christopher Copeland, Roberto Saavedra, Claudia Cortes Reyes, Andres Acuña Velásquez, Daniel Martínez Pereira, Claudio Soto 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Development And Testing Of Novel Antimicrobial Materials For Additive Manufacturing With Application In Space, Michael Thompson, Jorge Zuniga, Christopher Copeland, Roberto Saavedra, Claudia Cortes Reyes, Andres Acuña Velásquez, Daniel Martínez Pereira, Claudio Soto

UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was twofold: (i) develop and test the antimicrobial properties of a polylactic acid- and a polyurethane-based filament, and (ii) use these filaments to manufacture a socket-based prosthesis to verify printability and longevity of the antimicrobial properties. It was hypothesized that the formulation of a novel biocidal copper-based nanocomposite with a biocompatible 3D printing polymer/copolymer can be used for the development of antimicrobial medical devices to mitigate microbial risks during long space flight missions [1, 2, 3].

METHODS: Polylactic Acid-based Filament Development-The development of a polylactic acid-based filament involved several processes, such as fermentation …


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