Pathways Involved In Recognition And Induction Of Trained Innate Immunity By Plasmodium Falciparum, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Pathways Involved In Recognition And Induction Of Trained Innate Immunity By Plasmodium Falciparum, Jacob E. Schrum
GSBS Dissertations and Theses
Malarial infection in naïve individuals induces a robust innate immune response, but our understanding of the mechanisms by which the innate immune system recognizes malaria and regulates its response remain incomplete. Our group previously showed that stimulation of macrophages with Plasmodium falciparum genomic DNA (gDNA) and AT-rich oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) derived from this gDNA induces the production of type I interferons (IFN-I) through a STING/TBK1/IRF3-dependent pathway; however, the identity of the upstream cytosolic DNA receptor remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that this IFN-I response is dependent on cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). cGAS produced the cyclic dinucleotide 2’3’-cGAMP ...
Finding A Link Between Circadian Rhythms And The Immune System Of Captive Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), 2017 Western Kentucky University
Finding A Link Between Circadian Rhythms And The Immune System Of Captive Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), Amber Bishop
Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects
Circadian rhythms are commonplace in organisms and are normally controlled by a master clock. More recent evidence suggests that autonomous clocks operate in various systems in the body, including the immune system. This study looks for such a connection between the circadian rhythm and the immune system. In this study, captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were exposed to different light and dark cycles and blood samples were taken every six hours. Birds were exposed to 12 hours of light and then 12 hours of darkness (LD), 24 hours of darkness (DD), or 48 hours of DD. After collecting whole blood ...
B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, 2017 Seton Hall University
B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, Mariana Phillips
Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)
Cancer-based immunotherapy has led the evolution of biologics that can stimulate immune responses towards tumor eradication. The synthesis of small to intermediate size molecules with the targeting and effector functions of mAb may represent a novel class of immunotherapeutics that may overcome the limitations of their biological counterparts.Towards this objective, B7H6 has been identified as a protein ligand localized on the cell surface of transformed tumor cells. B7H6 binds specifically to the activating receptor NKp30, constitutively expressed on all resting and active NK cells. Upon ligand:receptor binding, B7H6 triggers NK cell activation and release of chemokines and pro-inflammatory ...
Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, Haven N. Frazier
Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States (1). While treatments involving radiation and chemotherapy currently exist, disease must be detected early in order for the treatments to be somewhat effective, and there is no effective treatment after metastasis occurs (2). Additionally, current therapies do not mitigate tumor immunosuppression. Decreasing the tumor-associated immunosuppressive conditions while activating antitumor immunity could prevent recurrence and metastasis, possibly leading to an effective treatment for cancer (3). Tumor cell vaccines could possibly address this issue and have become a ...
Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs
Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, Christina Cotte
University Scholar Projects
Sickle cell disease (SCD) has been shown to be associated with decreased baseline immunity and thus increased susceptibility to infection. I sought to discern possible causes of this by looking into the correlations between SCD and hematopoiesis, the immune system and the neuroendocrine system, and ultimately by conducting experiments surrounding the impaired immune system of SCD. These experiments focused on the potential causes and effects of the diminution of B-1a cells in the SCD spleen. Adoptive transfers, infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and histologic imaging were conducted to establish if the diminution of the B-1a cells in the SCD spleen is ...
Binding Of A Monoclonal Antibody To B Virus Gd Linear Epitope On A Whole Virus Antigen Is Only After Antigen Denaturation, 2017 Georgia State University
Binding Of A Monoclonal Antibody To B Virus Gd Linear Epitope On A Whole Virus Antigen Is Only After Antigen Denaturation, Jingyao Deng
Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference
No abstract provided.
