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Array-Based Guided Wave Source Location Using Dispersion Compensation, Andrew Downs, Ronald A. Roberts, Jiming Song 2021 Iowa State University

Array-Based Guided Wave Source Location Using Dispersion Compensation, Andrew Downs, Ronald A. Roberts, Jiming Song

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

An important advantage of guided waves is their ability to propagate large distances and yield more information about flaws than bulk waves. Unfortunately, the multi-modal, dispersive nature of guided waves makes them difficult to use for locating flaws. In this work, we present a method and experimental data for removing the deleterious effects of multi-mode dispersion allowing for source localization at frequencies comparable to those of bulk waves. Time domain signals are obtained using a novel 64-element phased array and processed to extract wave number and frequency spectra. By an application of Auld’s electro-mechanical reciprocity relation, mode contributions are ...


Accelerated Controller Tuning For Wind Turbines Under Multiple Hazards, Aly Mousaad Aly, Milad Rezaee 2021 Louisiana State University

Accelerated Controller Tuning For Wind Turbines Under Multiple Hazards, Aly Mousaad Aly, Milad Rezaee

Faculty Publications

During their lifecycle, wind turbines can be subjected to multiple hazard loads, such as high-intensity wind, earthquake, wave, and mechanical unbalance. Excessive vibrations, due to these loads, can have detrimental effects on energy production, structural lifecycle, and the initial cost of wind turbines. Vibration control by various means, such as passive, active, and semi-active control systems provide crucial solutions to these issues. We developed a novel control theory that enables semi-active controller tuning under the complex structural behavior and inherent system nonlinearity. The proposed theory enables the evaluation of semi-active controllers’ performance of multi-degrees-of-freedom systems, without the need for time-consuming ...


Tooling Design Modeling For Composite Fuselage Of Beechcraft King Air 250 Using Catia, Miazor Fidelis Ekom 2021 Changchun University of Science and Technology

Tooling Design Modeling For Composite Fuselage Of Beechcraft King Air 250 Using Catia, Miazor Fidelis Ekom

Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering

Aircraft’s constant operation in tough conditions necessitates the need for structural components of high strength yet low weight. Composite materials are being used as an alternative to conventional aluminum alloys because of their competitive strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. In this paper, the detailed design procedure of a light-aircraft composite material fuselage tooling in three dimensions is shown. In its operation, the layup tools provide a surface for the composite part which is the correct shape of the part and is stable through the cure cycle, and also providing a means of indexing the part for the next manufacturing operation ...


The Kentucky Re-Entry Universal Payload System (Krups): Orbital Flight, James Tyler Nichols 2021 University of Kentucky

The Kentucky Re-Entry Universal Payload System (Krups): Orbital Flight, James Tyler Nichols

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Due to the uniqueness of atmospheric entry environments, ground facilities cannot accurately replicate re-entry conditions. Consequently, scientists primarily rely on numerical models to predict these conditions and inform Thermal Protection System (TPS) designs. These models often lack flight validation, which is necessary for increasing their fidelity. Thus, there is a substantial need to obtain such data to advance modeling capabilities.

The Kentucky Re-entry Universal Payload System (KRUPS) is an adaptable test-bed for scientific experimentation with initial application to TPS. This vehicle was designed at the University of Kentucky to serve as an inexpensive means of obtaining validation data to enhance ...


Finite-Strain Scale-Free Phase-Field Approach To Multivariant Martensitic Phase Transformations With Stress-Dependent Effective Thresholds, Hamed Babaei, Valery I. Levitas 2020 Iowa State University

Finite-Strain Scale-Free Phase-Field Approach To Multivariant Martensitic Phase Transformations With Stress-Dependent Effective Thresholds, Hamed Babaei, Valery I. Levitas

Aerospace Engineering Publications

A scale-free phase-field model for martensitic phase transformations (PTs) at finite strains is developed as an essential generalization of small-strain models in Levitas et al. (2004) and Idesman et al. (2005). The theory includes finite elastic and transformational strains and rotations as well as anisotropic and different elastic properties of phases. The gradient energy term is excluded, and the model is applicable for any scale greater than 100 nm. The model tracks finite-width interfaces between austenite and the mixture of martensitic variants only; volume fractions of martensitic variants are the internal variables rather than order parameters. The concept of the ...


