Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Psychiatry and Psychology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2,894 Full-Text Articles 4,791 Authors 1,158,542 Downloads 140 Institutions

All Articles in Psychiatry and Psychology

Faceted Search

2,894 full-text articles. Page 29 of 63.

Adolescent Decision Making And Risk Behavior: A Neurobiological Approach, Jennifer M. Wolff 2012 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Adolescent Decision Making And Risk Behavior: A Neurobiological Approach, Jennifer M. Wolff

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

In this study, the neurobiological theory of adolescent decision making and risk taking and the dual-process decision making theory were tested in a sample of college students. Participants responded to questions in a survey about decision making style, socio-emotional processes, cognitive control processes, and deviant peers. The goals of the research were to test the relation between decision making processes (intuitive and deliberative) and risk behaviors, to test the potential overlap between intuitive and deliberative decision making as described in the more traditional dual-process models and the socio-emotional and cognitive control systems of the neurobiological model, and to extend the ...


Adjusting For Confounding By Neighborhood Using A Proportional Odds Model And Complex Survey Data, Babette A. Brumback, Amy B. Dailey, Hao W. Zheng 2012 Gettysburg College

Adjusting For Confounding By Neighborhood Using A Proportional Odds Model And Complex Survey Data, Babette A. Brumback, Amy B. Dailey, Hao W. Zheng

Health Sciences Faculty Publications

In social epidemiology, an individual's neighborhood is considered to be an important determinant of health behaviors, mediators, and outcomes. Consequently, when investigating health disparities, researchers may wish to adjust for confounding by unmeasured neighborhood factors, such as local availability of health facilities or cultural predispositions. With a simple random sample and a binary outcome, a conditional logistic regression analysis that treats individuals within a neighborhood as a matched set is a natural method to use. The authors present a generalization of this method for ordinal outcomes and complex sampling designs. The method is based on a proportional odds model ...


Methamphetamine-Associated Psychosis, Kathleen M. Grant, Tricia D. Le Van, Sandra M. Wells, Ming Li, Scott F. Stoltenberg, Howard E. Gendelman, Gustavo Carlo, Rick A. Bevins 2012 VA Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System

Methamphetamine-Associated Psychosis, Kathleen M. Grant, Tricia D. Le Van, Sandra M. Wells, Ming Li, Scott F. Stoltenberg, Howard E. Gendelman, Gustavo Carlo, Rick A. Bevins

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Methamphetamine (METH) is a frequent drug of abuse in U.S. populations and commonly associated with psychosis. This may be a factor in frequent criminal justice referrals and lengthy treatment required by METH users. Persecutory delusions and auditory hallucinations are the most consistent symptoms of METH-associated psychosis (MAP). MAP has largely been studied in Asian populations and risk factors have varied across studies. Duration, frequency and amount of use as well as sexual abuse, family history, other substance use, and co-occurring personality and mood disorders are risk factors for MAP. MAP may be unique with its long duration of psychosis ...


Depressive Symptoms Are Associated With Weight Gain Among Women, Angelina R. Sutin PhD, Alan B. Zonderman 2012 Florida State University College of Medicine

Depressive Symptoms Are Associated With Weight Gain Among Women, Angelina R. Sutin Phd, Alan B. Zonderman

Behavioral Sciences and Social Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Many studies have linked depression and obesity; few have more than two assessments of depressive symptoms and adiposity to address the potential bidirectional relationship between adiposity and depressive symptoms from young adulthood through old age. We tested whether baseline depressive symptoms are associated with changes in weight, whether baseline adiposity is associated with changes in depressive symptoms, and whether these associations vary by sex.MethodParticipants (n=2251; 47% female) were from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) on 30 years of data, the trajectory of adiposity and depressive symptoms over adulthood was estimated ...


Linda Cabral, Laura Sefton, And Kathy Muhr On Recruiting People With Mental Health Conditions For Data Collection, Linda M. Cabral, Laura A. Sefton, Kathy Muhr 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Linda Cabral, Laura Sefton, And Kathy Muhr On Recruiting People With Mental Health Conditions For Data Collection, Linda M. Cabral, Laura A. Sefton, Kathy Muhr

Center for Health Policy and Research (CHPR) Publications and Presentations

Blog post to AEA365, a blog sponsored by the American Evaluation Association (AEA) dedicated to highlighting Hot Tips, Cool Tricks, Rad Resources, and Lessons Learned for evaluators. The American Evaluation Association is an international professional association of evaluators devoted to the application and exploration of program evaluation, personnel evaluation, technology, and many other forms of evaluation. Evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weaknesses of programs, policies, personnel, products, and organizations to improve their effectiveness.


