# Applied Mathematics Commons™

## All Articles in Applied Mathematics

5,776 full-text articles. Page 1 of 195.

Predicting Tumor Response To Radiotherapy Based On Estimation Of Non-Treatment Parameters, 2021 Lafayette College

#### Predicting Tumor Response To Radiotherapy Based On Estimation Of Non-Treatment Parameters, Yutian Huang, Allison L. Lewis

##### Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

Though clinicians can now collect detailed information about a variety of tumor characteristics as a tumor evolves, it remains difficult to predict the efficacy of a given treatment prior to administration. Additionally, the process of data collection may be invasive and expensive. Thus, the creation of a framework for predicting patient response to treatment using only information collected prior to the start of treatment could be invaluable. In this study, we employ ordinary differential equation models for tumor growth and utilize synthetic data from a cellular automaton model for calibration. We investigate which parameters have the most influence upon treatment ...

Kleptoparasitic Hawk-Dove Games, 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### Kleptoparasitic Hawk-Dove Games, Isabella H. Evans-Riester, Chasity T. Kay, Karina L. Ortiz-Suarez, Jan Rychtář, Dewey Taylor

##### Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

The Hawk-Dove game is a classical game-theoretical model of potentially aggressive animal conflicts. In this paper, we apply game theory to a population of foraging animals that may engage in stealing food from one another. We assume that the population is composed of two types of individuals, Hawks and Doves. Hawks try to escalate encounters into aggressive contests while Doves engage in non-aggressive displays between themselves or concede to aggressive Hawks. The fitness of each type depends upon various natural parameters, such as food density, the mean handling time of a food item, as well as the mean times of ...

Netsci High: Bringing Agency To Diverse Teens Through The Science Of Connected Systems, 2021 New York Hall of Science

#### Netsci High: Bringing Agency To Diverse Teens Through The Science Of Connected Systems, Stephen M. Uzzo, Catherine B. Cramer, Hiroki Sayama, Russell Faux

##### Northeast Journal of Complex Systems (NEJCS)

This paper follows NetSci High, a decade-long initiative to inspire teams of teenage researchers to develop, execute and disseminate original research in network science. The project introduced high school students to the computer-based analysis of networks, and instilled in the participants the habits of mind to deepen inquiry in connected systems and statistics, and to sustain interest in continuing to study and pursue careers in fields involving network analysis. Goals of NetSci High ranged from proximal learning outcomes (e.g., increasing high school student competencies in computing and improving student attitudes toward computing) to highly distal (e.g., preparing students ...

End-To-End Physics Event Generator, 2021 Old Dominion University

#### End-To-End Physics Event Generator, Yasir Alanazi, N. Sato, Tianbo Liu, W. Melnitchouk, Michelle P. Kuchera, Evan Pritchard, Michael Robertson, Ryan Strauss, Luisa Velasco, Yaohang Li

##### College of Sciences Posters

We apply generative adversarial network (GAN) technology to build an event generator that simulates particle production in electron-proton scattering that is free of theoretical assumptions about underlying particle dynamics. The difficulty of efficiently training a GAN event simulator lies in learning the complicated pat- terns of the distributions of the particles physical properties. We develop a GAN that selects a set of transformed features from particle momenta that can be generated easily by the generator, and uses these to produce a set of augmented features that improve the sensitivity of the discriminator. The new Feature-Augmented and Transformed GAN (FAT-GAN) is ...

A Direct Method For Modeling And Simulations Of Elliptic And Parabolic Interface Problems, 2021 Old Dominion University

#### A Direct Method For Modeling And Simulations Of Elliptic And Parabolic Interface Problems, Kumudu Gamage, Yan Peng

##### College of Sciences Posters

Interface problems have many applications in fluid dynamics, molecular biology, electromagnetism, material science, heat distribution in engines, and hyperthermia treatment of cancer. Mathematically, interface problems commonly lead to partial differential equations (PDE) whose in- put data are discontinuous or singular across the interfaces in the solution domain. Many standard numerical methods designed for smooth solutions poorly work for interface problems as solutions of the interface problems are mostly non-smoothness or discontinuous. Moving interface problems depends on the accuracy of the gradient of the solution at the interface. Therefore, it became essential to derive a method for interface problems that gives ...

2021 Open Set

#### Flocc: From Agent-Based Models To Interactive Simulations On The Web, Scott Donaldson

##### Northeast Journal of Complex Systems (NEJCS)

Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a computational technique wherein systems are represented through the actions and interactions of many individual entities (‘agents’) over time. ABM often attempts to elucidate the unpredictable, high-level behavior of systems through the predictable, low-level behavior of actors within the system. There are currently few software or frameworks for ABM that allow modelers to design and build interactive models on the web, for a wide audience as well as a scientifically literate audience well-versed in complexity, models, and simulations. Flocc is a novel framework for agent-based modeling written in JavaScript, the lingua franca programming language of the ...