Development Of High-Density Propulsion System Technologies For Interplanetary Small Satellites And Cubesats, Morgan Andrew Roddy 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Development Of High-Density Propulsion System Technologies For Interplanetary Small Satellites And Cubesats, Morgan Andrew Roddy

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research was to support the development of a novel propulsion system for small satellites (<180 kg) and CubeSats. This was pursued by conducting a collection of studies that were designed to provide engineering data that would be critical in designing a functional prototype. The novel propulsion system was conceived by the author to provide best-in-class performance for the small satellite and CubeSat families of spacecraft. This context presents specific design requirements that the presented technology attempts to satisfy. The most critical among these is high density; the propellant was designed to be stored with high density and the thruster was designed to be as compact as possible. The propulsion system is composed of two primary elements, a propellant generator and a thruster. The propellant generator works by sublimating a solid crystal into vapor and then using this vapor to etch a dense metal. The resulting gaseous byproducts of this reaction are the propellant. This dissertation used xenon difluoride (XeF2) vapor to etch tungsten (W) which react to form xenon gas (Xe) and tungsten hexafluoride (WF6). This approach gave a theoretical propellant storage density 5.40 g/cm3; and 5.17 g/cm3 was demonstrated. The sublimation dynamics of the XeF2 were studied as a function of surface area and temperature and it was found to be suitable for the intended application due to its high effluence rate; that is, it sublimates fast enough to be useful. The sublimation rates are on the order of 10’s of µg/s. The etch rate of XeF2 on W was also studied and found to be suitably fast to provide useful amounts of reactants for use as a propellant, again on the order of 1’s of µg/s. The thruster is an electrostatic radio frequency (RF) ion thruster design and is manufactured with Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC) materials system and manufacturing technology. Manufacturing samples of the thruster were built at the University of Arkansas in July 2015 and tested at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in May 2018. Testing validated the viability of the LTCC thruster and provided valuable information on how to improve the thruster’s design.


Filament Winding Composite Airframes For Sounding Rockets, Eric Ford 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Filament Winding Composite Airframes For Sounding Rockets, Eric Ford

Student Works

This study’s objective was to determine the feasibility of manufacturing carbon fiber cylinders using an X-Winder filament winder for a structural airframe in sounding rockets. Multiple carbon fiber tubes were manufactured using the X-Winder and tested. The results of this testing successfully demonstrated that tubes manufactured with the X-Winder are capable of performing as an airframe for small sounding rockets. Five tube samples were destructively tested in compression, and the average maximum compressive strength of the tubes was 9,854 lbf. One of the tubes was used as the airframe in a small sounding rocket which flew to 4 ...


Characterization Of Ice Adhesion: Approaches And Modes Of Loading, Bishoy Dawood, Denizhafn Yavas, Christopher J. Giuffre, Ashraf Bastawros 2020 Iowa State University

Characterization Of Ice Adhesion: Approaches And Modes Of Loading, Bishoy Dawood, Denizhafn Yavas, Christopher J. Giuffre, Ashraf Bastawros

Aerospace Engineering Conference Papers, Presentations and Posters

Airborne structures are vulnerable to atmospheric icing in cold weather operation conditions. Most of the ice adhesion-related works have focused on mechanical ice removal strategies because of practical considerations, while limited literature is available for a fundamental understanding of the ice adhesion process. Here, we present fracture mechanics-based approaches to characterize interfacial fracture parameters for the tensile and shear behavior of a typical ice/aluminum interface. An experimental framework employing single cantilever beam, direct shear, and push-out shear tests were developed to achieve near mode-I and near mode-II fracture conditions at the interface. Both analytical (beam bending and shear-lag analysis ...


Miniaturized Ultraviolet Imager Phase Iii, Bradley D. Albright, Nicolas A. Armenta, Colin W. Harrop 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Miniaturized Ultraviolet Imager Phase Iii, Bradley D. Albright, Nicolas A. Armenta, Colin W. Harrop

Mechanical Engineering

This document details the work to date, June 9, 2020, done by the Cal Poly Mechanical Engineering senior project team, Miniaturized Ultraviolet Imager: Phase III (MUVI III), sponsored by the University of California, Berkeley – Space Sciences Laboratory (UCB SSL). MUVI III is the third senior project team of an ongoing design, MUVI: the prototype of a 2U sized CubeSat intended to capture aurora images in the ionosphere. The first team, MUVI I, finished development of the UV imager. The second team, MUVI II, designed the mirror mounting and deployable door mechanisms. The goal of MUVI phase III is to design ...


