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The Role Of Contextual Associations In The Selection Of Objects, Noah Patrick Sulman 2011 University of South Florida

The Role Of Contextual Associations In The Selection Of Objects, Noah Patrick Sulman

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

This paper describes a sequence of experiments addressing basic questions about the control of visual attention and the relationship between attention and object recognition. This work reviews compelling findings addressing attentional control on the basis of high-level perceptual properties. In five experiments observers were presented with a rapid sequence of object photographs and instructed to either detect or selectively encode a verbally cued object category. When these object categories (e.g. "baseball") were preceded by contextual images associated with a given object category (e.g. "baseball diamond"), observers were less likely to accurately report information about the target item. This ...


The Effects Of Manipulating Conditioned Establishing Operations On The Acquisition Of Mands In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Claudia Troconis 2011 University of South Florida

The Effects Of Manipulating Conditioned Establishing Operations On The Acquisition Of Mands In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Claudia Troconis

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

In Verbal Behavior, Skinner (1957) suggested that each verbal operant has independent response functions, in which acquiring one does not automatically result in the other, unless transfer between the verbal operants is directly trained. Although several researchers have shown that mands and tacts are functionally independent, more recent research has demonstrated that mands may emerge following tact training. However, this research has not clarified the influence of establishing operations on the emergence of pure mands following tact training. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of tact training on the acquisition of impure and pure mands in children with autism ...


Visual Search For Smoking Stimuli: Detection And Distraction, Jason A. Oliver 2011 University of South Florida

Visual Search For Smoking Stimuli: Detection And Distraction, Jason A. Oliver

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

Extensive research has shown that the attentional systems of addicted individuals are biased towards drug-related stimuli, but despite several decades of effort these results have frequently been inconsistent. Though commonly believed to result from addiction and dependence, cognitive research would suggest that frequent exposure to drug-related stimuli could affect the attentional processing of drug-related cues even if no actual drug use occurs. The present investigation examined attentional bias for smoking cues using a novel visual search paradigm amongst smokers currently in nicotine withdrawal and fully satiated smokers, as well as a non-smoker control group. Variables related to smoking behavior, as ...


Does D-Cycloserine Augmentation Of Cbt Improve Therapeutic Homework Compliance For Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder?, Jennifer M. Park 2011 University of South Florida

Does D-Cycloserine Augmentation Of Cbt Improve Therapeutic Homework Compliance For Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder?, Jennifer M. Park

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist that acts on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor of the glutamatergic receptor complex, may enhance fear extinction learning during exposure-based therapy. Clinical studies in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and non-OCD anxiety disorders - and a recent trial in pediatric OCD - have shown that DCS can improve treatment response to exposure therapy relative to placebo and exposure therapy. Some have hypothesized that improved treatment response is a function of increased compliance and engagement in therapeutic homework tasks, a core component of behavioral treatment. The present study examined the relationship between DCS and homework compliance in a 10-week ...


Disciplinary Outcomes By Race And Gender In Schools Implementing Positive Behavior Support: Does Fidelity Of Implementation Reduce Disproportionality?, Therese Sandomierski 2011 University of South Florida

Disciplinary Outcomes By Race And Gender In Schools Implementing Positive Behavior Support: Does Fidelity Of Implementation Reduce Disproportionality?, Therese Sandomierski

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

Disparities in behavioral outcomes for minority students are a decades-old problem. Recently, the systems-level approach of school-wide positive behavior support (SW-PBS) and its growing research base have garnered attention as a possible remedy. Although SW-PBS has been shown to be effective in reducing a school's overall level of office discipline referrals (ODRs) and suspensions (OSS), and its success has been replicated in schools with large populations of minority students, effective outcomes across all groups of students within a school are not guaranteed. Some reports document increases in the magnitude of disproportionality even when ODRs and OSS decrease for the ...