Creation Of An Immunodeficient Hla-Transgenic Mouse (Humamice) And Functional Validation Of Human Immunity After Transfer Of Hla-Matched Human Cells, 2017 Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology
Creation Of An Immunodeficient Hla-Transgenic Mouse (Humamice) And Functional Validation Of Human Immunity After Transfer Of Hla-Matched Human Cells, Yang Zeng, Bingrun Liu, Marie-Therese Rubio, Xinyue Wang, David M. Ojcius, Ruoping Tang, Antoine Durrbach, Zhitao Ru, Yusen Zhou, Yu-Chun Lone
Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles
Research on human immunology has been hindered by the lack of optimal small animal models, given that the protective immune responses of human and non-human species show significant differences. However, due to ethical constraints and the high cost of clinical trials, it is urgent to improve the current animal models that can mimic faithfully human physiology, particularly the human immune system (HIS). HIS mice had been generated recently by engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) or human peripheral mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) into highly immuno-deficient mice such as NSG, NOG or NRG mice. However, a major experimental drawback for studies ...
The Antiviral Rna Interference Response Provides Resistance To Lethal Arbovirus Infection And Vertical Transmission In Caenorhabditis Elegans, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
The Antiviral Rna Interference Response Provides Resistance To Lethal Arbovirus Infection And Vertical Transmission In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Don B. Gammon, Takao Ishidate, Lichao Li, Weifeng Gu, Neal S. Silverman, Craig C. Mello
University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications
The recent discovery of the positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) Orsay virus (OV) as a natural pathogen of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has stimulated interest in exploring virus-nematode interactions. However, OV infection is restricted to a small number of intestinal cells, even in nematodes defective in their antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) response, and is neither lethal nor vertically transmitted. Using a fluorescent reporter strain of the negative-sense ssRNA vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), we show that microinjection of VSV particles leads to a dose-dependent, muscle tissue-tropic, lethal infection in C. elegans. Furthermore, we find nematodes deficient for components of the antiviral RNAi ...
P23. Elucidation Of The Signaling Pathway Of Mertk, 2017 Western University
P23. Elucidation Of The Signaling Pathway Of Mertk, Kyle Taruc
Western Research Forum
Mer Tyrosine Kinase (MERTK) is a receptor which mediates efferocytosis – removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes such as macrophages. MERTK plays a critical role in homeostasis, with mutations in MERTK associated with the development and progression of atherosclerosis, the buildup of cholesterol-laden plaque in the sub-arterial space. Indeed, one MERTK allele is associated with 66% (heterozygous) to 75% (homozygous) protection from atherosclerosis, while other alleles and SNP’s pre-dispose to atherosclerosis and autoimmunity. Complications resulting from atherosclerosis, including heart attack and stroke, are currently the second leading cause of mortality in Canada. Despite the importance of MERTK in atherosclerosis ...
Thermal Biology Of Insect Immunity And Host-Microbe Interactions, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Thermal Biology Of Insect Immunity And Host-Microbe Interactions, Laura V. Ferguson
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The influence of temperature on interactions with pathogenic or symbiotic microbes is a driving force behind the survival of insects under climate change. However, we know little of how insects physiologically respond to these pressures. In temperate climates, winter dominates the thermal landscape; thus, I am particularly interested in how cold interacts with insect responses to microbes. Here I explore the thermal biology of the insect immune system and the impacts of cold on host-microbe interactions. First, I demonstrate that acute exposure to cold activates selective components of immunity in Drosophila melanogaster, as a compensatory response to trade-offs or injury ...
Mhc Class Iiβ Diversity As A Correlate Of Neutral-Locus Similarity And Diversity, And A Predictor Of Overwinter Return, In Song Sparrows (Melospiza Melodia), 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Mhc Class Iiβ Diversity As A Correlate Of Neutral-Locus Similarity And Diversity, And A Predictor Of Overwinter Return, In Song Sparrows (Melospiza Melodia), Matthew J. Watson
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a family of genes involved with recognizing pathogens and mounting an immune response. Parasite-mediated selection often favours heterozygosity at MHC because MHC-diverse individuals recognize a wider range of pathogens. Because migratory birds encounter many pathogens, I hypothesized that MHC diversity predicts overwinter and juvenile survivorship in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). I found no correlation between MHC diversity and neutral-locus (microsatellite) heterozygosity, suggesting that measures of neutral and adaptive genetic diversity provide complementary rather than redundant information. However, pairwise similarity at MHC predicted pairwise similarity at microsatellite loci. In contrast to my hypothesis, MHC ...