Design, Validation, And Verification Of The Cal Poly Educational Cubesat Kit Structure, Nicholas B. Snyder 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Design, Validation, And Verification Of The Cal Poly Educational Cubesat Kit Structure, Nicholas B. Snyder

Master's Theses

In this thesis, the development of a structure for use in an educational CubeSat kit is explored. The potential uses of this kit include augmenting existing curricula with aspects of hands on learning, developing new ways of training students on proper space systems engineering practices, and overall contributing to academic capacity building at Cal Poly and its collaborators. The design improves on existing CubeSat kit structures by increasing accessibility to internal components by implementing a modular backplane system, as well as adding the ability to be environmentally tested. Manufacturing of the structure is completed with both additive (Fused Deposition Modeling ...


Vibration Isolation System, Bradley Y. Kwan, Bailey Groh, Max Wu, Nicole Yen 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Vibration Isolation System, Bradley Y. Kwan, Bailey Groh, Max Wu, Nicole Yen

Mechanical Engineering

The Vibration Isolation System Senior Project is a collaborative group project between its sponsor, Maxar Technologies, and a team of students from Cal Poly - SLO to effectively design, manufacture, and test a structural assembly for satellites, isolating vibrations during launch and orbit conditions. After initial sponsor contact, requirements and needs were set which dictated deliverables for the senior project group. The group performed analyses to validate all design decisions, including a modified concept and design direction, selection of a prototype viscoelastic damping material, preliminary testing to validate design specifications, and detailed design and analysis toward a finalized design. Instead of ...


Studies Of Oval Tube And Fin Heat Exchangers, Phillip Nielsen 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Studies Of Oval Tube And Fin Heat Exchangers, Phillip Nielsen

Undergraduate Student Works

Heating Ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) is a system which changes the temperature of the surroundings for the purposes of cooling or heating. This system requires energy to maintain a temperature difference from the outside temperature. Optimizing the flow over the evaporator coils is one way to increase the cooling efficiency. This will reduce the power required to have a sustainable system. Optimizing the flow to increase the energy transfer between the fins and the incoming air could result in a greater Coefficient of Performance (COP). This will be achieved by changing the geometry of the tubes for greater interaction with ...


Thermal Modeling Of Additive Manufacturing Using Graph Theory: Validation With Directed Energy Deposition, Jordan Severson 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Thermal Modeling Of Additive Manufacturing Using Graph Theory: Validation With Directed Energy Deposition, Jordan Severson

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Metal additive manufacturing (AM/3D printing) offers unparalleled advantages over conventional manufacturing, including greater design freedom and a lower lead time. However, the use of AM parts in safety-critical industries, such as aerospace and biomedical, is limited by the tendency of the process to create flaws that can lead to sudden failure during use. The root cause of flaw formation in metal AM parts, such as porosity and deformation, is linked to the temperature inside the part during the process, called the thermal history. The thermal history is a function of the process parameters and part design.

Consequently, the first ...


Experimental Study On Compression And Shear Strength Of Cfrp, Joseph Gentile, Ethan Garber 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Experimental Study On Compression And Shear Strength Of Cfrp, Joseph Gentile, Ethan Garber

Discovery Day - Prescott

The increasing use of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) in the aerospace industry requires a better understanding of its damage properties. Many modern aircraft under high loads are utilizing this material for their primary structures due to its high strength to weight ratio. However, CFRPs are sensitive to out-of-plane loading such as low-velocity impact and indentation. These damages can reduce the compressive strength significantly without leaving a visible mark on the surface, which is known as Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID). The behavior and residual strength of CFRPs after impact damage under compressive loading are still not fully understood. Studies of ...


Sae Aero West Heavy Lift Competition Team - Eaglenautics, Anthony Pirone, Evan Stuart, Jessica Millard, Nathaniel Scott 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Sae Aero West Heavy Lift Competition Team - Eaglenautics, Anthony Pirone, Evan Stuart, Jessica Millard, Nathaniel Scott

Discovery Day - Prescott

ERAU’s SAE Aero Design West Competition team encourages students of all majors who have an interest in the design of heavy-lift cargo and passenger aircraft to design, build, and fly a large RC aircraft to meet a new set of regulations each competition year. Since the team, Eaglenautics, was founded in 2017 it has successfully been to competition once in April 2019 in California. The team’s aircraft flew 4 out of 5 flight rounds, passed all technical inspections, and is now on display in ERAU’s Aero-Fab in the AXFAB. The 2020 competition requirements are unique in that ...