Responding To Tobacco Craving: Acceptance Versus Suppression, Erika B. Litvin 2011 University of South Florida

Responding To Tobacco Craving: Acceptance Versus Suppression, Erika B. Litvin

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

Most treatments for substance use disorders (SUDs) are based on a model that craving is a primary cause of relapse, and therefore they emphasize skills for preventing and reducing craving. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) provides a theoretical rationale for "acceptance" of drug-related thoughts and cravings, and proscribes suppression, a more intuitive and commonly used coping strategy. However, it remains largely unknown whether various coping strategies differentially affect craving intensity, drug use behavior, or other relevant outcomes during a craving episode. Using a randomized, between-subjects design (acceptance-based coping, suppression-based coping, or no coping instructions/control), the current study compared the ...


Physical Activity Promotion Among School-Aged Children Using Pedometers And Rewards, Kari E. Ek 2011 University of South Florida

Physical Activity Promotion Among School-Aged Children Using Pedometers And Rewards, Kari E. Ek

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

Physical activity is important for children as many children are considered overweight or obese. The benefits of exercise have been demonstrated in empirical studies across all age ranges (Horne, Hardman, Lowe, & Rowlands, 2009; Kelly et al., 2004; Louie & Chan, 2003; Southard & Southard, 2006). In the current study, a multiple baseline design across participants was used to assess the effectiveness of goal setting, reinforcement contingencies, and pedometers that provide feedback to increase step count of 5 participants. During baseline each participant wore a sealed pedometer to assess the average steps the participants took per day. After baseline, each participant, researcher, and parent set a reasonable goal of steps to achieve per day in order to receive a specific reinforcer chosen by the parent and participant. A behavioral contract stated the specific goal number of steps for the day and the specific reinforcer they would receive. At the end of each day before the child went to bed, the parent recorded the number of steps and provided the child with feedback about whether reinforcement was earned. Data collection for four of the five participants showed a mean increase in steps taken per day during intervention 1 in comparison to baseline levels. Participants met their goal step counts during intervention 1 on 12%, 35%, 50%, 71% and 76% of days. All three participants that participated in intervention 2 increased their mean count from both baseline and intervention 1 levels. Participants met their goal step counts during intervention 2 on 62%, 100%, and 100% of days. Two participants participated in the follow up phase of the study; both participants maintained their goals from intervention 2 and completed their goal step count on 100% of days.


An Evaluation Of Booster Training Using Video Modeling With Foster Parents, Anna Katherine Caravello 2011 University of South Florida

An Evaluation Of Booster Training Using Video Modeling With Foster Parents, Anna Katherine Caravello

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

In order for foster parents to be prepared to manage problem behavior and develop a positive relationship with a child in their home, local foster care agencies require these parents to attend parent training classes. Unfortunately, even foster care agencies that offer empirically validated parent training courses are unable to prevent the parents' performance from decreasing over time (Cowart, Iwata, & Poynter, 1984; Forehand & King, 1977; Mueller et al., 2003). However, researchers have created booster training sessions to counteract this issue. Booster training sessions allow participants to attend a brief refresher course on skills they have previously learned. Another intervention that has been successful with ...


Repeated Binge Pattern Ethanol Administration During Adolescence Or Adulthood: Long-Term Changes In Voluntary Ethanol Intake And Mesolimbic Dopamine Functionality In Male Rats, Antoniette Michelle Maldonado-Devincci 2011 University of South Florida

Repeated Binge Pattern Ethanol Administration During Adolescence Or Adulthood: Long-Term Changes In Voluntary Ethanol Intake And Mesolimbic Dopamine Functionality In Male Rats, Antoniette Michelle Maldonado-Devincci

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

Binge alcohol consumption is a rising concern in the United States, especially among adolescents as during this developmental period alcohol use is usually initiated and has been shown to cause detrimental effects on brain structure and function. These findings have been established through the use of binge models in animals, where animals are repeatedly administered high doses of ethanol typically over a period of three or four days. While such work has examined the effects of a four-day and repeated three-day binge, there has been almost no work conducted aimed at investigating the long-term behavioral and neurochemical and/or functional ...


Celestial Bodies, Jared Calvin White 2011 University of South Florida

Celestial Bodies, Jared Calvin White

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

Celestial Bodies

Jared C. White

ABSTRACT

The following is a collection of original poetry written over a span of three years while attending the University of South Florida. The poetry is divided into five numbered sections, marking the major thematic divisions. Preceding the poetry is a critical introduction to the work that outlines the author's developing thematic ideology.