Soluble Uric Acid Activates The Nlrp3 Inflammasome, 2017 University of São Paulo
Soluble Uric Acid Activates The Nlrp3 Inflammasome, Tarcio Teodoro Braga, Maria Fernanda Forni, Matheus Correa-Costa, Rodrigo Nalio Ramos, Jose Alexandre Barbuto, Paola Branco, Angela Castoldi, Meire Ioshie Hiyane, Mariana Rodrigues Davanso, Eicke Latz, Bernardo S. Franklin, Alicia J. Kowaltowski, Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara
Open Access Articles
Uric acid is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), released from ischemic tissues and dying cells which, when crystalized, is able to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. Soluble uric acid (sUA) is found in high concentrations in the serum of great apes, and even higher in some diseases, before the appearance of crystals. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether uric acid, in the soluble form, could also activate the NLRP3 inflammasome and induce the production of IL-1beta. We monitored ROS, mitochondrial area and respiratory parameters from macrophages following sUA stimulus. We observed that sUA is released in a hypoxic ...
Isolation, Culture And Characterization Of Hirsutella Sinensis Mycelium From Caterpillar Fungus Fruiting Body, 2017 Chang Gung Biotechnology Corporation
Isolation, Culture And Characterization Of Hirsutella Sinensis Mycelium From Caterpillar Fungus Fruiting Body, Yun-Fei Komi, Jian-Ching Liau, Chien-Sheng Lee, Chen-Yaw Chiu, Jan Martel, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Shan-Fu Tseng, David M. Ojcius, Chia-Chen Lu, Hsin-Chih Lai, John Ding-E. Young
Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles
The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (previously called Cordyceps sinensis) has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to improve health and longevity. Recent studies show that O. sinensis produces a wide range of biological effects on cells, laboratory animals and humans, including anti-fatigue, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor activities. In view of the rarity of O. sinensis fruiting bodies in nature, cultivation of its anamorph mycelium represents a useful alternative for large-scale production. However, O. sinensis fruiting bodies harvested in nature harbor several fungal contaminants, a phenomenon that led to the isolation and characterization of a large number ...
Biomarkers Of Sepsis: A Retrospective Approach, 2017 The University of Akron
Biomarkers Of Sepsis: A Retrospective Approach, Jose M. Roberts
Honors Research Projects
Background: Biomarkers are taking the spotlight in becoming the norm for early diagnoses. Sepsis is an inflammatory disease that increases metabolic rate in children. The first biomarker is hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is a frequent electrolyte imbalance in clinical practice, often observed in children with inflammatory disease and infection. Presence of hyponatremia is associated with electrical signaling imbalances, inflammation and renal dysfunction. The clinical value of hyponatremia in pediatric patients is unknown. The C-reactive protein is a second biomarker. Its presence signifies that necrotic cells and inflammation are present.
Objectives: To evaluate the use of biomarkers in children seen in the Emergency ...
Micrornas Modulate Pathogenesis Resulting From Chlamydial Infection In Mice, 2017 University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Micrornas Modulate Pathogenesis Resulting From Chlamydial Infection In Mice, Laxmi Yeruva, S. Pouncey, Michael R. Eledge, Sudeepa Bhattacharya, Chunqiao Luo, Erin W. Weatherford, David M. Ojcius, Roger G. Rank
Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles
Not all women infected with chlamydiae develop upper genital tract disease, but the reason(s) for this remains undefined. Host genetics and hormonal changes associated with the menstrual cycle are possible explanations for variable infection outcomes. It is also possible that disease severity depends on the virulence of the chlamydial inoculum. It is likely that the inoculum contains multiple genetic variants, differing in virulence. If the virulent variants dominate, then the individual is more likely to develop severe disease. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesized that the relative degree of virulence of a chlamydial population dictates the microRNA (miRNA ...