The Effect Of Oxygen On Properties Of Zirconium Metal, Jie ZHAO 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Effect Of Oxygen On Properties Of Zirconium Metal, Jie Zhao

Doctoral Dissertations

The influence of oxygen on the thermophysical properties of zirconium has been investigated using MSL-EML (Material Science Laboratory Electromagnetic Levitator) on ISS (International Space Station) in collaboration with NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), ESA (European Space Agency), and DLR (German Aerospace Center). Zirconium samples with different oxygen concentrations was subjected to multiple melt cycles during which the thermophysical properties, such as density, viscosity and surface tension, have been measured at various undercooled and superheated temperatures. Also, there are melt cycles for verifying the solidification mechanism. Similar samples were found to show anomalous nucleation of the solid for certain ranges ...


Development And Testing Of Novel Antimicrobial Materials For Additive Manufacturing With Application In Space, Michael Thompson, Jorge Zuniga, Christopher Copeland, Roberto Saavedra, Claudia Cortes Reyes, Andres Acuña Velásquez, Daniel Martínez Pereira, Claudio Soto 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Development And Testing Of Novel Antimicrobial Materials For Additive Manufacturing With Application In Space, Michael Thompson, Jorge Zuniga, Christopher Copeland, Roberto Saavedra, Claudia Cortes Reyes, Andres Acuña Velásquez, Daniel Martínez Pereira, Claudio Soto

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was twofold: (i) develop and test the antimicrobial properties of a polylactic acid- and a polyurethane-based filament, and (ii) use these filaments to manufacture a socket-based prosthesis to verify printability and longevity of the antimicrobial properties. It was hypothesized that the formulation of a novel biocidal copper-based nanocomposite with a biocompatible 3D printing polymer/copolymer can be used for the development of antimicrobial medical devices to mitigate microbial risks during long space flight missions [1, 2, 3].

METHODS: Polylactic Acid-based Filament Development-The development of a polylactic acid-based filament involved several processes, such as ...


Laser Shock Peening Pressure Impulse Determination Via Empirical Data-Matching With Optimization Software, Colin C. Engebretsen 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Laser Shock Peening Pressure Impulse Determination Via Empirical Data-Matching With Optimization Software, Colin C. Engebretsen

Theses and Dissertations

Laser shock peening (LSP) is a form of work hardening by means of laser induced pressure impulse. LSP imparts compressive residual stresses which can improve fatigue life of metallic alloys for structural use. The finite element modeling (FEM) of LSP is typically done by applying an assumed pressure impulse, as useful experimental measurement of this pressure impulse has not been adequately accomplished. This shortfall in the field is a current limitation to the accuracy of FE modeling, and was addressed in the current work. A novel method was tested to determine the pressure impulse shape in time and space by ...


Structural Dynamic And Inherent Damping Characterization Of Additively Manufactured Airfoil Components, Andrew W. Goldin 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Structural Dynamic And Inherent Damping Characterization Of Additively Manufactured Airfoil Components, Andrew W. Goldin

Theses and Dissertations

The push for low cost and higher performance/efficient turbine engines have introduced a new demand for novel technologies to improve robustness to vibrations resulting in High Cycle Fatigue (HCF). There have been many proposed solutions to this, some passive and some active. With the advent of Additive Manufacturing (AM), new damping techniques can now be incorporated directly into the design and manufacture process to suppress the vibrations that create HCF. In this study, this novel unfused pocket damping technology is applied to a blade structure and the resulting damping effectiveness is quantified. The application of this technology to complex ...


Carbon Fiber Composite Recycling, Wolfe Dennis 2020 Central Washington University

Carbon Fiber Composite Recycling, Wolfe Dennis

All Undergraduate Projects

During construction of Boeing’s aircrafts, carbon fiber reinforced composites are used as the primary material for the wings of the aircraft. Excess material during the manufacturing process is trimmed and discarded as waste. Although there is no viable process thus far, these trimmings have the potential to be recycled and reclaimed to be used in various other manufactured products. The trimmings of carbon fiber composite are approximately 10-12 layers of material bonded together. This project focuses on delaminating the trimmings into individual layers so that the carbon can be pyrolyzed from the bonding resin. In order to separate the ...


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