Making A Splash: Eliminating Water Phobia And Increasing Confident Water Skills, Paula Elizabeth Chan 2011 University of South Florida

Making A Splash: Eliminating Water Phobia And Increasing Confident Water Skills, Paula Elizabeth Chan

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to utilize a multi-component intervention to increase confident water skills for three typically developing children, and to evaluate whether fearful behaviors decreased as the intervention progressed. The intervention, comprised of goal setting, self-monitoring, behavioral skills training and positive reinforcement, was used in community pools to teach basic water skills. Results suggest the intervention was successful in increasing confident water skills, while intervals with positive affect and fearful behaviors demonstrated variability.


Utilizing Probabilistic Reinforcement To Enhance Participation In Parent Training, Errity Jones 2011 University of South Florida

Utilizing Probabilistic Reinforcement To Enhance Participation In Parent Training, Errity Jones

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

Parental participation in parent training programs is necessary for success in behavioral parent training. Prior literature has demonstrated probabilistic reinforcement as an effective intervention for improving a wide variety of behaviors. In the present study, a probabilistic reinforcement program (i.e., lottery) was implemented in order to evaluate its efficacy as part of a behavioral parent training program. The behaviors targeted for increase included attendance, participation, homework completion, and performing role-plays or completing in-class assignments for two 10 week Tools for Positive Behavior Change courses. Participants earned lottery tickets for each of the dependent measures, and drawings took place at ...


Heroes: What They Do & Why We Need Them, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals 2011 University of Richmond

Heroes: What They Do & Why We Need Them, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals

Bookshelf

Abraham Lincoln, Princess Diana, Rick in Casablanca--why do we perceive certain people as heroes? What qualities do we see in them? What must they do to win our admiration? In Heroes, Scott T. Allison and George R. Goethals offer a stimulating tour of the psychology of heroism, shedding light on what heroism and villainy mean to most people and why heroes--both real people and fictional characters--are so vital to our lives. The book discusses a broad range of heroes, including Eleanor Roosevelt, Walt Kowalski in Gran Torino, Senator Ted Kennedy, and explorer Ernest Shackleton, plus villains such as Shakespeare ...


Peer Support, Stephanie Rodrigues, Matthew Chinman, Susan Hills, Marsha Langer Ellison, Colleen E. McKay 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Peer Support, Stephanie Rodrigues, Matthew Chinman, Susan Hills, Marsha Langer Ellison, Colleen E. Mckay

Center for Mental Health Services Research Publications and Presentations

Chapter Summary: This chapter is intended for those serving on MISSION-VET teams as Peer Support Specialists (PSS). It explains the unique role of the position. Following an overview of their role within the MISSIONVET treatment program, the chapter explains how the PSS works with the MISSION-VET Case Manager. It also highlights how the PSS serves as a role model and as a source of encouragement and support to Veterans receiving MISSION-VET services. Case examples are included to illustrate how PSSs facilitate discussions on topics of particular concern to Veterans receiving treatment services and how the PSS continues to meet with ...


Vocational And Educational Support For Veterans, Marsha Langer Ellison, Charles Drebing, Lisa Mueller, Jonathan Delman, Lisa Mistler 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Vocational And Educational Support For Veterans, Marsha Langer Ellison, Charles Drebing, Lisa Mueller, Jonathan Delman, Lisa Mistler

Center for Mental Health Services Research Publications and Presentations

Chapter Summary: Veterans with co-occurring disorders can and do want to work. Additionally, many may wish to further their education. Though barriers to these achievements can be formidable, there are several VA programs that can be accessed to promote Veteran employment, including VetSuccess and Supported Employment. Community supports include One-Stop Career Centers. The unique challenges to employment have been successfully addressed by the principles and practices of the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model developed by the Dartmouth Psychiatric Research Center. These principles and practices, adapted from a published guide on supported employment, are listed and described in this chapter ...


Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Analysis For The Behavioral Sciences Using Real Data, Stephen Guastello, Robert A. M. Gregson 2011 Marquette University

Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Analysis For The Behavioral Sciences Using Real Data, Stephen Guastello, Robert A. M. Gregson

Books by Marquette University Faculty

Although its roots can be traced to the 19th century, progress in the study of nonlinear dynamical systems has taken off in the last 30 years. While pertinent source material exists, it is strewn about the literature in mathematics, physics, biology, economics, and psychology at varying levels of accessibility. A compendium research methods reflecting the expertise of major contributors to NDS psychology, Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences Using Real Data examines the techniques proven to be the most useful in the behavioral sciences.

The editors have brought together constructive work on new practical examples of methods ...


Processes Of Sexual Orientation Questioning Among Heterosexual Women, Elizabeth M. Morgan, Elisabeth Morgan Thompson 2011 Boise State University

Processes Of Sexual Orientation Questioning Among Heterosexual Women, Elizabeth M. Morgan, Elisabeth Morgan Thompson

Psychology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Because very little is known about heterosexual identity development, this study assesses and describes sexual orientation questioning processes of heterosexual-identified women, and offers a comparison of these processes with those employed by their sexual-minority counterparts. Participants included 333 female college students (ages 18-23; M = 19.2). Two-hundred and twenty-eight participants primarily identified as “exclusively straight/heterosexual”; 105 participants indicated a sexual-minority identity. Sixty-seven percent of exclusively heterosexual respondents (n = 154) indicated having thought about and/or questioned their sexual orientation. The processes by which heterosexual participants described questioning their sexual orientation were coded for the presence of five emergent categories ...


Waiting For Grapes: Expectancy And Delayed Gratification In Bonobos, Jeffrey R. Stevens, Alexandra G. Rosati, Sarah R. Heilbronner, Nelly Mühlhoff 2011 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Waiting For Grapes: Expectancy And Delayed Gratification In Bonobos, Jeffrey R. Stevens, Alexandra G. Rosati, Sarah R. Heilbronner, Nelly Mühlhoff

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Responses to delayed rewards vary widely across individuals and have important implications for personality and temperament. Animals may avoid delayed rewards because the future is uncertain. Therefore, expectations about receiving a future reward should influence the response to delayed payoffs. Here, we offered bonobos (Pan paniscus) a delayed gratification task in which food accumulated over time. Once subjects chose to consume the reward, food stopped accumulating. We tested their willingness to wait with a reliable and an unreliable experimenter to vary the subjects’ expectations that they would receive the food. Subjects waited less often with the unreliable experimenter but showed ...


To Google Or Not To Google: Graduate Students’ Use Of The Internet To Access Personal Information About Clients, David K. DiLillo, Emily B. Gale 2011 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

To Google Or Not To Google: Graduate Students’ Use Of The Internet To Access Personal Information About Clients, David K. Dilillo, Emily B. Gale

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

The emergence of Internet search and social media sites now permits therapists to obtain a plethora of personal information about their clients online. These behaviors raise a number of ethical issues related to client privacy, self-determination, and informed consent. The purpose of this study is to examine student therapists’ opinions and behaviors in regard to the use these websites to search for information about their clients. A national sample of 854 psychology doctoral students was surveyed in regard to their online activities, attitudes, and frequency of searching for client information online. Results showed that Internet usage is pervasive in this ...


Exploring Separable Components Of Institutional Confidence, Joseph A. Hamm, Lisa M. Pytlik Zillig, Alan Tomkins, Mitchel Herian, Brian H. Bornstein, Elizabeth Neeley 2011 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Exploring Separable Components Of Institutional Confidence, Joseph A. Hamm, Lisa M. Pytlik Zillig, Alan Tomkins, Mitchel Herian, Brian H. Bornstein, Elizabeth Neeley

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Despite its contemporary and theoretical importance in numerous social scientific disciplines, institutional confidence research is limited by a lack of consensus regarding the distinctions and relationships among related constructs (e.g., trust, confidence, legitimacy, distrust, etc.). This study examined four confidence-related constructs that have been used in studies of trust/confidence in the courts: dispositional trust, trust in institutions, obligation to obey the law, and cynicism. First, the separability of the four constructs was examined by exploratory factor analyses. Relationships among the constructs were also assessed. Next, multiple regression analyses were used to explore each construct’s independent contribution to ...


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