Modulating The Innate Immune Response To Electrospun Scaffolds And Polymer Degradative Byproducts, 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University
Modulating The Innate Immune Response To Electrospun Scaffolds And Polymer Degradative Byproducts, Daniel Abebayehu
Theses and Dissertations
Implanted biomaterials often induce inflammation that frequently leads to the foreign body response, fibrosis, and the failure of the implant. Thus, it is important to evaluate how cells interact with materials to promote a more regenerative response. It is critical to determine how to modulate the response of tissue resident innate immune cells, as they are among the first cells to interact with implanted materials. Among tissue resident innate immune cells are mast cells, which are inflammatory sentinels that degranulate and orchestrate the fate of other cell populations, such as monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes. Mast cells have also been reported ...
Hmgb1, Il-1alpha, Il-33 And S100 Proteins: Dual-Function Alarmins, 2017 University of Bonn
Hmgb1, Il-1alpha, Il-33 And S100 Proteins: Dual-Function Alarmins, Damien Bertheloot, Eicke Latz
Open Access Articles
Our immune system is based on the close collaboration of the innate and adaptive immune systems for the rapid detection of any threats to the host. Recognition of pathogen-derived molecules is entrusted to specific germline-encoded signaling receptors. The same receptors have now also emerged as efficient detectors of misplaced or altered self-molecules that signal tissue damage and cell death following, for example, disruption of the blood supply and subsequent hypoxia. Many types of endogenous molecules have been shown to provoke such sterile inflammatory states when released from dying cells. However, a group of proteins referred to as alarmins have both ...
The Role Of The Nucleosome Remodeling Factor Nurf In Inhibiting T And Natural Killer Cell Mediated Antitumor Immunity By Suppressing Tumor Antigenicity And Natural Cytotoxicity Receptor Co-Ligands, 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University
The Role Of The Nucleosome Remodeling Factor Nurf In Inhibiting T And Natural Killer Cell Mediated Antitumor Immunity By Suppressing Tumor Antigenicity And Natural Cytotoxicity Receptor Co-Ligands, Kimberly Mayes
Theses and Dissertations
Tumor immunoediting is a dynamic process in which the immune response attacks tumor cells by detecting danger signals and tumor antigens. In order to survive, tumor cells develop mechanisms to avoid detection or destruction by the immune system. To counteract this, several strategies are being developed to enhance the antitumor immune response, including the depletion of immunosuppressive cells, enhancing the activation of antitumor immune cells and increasing tumor cell immunogenicity. These therapies have seen limited success individually, however, and it is likely that combination therapy with novel targets will be necessary to see reproducible beneficial responses. Epigenetic modifications are attractive ...
Effects Of Host Plant And Developmental Stage On Caterpillar Immune Response, 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder
Effects Of Host Plant And Developmental Stage On Caterpillar Immune Response, Micaela Charlotte Enger
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Herbivorous insects are exposed to many different natural enemies throughout their development; however, they can defend themselves using a variety of strategies. Once an insect is attacked, it can utilize chemical defenses that they sequester from their diet to fight off predators or their immune response will target smaller natural enemies, like parasites, parasitoids, and pathogens. Despite many studies showing that chemical defenses are effective, they can also be costly in terms of resources and energy, which can affect immune function. Junonia coenia (Nymphalidae), the buckeye, feeds on five different families that contain iridoid glycosides, making it a specialist and ...
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo
Fibrosis, driven by inflammation, marks the transition from benign to progressive stages of chronic liver diseases. Although inflammation promotes fibrogenesis, it is not known whether other events, such as hepatocyte death, are required for the development of fibrosis. Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) regulates hepatocyte apoptosis and production of Type-I interferons (IFNs). In the liver, IRF3 is activated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling or the ER adapter, Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). We hypothesized that IRF3-mediated hepatocyte death is an independent determinant of chemically-induced liver fibrogenesis. To test this, we performed acute or chronic carbontetrachloride (CCl4) administration to WT ...