Early Intervention Of Psychosis And Re! Ections For Programmes In India, Amresh Srivastava 2012 University of Western Ontario

Early Intervention Of Psychosis And Re! Ections For Programmes In India, Amresh Srivastava

Amresh Srivastava

Mental illness is perhaps the most common and most debilitating among non-communicable diseases. Schizophrenia, for example, normally occurs before the age of 25, affect the most productive years of life. The World Economic Forum graphically illustrates that mental illnesses will be a major contributor to the erosion of gross domestic product over the next 20 years. The developed world has established programs that have proven to be clinically and economically effective and sustainable.[1] Early intervention has played an important role in demonstrating that outcome can be improved if patients are treated in the early phase of illness. It is ...


A Shot In Arm: Can Chemical Castration Statutes Cure Sex Offenders Legally And Ethically?, Robert Watters 2012 Faulkner University School of Law

A Shot In Arm: Can Chemical Castration Statutes Cure Sex Offenders Legally And Ethically?, Robert Watters

Robert Watters

At least seven states have chemical castration statutes to combat recidivist sex offenders. This article is an examination of the appropriateness and effectiveness of those statutes as against the successful European models.


Motivation & Loss Aversion In The Health Savings Account Paradigm, Michael Holtje 2012 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Motivation & Loss Aversion In The Health Savings Account Paradigm, Michael Holtje

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

This investigation examined the role of “loss aversion” and consumers’ motivational orientations in the context of healthcare purchasing under the individual account paradigm and the defined benefit (insurance) paradigm. Specifically, this dissertation investigated (1) whether Health Savings Accounts (HSAs) encourage more prudent health care spending compared to traditional health insurance plans and (2) the impact of individuals' motivational preferences (either towards “gains” or towards “losses”) between decision tasks under each type of health plan.

Three experiments varied the type of healthcare plan that consumers had and the manner in which they received information (either as a “gain” or “loss”). The ...


Stereological Assessment Of The Thalamus In A Rat Model Of Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia, Jason Lennox 2012 Rhode Island College

Stereological Assessment Of The Thalamus In A Rat Model Of Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia, Jason Lennox

Honors Projects Overview

Malformations of neocortical development such as microgyria (MG) and periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) have been observed in the brains of language learning impaired (LLI) humans. Rats with MG have shown rapid auditory processing (RAP) deficits similar to acoustic deficits observed in some human LLI populations. Threlkeld et al., (2009) previously reported RAP and other learning impairments in rats with PNH resulting from disruption to embryonic neuronal cell division by way of Methylazoxymethanol (MAM) treatment on embryonic day 15 (E15). The thalamus and its subnuclei may be vulnerable to neurodevelopmental disruptions. Studies of MG rats have shown changes in cell size ...


Avoidant Personality Disorder, Traits, And Type, Charles A. Sanislow, Katelin da Cruz, May O. Gianoli, Elizabeth M. Reagan 2012 Wesleyan University

Avoidant Personality Disorder, Traits, And Type, Charles A. Sanislow, Katelin Da Cruz, May O. Gianoli, Elizabeth M. Reagan

Charles A. Sanislow

In this chapter, the evolution of the avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) diagnosis, its current status, and future possibilities are reviewed. AVPD is a chronic and enduring condition involving a poor sense of self and anxiety in social situations, and it is marked by fears of rejection and a distant interpersonal stance. AVPD may be conceptualized at the severe end of a continuum of social anxiety. In the extreme, traits, mechanisms, and symptoms become integral to chronic dysfunction in personality and interpersonal style. While AVPD is a valid diagnostic construct, the optimal organization of AVPD criteria for the diagnosis, and the ...


Family Psychoeducation In Clinical High Risk And First- Episode Psychosis, William R. McFarlane, Sarah Lynch, Ryan P. Melton 2012 Tufts University Medical School

Family Psychoeducation In Clinical High Risk And First- Episode Psychosis, William R. Mcfarlane, Sarah Lynch, Ryan P. Melton

Regional Research Institute for Human Services Publications

Seventy percent of those who will have an episode of psychosis will have done so by age 25. Data from clinical trials of intervention during the clinical high risk period of psychosis have determined that the mean age is in mid-adolescence, 16-18 years of age. For those reasons, early intervention inherently involves adolescents, and by extension their parents and other family members and supports. Regarding the type of intervention, it is relevant that the current empirically-derived standard of treatment for schizophrenia, as concluded by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research survey of the treatment outcome literature, includes family ...