Entropic Dynamics Of Networks, 2021 Department of Physics, University at Albany, State University of New York

#### Entropic Dynamics Of Networks, Felipe Xavier Costa, Pedro Pessoa

##### Northeast Journal of Complex Systems (NEJCS)

Here we present the entropic dynamics formalism for networks. That is, a framework for the dynamics of graphs meant to represent a network derived from the principle of maximum entropy and the rate of transition is obtained taking into account the natural information geometry of probability distributions. We apply this framework to the Gibbs distribution of random graphs obtained with constraints on the node connectivity. The information geometry for this graph ensemble is calculated and the dynamical process is obtained as a diffusion equation. We compare the steady state of this dynamics to degree distributions found on real-world networks.

Emergent Hierarchy Through Conductance-Based Degree Constraints, 2021 Air Force Research Laboratory / Clarkson University

#### Emergent Hierarchy Through Conductance-Based Degree Constraints, Christopher Tyler Diggans, Jeremie Fish, Erik M. Bollt

##### Northeast Journal of Complex Systems (NEJCS)

The presence of hierarchy in many real-world networks is not yet fully understood. We observe that complex interaction networks are often coarse-grain models of vast modular networks, where tightly connected subgraphs are agglomerated into nodes for simplicity of representation and computational feasibility. The emergence of hierarchy in such growing complex networks may stem from one particular property of these ignored subgraphs: their graph conductance. Being a quantification of the main bottleneck of flow through the coarse-grain node, this scalar quantity implies a structural limitation and supports the consideration of heterogeneous degree constraints. The internal conductance values of the subgraphs are ...

Network-Based Analysis Of Early Pandemic Mitigation Strategies: Solutions, And Future Directions, 2021 Syracuse University

#### Network-Based Analysis Of Early Pandemic Mitigation Strategies: Solutions, And Future Directions, Pegah Hozhabrierdi, Raymond Zhu, Maduakolam Onyewu, Sucheta Soundarajan

##### Northeast Journal of Complex Systems (NEJCS)

Despite the large amount of literature on mitigation strategies for pandemic spread, in practice, we are still limited by na\"ive strategies, such as lockdowns, that are not effective in controlling the spread of the disease in long term. One major reason behind adopting basic strategies in real-world settings is that, in the early stages of a pandemic, we lack knowledge of the behavior of a disease, and so cannot tailor a more sophisticated response. In this study, we design different mitigation strategies for early stages of a pandemic and perform a comprehensive analysis among them. We then propose a ...

Anticipation Induces Polarized Collective Motion In Attraction Based Models, 2021 Lafayette College

#### Anticipation Induces Polarized Collective Motion In Attraction Based Models, Daniel Strömbom, Alice Antia

##### Northeast Journal of Complex Systems (NEJCS)

Moving animal groups are prime examples of natural complex systems. In most models of such systems each individual updates its heading based on the current positions and headings of its neighbors. However, recently, a number of models where the heading update instead is based on the future anticipated positions/headings of the neighbors have been published. Collectively these studies have established that including anticipation may have drastically different effects in different models. In particular, anticipation inhibits polarization in alignment-based models and in one alignment-free model, but promotes polarization in another alignment-free model. Indicating that our understanding of how anticipation affects ...

A Dynamic Energy Budget Model Of Ornate Box Turtle Shell Growth, 2021 University of Wisconsin-Stout

#### A Dynamic Energy Budget Model Of Ornate Box Turtle Shell Growth, Tyler Skorczewski, Brandon Andersen

##### Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

Many aspects of box turtle development may depend on size rather than age. Notable examples include sexual maturity and the development of the fully closing hinge in the shell that allows box turtles to completely hide in their shells. Thus, it is important to understand how turtles grow in order to have a complete understanding of turtle biology. Previous studies show that turtle shell growth behaves in a logistic manner. These studies use functional models that fit the data well but do little to explain mechanisms. In this work we use the ideas found in dynamic energy budget theory to ...

Flattening The Curve: The Effects Of Intervention Strategies During Covid-19, 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### Flattening The Curve: The Effects Of Intervention Strategies During Covid-19, Kelly A. Reagan, Rachel J. Pryor, Gonzalo M. Bearman, David M. Chan

##### Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

COVID-19 has plagued countries worldwide due to its infectious nature. Social distancing and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) are two main strategies employed to prevent its spread. A SIR model with a time-dependent transmission rate is implemented to examine the effect of social distancing and PPE use in hospitals. These strategies’ effect on the size and timing of the peak number of infectious individuals are examined as well as the total number of individuals infected by the epidemic. The effect on the epidemic of when social distancing is relaxed is also examined. Overall, social distancing was shown to ...

Undetermined Coefficients: A Fully Generalized Approach, 2021 Old Dominion University

#### Undetermined Coefficients: A Fully Generalized Approach, Taylor Powell

In this presentation, I outline the development of a fully-generalized solution of linear, non-homogeneous differential equations with constant coefficients and whose non-homogeneous function is any product of sinusoidal, exponential, and polynomial functions. This particular method does not require the reader to work with annihilator operators or additional related ODEs, and only requires an understanding of summation notation, matrix multiplication, and calculus. Additionally, this method provides a straightforward way to develop a program to implement the technique, and potentially reduces the time-complexity for solutions with comparisons to other methods.

2021 Carnegie Mellon University

#### A Quantitative Analysis On Bitmex Perpetual Inverse Futures Xbtusd Contract, Yue Wu

The perpetual inverse futures contract is a recent and most popularly traded cryptocurrency derivative over crypto derivatives exchanges. Exchanges implement a liquidation mechanism that terminates positions which no longer satisfy maintenance requirements. In this study, we use regression, stochastic calculus, and simulation methods to provide a quantitative description of the wealth/return process for holding an XBTUSD contract on BitMEX, examine the funding rate and index price properties, and relate liquidation to leverage as a stopping time problem. The results will help investors understand liquidation to optimize their trading strategy and researchers in studying the design of crypto derivatives.

Are Terrorist Networks Just Glorified Criminal Cells?, 2021 USMA

#### Are Terrorist Networks Just Glorified Criminal Cells?, Elie Alhajjar, Ryan Fameli, Shane Warren

##### Northeast Journal of Complex Systems (NEJCS)

The notions of organized crime and terrorism have an old and rich history around the globe. Researchers and practitioners have been studying events and phenomena related to these notions for a long time. There are pointers in the literature in which it is misleading to see the unfair comparison between terrorist and criminal networks with the argument that all actors involved in these networks are simply evil individuals. In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of the operational structure of such networks from a network science perspective. We highlight some of the major differences between them and support our ...

Sars-Cov-2 And Rohingya Refugee Camp, Bangladesh: Uncertainty And How The Government Took Over The Situation, 2021 University of Dhaka

#### Sars-Cov-2 And Rohingya Refugee Camp, Bangladesh: Uncertainty And How The Government Took Over The Situation, Md. Md. Kamrujjaman, Md. Shahriar Mahmud, Shakil Ahmed, Md. Omar Qayum, Mohammad Morshad Alam, Md. Nazmul Hassan, Md. Rafiul Islam, Kaniz Fatema Nipa, Ummugul Bulut

##### Mathematics Faculty Publications

Background: Bangladesh hosts more than 800,000 Rohingya refugees from Myanmar. The low health immunity, lifestyle, access to good healthcare services, and social-security cause this population to be at risk of far more direct effects of COVID-19 than the host population. Therefore, evidence-based forecasting of the COVID-19 burden is vital in this regard. In this study, we aimed to forecast the COVID-19 obligation among the Rohingya refugees of Bangladesh to keep up with the disease outbreak’s pace, health needs, and disaster preparedness. Methodology and Findings: To estimate the possible consequences of COVID-19 in the Rohingya camps of Bangladesh, we ...

Long-Term Dynamics Of The Kidney Disease Epidemic Among Hiv-Infected Individuals, 2021 Washington State University

#### Long-Term Dynamics Of The Kidney Disease Epidemic Among Hiv-Infected Individuals, Heather Gudaz, Henry A. Ogu, Elissa J. Schwartz

##### Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

One of many risks facing HIV+ individuals is the development of kidney dysfunction and end stage kidney disease (ESKD). A differential equation-based mathematical model was developed to assess the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the progression to kidney disease and on reducing mortality due to kidney failure. Analytical and numerical predictions of long-term HIV+ ESKD prevalence show that therapy can lead to either extremely low levels of disease prevalence or increased prevalence, depending on drug efficacy levels and mechanisms of action. Maintenance of HIV+ ESKD prevalence below one individual is possible with sufficient efficacy (e.g., 99%) against the progression ...

2021 The University of Western Ontario

#### The Mean-Reverting 4/2 Stochastic Volatility Model: Properties And Financial Applications, Zhenxian Gong

##### Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Financial markets and instruments are continuously evolving, displaying new and more refined stylized facts. This requires regular reviews and empirical evaluations of advanced models. There is evidence in literature that supports stochastic volatility models over constant volatility models in capturing stylized facts such as "smile" and "skew" presented in implied volatility surfaces. In this thesis, we target commodity and volatility index markets, and develop a novel stochastic volatility model that incorporates mean-reverting property and 4/2 stochastic volatility process. Commodities and volatility indexes have been proved to be mean-reverting, which means their prices tend to revert to their long term ...

Principles For Determining The Motion Of Blood Through Arteries, 2021 University of Sao Paulo

#### Principles For Determining The Motion Of Blood Through Arteries, Sylvio R. Bistafa

##### Euleriana

Translation of Principia pro motu sanguinis per arterias determinando (E855). This work of 1775 by L. Euler is considered to be the first mathematical treatment of circulatory physiology and hemodynamics.

2021 Washington University in St. Louis

#### Computational Modelling Enables Robust Multidimensional Nanoscopy, Matthew D. Lew

##### Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

The following sections are included:

• Present State of Computational Modelling in Fluorescence Nanoscopy

• Recent Contributions to Computational Modelling in Fluorescence Nanoscopy

• Outlook on Computational Modelling in Fluorescence Nanoscopy

• Acknowledgments

• References