Avoidant Personality Disorder, Traits, And Type, Charles A. Sanislow, Katelin da Cruz, May O. Gianoli, Elizabeth M. Reagan 2012 Wesleyan University

Avoidant Personality Disorder, Traits, And Type, Charles A. Sanislow, Katelin Da Cruz, May O. Gianoli, Elizabeth M. Reagan

Division III Faculty Publications

In this chapter, the evolution of the avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) diagnosis, its current status, and future possibilities are reviewed. AVPD is a chronic and enduring condition involving a poor sense of self and anxiety in social situations, and it is marked by fears of rejection and a distant interpersonal stance. AVPD may be conceptualized at the severe end of a continuum of social anxiety. In the extreme, traits, mechanisms, and symptoms become integral to chronic dysfunction in personality and interpersonal style. While AVPD is a valid diagnostic construct, the optimal organization of AVPD criteria for the diagnosis, and the ...


Five-Factor Personality Traits And Age Trajectories Of Self-Rated Health: The Role Of Question Framing, Corinna E. Löckenhoff, Antonio Terracciano PhD, Luigi Ferrucci, Paul T. Costa 2012 Florida State University College of Medicine

Five-Factor Personality Traits And Age Trajectories Of Self-Rated Health: The Role Of Question Framing, Corinna E. Löckenhoff, Antonio Terracciano Phd, Luigi Ferrucci, Paul T. Costa

Department of Geriatrics Faculty Publications

We examined the influence of personality traits on mean levels and age trends in 4 single-item measures of self-rated health: general rating, comparison to age peers, comparison to past health, and expectations for future health. Community-dwelling participants (N = 1,683) completed 7,474 self-rated health assessments over a period of up to 19 years. In hierarchical linear modeling analyses, age-associated declines differed across the 4 health items. Across age groups, high Neuroticism and low Conscientiousness, low Extraversion, and low Openness were associated with worse health ratings, with notable differences across the 4 health items. Furthermore, high Neuroticism predicted steeper declines ...


Mirror, Mirror On The Wall, Who's The Thinnest Of Them All?, Ann Marie O'Brien 2012 Providence College

Mirror, Mirror On The Wall, Who's The Thinnest Of Them All?, Ann Marie O'Brien

Annual Undergraduate Conference on Health and Society

Societal standards of feminine beauty are presented in all forms of popular culture, thus bombarding women with images that portray what our society considers to be the “ideal body type.” These images, as seen on the cover of magazines, in popular films and in all forms of web and print advertising, are consistently depicted and easily described with one word: skinny. The regular use of unnatural, unhealthy and unrealistic models sends the implicit message that in order for a woman to be beautiful, she must attain this ultra-thin physique. Such adulation of these images encourages women to sacrifice their health ...


Does Emotional Memory Enhancement Assist The Memory-Impaired?, Lucas S. Broster, Lee X. Blonder, Yang Jiang 2012 University of Kentucky

Does Emotional Memory Enhancement Assist The Memory-Impaired?, Lucas S. Broster, Lee X. Blonder, Yang Jiang

Behavioral Science Faculty Publications

We review recent work on emotional memory enhancement in older adults and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer dementia (AD) and evaluate the viability of incorporating emotional components into cognitive rehabilitation for these groups. First, we identify converging evidence regarding the effects of emotional valence on working memory in healthy aging. Second, we introduce work that suggests a more complex role for emotional memory enhancement in aging and identify a model capable of unifying disparate research findings. Third, we survey the neuroimaging literature for evidence of a special role for the amygdala in MCI and early AD in ...


The American Psychiatric Association’S Guideline For Major Depressive Disorder: A Commentary, Lisa Cosgrove, Allen F. Shaughnessy, Emily E. Wheeler, Kirsten E. Austad, Irving Kirsch, Harold J. Bursztajn 2012 University of Massachusetts Boston

The American Psychiatric Association’S Guideline For Major Depressive Disorder: A Commentary, Lisa Cosgrove, Allen F. Shaughnessy, Emily E. Wheeler, Kirsten E. Austad, Irving Kirsch, Harold J. Bursztajn

Counseling and School Psychology Faculty Publication Series

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) published a new guideline for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) which will undoubtedly be used by many practitioners to guide clinical decision-making. In fact, it is non-psychiatrist clinicians who prescribe the majority of antidepressants (AD). We review the APA’s most recent guideline on MDD and report on our observations.


A Comparison Of Dsm-Iv And Dsm-5 Panel Members’ Financial Associations With Industry: A Pernicious Problem Persists, Lisa Cosgrove, Sheldon Krimsky 2012 University of Massachusetts Boston

A Comparison Of Dsm-Iv And Dsm-5 Panel Members’ Financial Associations With Industry: A Pernicious Problem Persists, Lisa Cosgrove, Sheldon Krimsky

Counseling and School Psychology Faculty Publication Series

All medical subspecialties have been subject to increased scrutiny about the ways by which their financial associations with industry, such as pharmaceutical companies, may influence, or give the appearance of influencing, recommendations in review articles and clinical practice guidelines. Psychiatry has been at the epicenter of these concerns, in part because of high-profile cases involving ghostwriting and failure to report industry-related income, and studies highlighting conflicts of interest in promoting psychotropic drugs. The revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), scheduled for publication in May 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), has created a firestorm of controversy ...


The Effects Of Length Of Stay And Family Contact On The Hawai'i Brain Drain Phenomenon, Derrinn Y.K. Fukuda 2012 Pacific University

The Effects Of Length Of Stay And Family Contact On The Hawai'i Brain Drain Phenomenon, Derrinn Y.K. Fukuda

School of Professional Psychology

The current study has focused on shedding light on the brain drain phenomenon. This notion has been defined as talented and educated individuals leaving their home country to attend school in a more developed country, only to decide to remain abroad. The brain drain phenomenon has been studied extensively with regards to international countries, but the research with Hawai'i-resident and Hawai'i-born individuals has been lacking. In regards to Hawai'i, some Hawai'i-born or Hawai'i resident students choose to attend college in the mainland United States. Some of these students then choose to stay in the mainland ...


Self-Esteem As A Mediator Of The Relationship Between Mindfulness And Satisfaction With Life, Daniel R. Zamir 2012 Pacific University

Self-Esteem As A Mediator Of The Relationship Between Mindfulness And Satisfaction With Life, Daniel R. Zamir

School of Professional Psychology

Mindful awareness involves intentionally attending to the present moment without judgment. In the past 30 years, it has been demonstrated that teaching people to be mindful yields positive effects and reduces the symptoms of a variety of physical and psychological disorders (Brown, Ryan, & Creswell, 2007; Kabat-Zinn, 1982). While mindfulness is an ancient practice, it has only been empirically researched for the past 30 years. In this time, much has been learned about the beneficial effects of mindfulness. However, many questions remain regarding the mechanism by which mindfulness brings about its beneficial effects and how the trait of mindfulness relates to other psychological ...


Association Of Common Genetic Variants In Gpcpd1 With Scaling Of Visual Cortical Surface Area In Humans, Trygve E. Bakken, J. Cooper Roddey, Srdjan Djurovic, Natacha Akshoomoff, David G. Amaral, Cinnamon S. Bloss, B. J. Casey, Linda Chang, Thomas M. Ernst, Jeffrey R. Gruen, Terry L. Jernigan, Walter E. Kaufmann, Tal Kenet, David N. Kennedy, Joshua M. Kuperman, Sarah S. Murray, Elizabeth R. Sowell, Lars M. Rimol, Morten Mattingsdal, Ingrid Melle, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A. Andreassen, Nicholas J. Schork, Anders M. Dale, Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics Study, Jean A. Frazier, Lauren Yakutis 2012 University of California at San Diego

Association Of Common Genetic Variants In Gpcpd1 With Scaling Of Visual Cortical Surface Area In Humans, Trygve E. Bakken, J. Cooper Roddey, Srdjan Djurovic, Natacha Akshoomoff, David G. Amaral, Cinnamon S. Bloss, B. J. Casey, Linda Chang, Thomas M. Ernst, Jeffrey R. Gruen, Terry L. Jernigan, Walter E. Kaufmann, Tal Kenet, David N. Kennedy, Joshua M. Kuperman, Sarah S. Murray, Elizabeth R. Sowell, Lars M. Rimol, Morten Mattingsdal, Ingrid Melle, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A. Andreassen, Nicholas J. Schork, Anders M. Dale, Alzheimer’S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, And Genetics Study, Jean A. Frazier, Lauren Yakutis

Psychiatry Publications and Presentations

Visual cortical surface area varies two- to threefold between human individuals, is highly heritable, and has been correlated with visual acuity and visual perception. However, it is still largely unknown what specific genetic and environmental factors contribute to normal variation in the area of visual cortex. To identify SNPs associated with the proportional surface area of visual cortex, we performed a genome-wide association study followed by replication in two independent cohorts. We identified one SNP (rs6116869) that replicated in both cohorts and had genome-wide significant association (P(combined) = 3.2 × 10(-8)). Furthermore, a metaanalysis of imputed SNPs in this ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress