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Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria that stimulates inflammation during bacterial infection. However, few studies have investigated the in vivo immune response to LTA, and none of the in vivo studies done have been performed in birds. For this project, the pulp (a skin-derivative) of growing feathers (GFs) of chickens were used as a test site to investigate the in vivo effects of intradermally injected LTA. In Study 1, the pulp of 12 GFs of 11-week-old Light-brown Leghorn (LBL) males were injected with 10 μL of differing concentrations of LTA (0.1, 1.0 ...


Macrophage Rac2 Promotes Suppression Of Germination During Aspergillus Fumigatus Infection, Chris D. Tanner 2022 Clemson University

Macrophage Rac2 Promotes Suppression Of Germination During Aspergillus Fumigatus Infection, Chris D. Tanner

All Theses

Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungus found ubiquitously in the environment including in the air we breathe. Though not a threat to most people, immunodeficient or immunosuppressed individuals are at risk for developing severe infection, including the life-threatening condition of invasive aspergillosis. The hematopoietic cell specific GTPase protein Rac2 is associated with major roles in innate immune defense. Currently Rac2 has been demonstrated to be crucial for survival against a variety of infections. Here, we use a rac2 null mutant zebrafish line and morpholino approaches to elucidate roles of Rac2 in mounting the macrophage host defense response against A. fumigatus infection ...


Physician's Attitudes On Pulmonary Rehabilitation Following Covid-19: A Brief Perspective From A Developing Country, Ivan Cherrez-Ojeda, Emanuel Vanegas, Miguel Felix, María José Farfán Bajaña, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Genesis Camacho, Alanna Barrios-Ruiz, Jack Michel 2022 Universidad Espíritu Santo, Samborondón, Ecuador

Physician's Attitudes On Pulmonary Rehabilitation Following Covid-19: A Brief Perspective From A Developing Country, Ivan Cherrez-Ojeda, Emanuel Vanegas, Miguel Felix, María José Farfán Bajaña, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Genesis Camacho, Alanna Barrios-Ruiz, Jack Michel

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Despite the uncertainty about the follow up of COVID-19 survivors, there is a growing body of evidence supporting specific interventions including pulmonary rehabilitation, which may lead to a reduced hospital stay and improved overall respiratory function. The aim of this short report was to assess the attitudes toward pulmonary rehabilitation following COVID-19 among Ecuadorian physicians. A cross-sectional study was conducted, in which a 5-question survey was used to assess the level of agreement to specific statements with a 5-point Likert scale. Out of the 282 participants, 48.2% (n=136) were male, with a mean of 12.6 (SD=11 ...


Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie

Doctoral Dissertations

Major subpopulations of gamma delta T cells within ruminant and pigs are defined by expression of WC1, a hybrid pattern recognition receptor/co-receptor to the T cell receptor (TCR). It is known that when WC1 is knocked down cells fail to respond. Showing that WC1 plays an active role in the stimulation of bovine gamma delta T cells. Here we explored the spatio-temporal dynamics of WC1 and TCR interaction using imaging flow cytometry and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. We found that in quiescent gamma delta T cells both WC1 and TCR existed in separate protein domains (protein islands) but after ...


Innate Lymphoid Cells And Covid-19 Severity In Sars-Cov-2 Infection, Noah J. Silverstein, Yetao Wang, Claudia Carbone, Ann Dauphin, Jeremy Luban 2022 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Innate Lymphoid Cells And Covid-19 Severity In Sars-Cov-2 Infection, Noah J. Silverstein, Yetao Wang, Claudia Carbone, Ann Dauphin, Jeremy Luban

COVID-19 Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Background: Risk of severe COVID-19 increases with age, is greater in males, and is associated with lymphopenia, but not with higher burden of SARS-CoV-2. It is unknown whether effects of age and sex on abundance of specific lymphoid subsets explain these correlations.

Methods: Multiple regression was used to determine the relationship between abundance of specific blood lymphoid cell types, age, sex, requirement for hospitalization, duration of hospitalization, and elevation of blood markers of systemic inflammation, in adults hospitalized for severe COVID-19 (n=40), treated for COVID-19 as outpatients (n=51), and in uninfected controls (n=86), as well as in ...


Salicylic Acid And N-Hydroxypipecolic Acid At The Fulcrum Of The Plant Immunity-Growth Equilibrium, Alyssa Shields, Vanessa Shivnauth, Christian Danve M. Castroverde 2022 Wilfrid Laurier University

Salicylic Acid And N-Hydroxypipecolic Acid At The Fulcrum Of The Plant Immunity-Growth Equilibrium, Alyssa Shields, Vanessa Shivnauth, Christian Danve M. Castroverde

Biology Faculty Publications

Salicylic acid (SA) and N-hydroxypipecolic acid (NHP) are two central plant immune signals involved in both resistance at local sites of pathogen infection (basal resistance) and at distal uninfected sites after primary infection (systemic acquired resistance). Major discoveries and advances have led to deeper understanding of their biosynthesis and signaling during plant defense responses. In addition to their well-defined roles in immunity, recent research is emerging on their direct mechanistic impacts on plant growth and development. In this review, we will first provide an overview of how SA and NHP regulate local and systemic immune responses in plants. We ...


Capsaicinoids From Capsicum Annuum As An Alternative Fabh Inhibitor Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: In Silico Study, Gabriella Chandrakirana Krisnamurti, Dewi Ratih Tirto Sari, Yohanes Bare 2021 Biotechnology Program, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bang Khun Thian 10150, Thailand

Capsaicinoids From Capsicum Annuum As An Alternative Fabh Inhibitor Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: In Silico Study, Gabriella Chandrakirana Krisnamurti, Dewi Ratih Tirto Sari, Yohanes Bare

Makara Journal of Science

The number of tuberculosis (TB) cases worldwide reached 1.5 million in 2018; thus, TB is considered a deadly disease. TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and involves lipid synthesis. Considering the importance of lipid metabolism in bacteria, FabH may be an essential protein target for repressing lipid synthesis. Capsaicinoids from Capsicum annuum demonstrate potent antibacterial activity. This study predicted the ability of capsaicinoid compounds to inhibit FabH. In silico analysis was performed by retrieving the structure of FabH from PDB and those of selected capsaicinoid derivatives from PubChem. The compounds were docked using AutoDock Vina in PyRx 0.8 ...


Dicer Represses Antiviral Innate Immunity Pathways In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells, Chandan Gurung 2021 University of Southern Mississippi

Dicer Represses Antiviral Innate Immunity Pathways In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells, Chandan Gurung

Dissertations

Recent studies have demonstrated that embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are deficient in expressing type I interferons (IFN), the cytokines that play key roles in antiviral responses. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and biological implications of this finding are poorly understood. In this study, I used a synthetic RNA-based assay that can simultaneously assess multiple forms of antiviral responses in ESCs. Dicer is an enzyme essential for RNA interference (RNAi), which is used as a major antiviral mechanism in invertebrates but not clear in vertebrates. RNAi activity is detected in wild-type ESCs but is abolished in Dicer knockout ESCs (D−/−ESCs ...


Trained Immunity Enhances The Immune Response And Maintains Microbiome Diversity In Aging And Sepsis, P. Spencer Gill 2021 East Tennessee State University

Trained Immunity Enhances The Immune Response And Maintains Microbiome Diversity In Aging And Sepsis, P. Spencer Gill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The global population is rapidly aging. It is estimated that over the next thirty years, the number of individuals >60 years of age will increase by over a billion, and the number of individuals over age 80 may increase by 300 million. As humans age, our immune system becomes progressively weaker through a process called immune senescence. This age-related decrease in immune function increases susceptibility to infection and chronic diseases. Sepsis is a leading cause of death worldwide. Over the past two decades, there has been an increased incidence of sepsis which is due, in part, to our aging population ...


Structural Analysis And Vaccine Efficacy Of Hla Mutants, Kelly Tomaszewski 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Structural Analysis And Vaccine Efficacy Of Hla Mutants, Kelly Tomaszewski

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal of the human skin and also a major human pathogen. Currently, there has been no successful vaccine despite many approaches over the last two decades. S. aureus α-hemolysin (Hla), a potent cytotoxin, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of S. aureus diseases, through the activation of its receptor, ADAM10. We utilized three distinct Hla mutants with differing structural and ADAM10 binding properties to examine for vaccine efficacy. Our studies have demonstrated immunization with each vaccine candidate antigens provided significant protection against S. aureus skin infection yet elicited distinguishable immune responses. We have also generated ...


Usability And Acceptability Of A Mobile App For Behavior Change And To Improve Immunization Coverage Among Children In Pakistan: A Mixed-Methods Study, Abdul Momin Kazi, Nazia Ahsan, Waliyah Mughis, Saima Jamal, Raheel Allana, Mehreen Raza, Sahrish Muneer, Muhammad Ayub Khan Mughal, Hussain Kalimuddin, Fareeha Sameen 2021 Aga Khan University

Usability And Acceptability Of A Mobile App For Behavior Change And To Improve Immunization Coverage Among Children In Pakistan: A Mixed-Methods Study, Abdul Momin Kazi, Nazia Ahsan, Waliyah Mughis, Saima Jamal, Raheel Allana, Mehreen Raza, Sahrish Muneer, Muhammad Ayub Khan Mughal, Hussain Kalimuddin, Fareeha Sameen

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Pakistan's immunization uptake rates are still significantly lower than anticipated despite several initiatives. Lack of awareness, forgetting about vaccination schedule, and vaccine misconception/misinformation are a few of the major drivers that mitigate the rates of immunization. The current COVID-19 pandemic emphasizes the importance of immunization. The significant reductions in regular childhood vaccination during pandemic have increased the risk of outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Concerns among parents over possibly exposing their children to COVID-19 during child visits may have contributed to the reported declines. Innovative and cost-effective mHealth interventions must be implemented in order to address the problem ...


Characterization Of Metabolic Gene Expression In The Raw 264.7 Monocyte Cell Line, Lauren Macaisa 2021 University of North Florida

Characterization Of Metabolic Gene Expression In The Raw 264.7 Monocyte Cell Line, Lauren Macaisa

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Immune cells undergo changes in gene expression and metabolism when activated by a foreign molecule. Although the changes are short-lived in response to an acute infection, they persist in disorders with underlying chronic inflammation. To understand how changes in gene expression relate to changes in metabolism, the expression of metabolic transporter proteins, was analyzed in response to chronic inflammation in a mouse monocyte cell line. Specifically, Glucose Transporter-1 (GLUT1), Monocarboxylate Transporter-1 (MCT1), Monocarboxylate Transporter-4 (MCT4), and Glutamate Aspartate Transporter (GLAST) were analyzed, and it was hypothesized that all the transporters would increase in expression in response to a prolonged inflammatory ...


Roles Of A Bradykinin Storm And A Cytokine Storm In Covid-19 Cases, Nouha H. Odeh 2021 Wayne State University

Roles Of A Bradykinin Storm And A Cytokine Storm In Covid-19 Cases, Nouha H. Odeh

Honors College Theses

In the light of recent events, it is imperative to understand the key inflammatory response elements that appear to be the source of more severe ailments resulting from a SARS-CoV-2 viral infection known as Covid-19 The more severe cases of Covid-19 are characterized by a severe inflammatory response resulting in tissue damage. My research proposal aims to investigate the two possible culprits of this response: a bradykinin (BK) storm and an interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated cytokine storm. In both systems respectively, the excess release of these signals subsequently signals the production of even more of the same response element, resulting in ...


Evolution Of Protection After Maternal Immunization For Respiratory Syncytial Virus In Cotton Rats [Preprint], Jorge C.G. Blanco, Lori McGinnes Cullen, Arash Kamali, Fatoumata Y. D. Sylla, Marina S. Boukhavalova, Trudy G. Morrison 2021 Sigmovir Biosystems, Inc

Evolution Of Protection After Maternal Immunization For Respiratory Syncytial Virus In Cotton Rats [Preprint], Jorge C.G. Blanco, Lori Mcginnes Cullen, Arash Kamali, Fatoumata Y. D. Sylla, Marina S. Boukhavalova, Trudy G. Morrison

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Maternal anti-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antibodies acquired by the fetus through the placenta protect neonates from RSV disease through the first weeks of life. In the cotton rat model of RSV infections, we previously reported that immunization of dams during pregnancy with virus-like particles assembled with mutation stabilized pre-fusion F protein as well as the wild type G protein resulted in robust protection of their offspring from RSV challenge (Blanco, et al Journal of Virology 93: e00914-19, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00914-19). Here we describe the durability of those protective responses in dams, the durability of protection in ...


Monoallelic Irf5 Deficiency In B Cells Prevents Murine Lupus, Alex Pellerin, Kei Yasuda, Abraham Cohen-Bucay, Vanessa Sandra, Prachi Shukla, Barry K. Horne Jr., Kerstin Nundel, Gregory A. Viglianti, Yao Xie, Ulf Klein, Ying Tan, Ramon G. Bonegio, Ian R. Rifkin 2021 Boston University

Monoallelic Irf5 Deficiency In B Cells Prevents Murine Lupus, Alex Pellerin, Kei Yasuda, Abraham Cohen-Bucay, Vanessa Sandra, Prachi Shukla, Barry K. Horne Jr., Kerstin Nundel, Gregory A. Viglianti, Yao Xie, Ulf Klein, Ying Tan, Ramon G. Bonegio, Ian R. Rifkin

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Gain-of-function polymorphisms in the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) are associated with an increased risk of developing systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the IRF5-expressing cell type(s) responsible for lupus pathogenesis in vivo is not known. We now show that monoallelic IRF5 deficiency in B cells markedly reduced disease in a murine lupus model. In contrast, similar reduction of IRF5 expression in macrophages, monocytes, and neutrophils did not reduce disease severity. B cell receptor and TLR7 signaling synergized to promote IRF5 phosphorylation and increase IRF5 protein expression, with these processes being independently regulated. This synergy increased B cell-intrinsic IL-6 ...


Editorial: Immunology Of Vitiligo, Julien Seneschal, John E. Harris, I. Caroline Le Poole, Thierry Passeron, Reinhart Speeckaert, Katia Boniface 2021 University of Bordeaux

Editorial: Immunology Of Vitiligo, Julien Seneschal, John E. Harris, I. Caroline Le Poole, Thierry Passeron, Reinhart Speeckaert, Katia Boniface

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Disappearance of melanocytes is the pathogenic hallmark of vitiligo. Progressive depigmentation of the skin has a high negative impact on patients’ quality of life. To date, vitiligo remains a therapeutic challenge.

Several theories have been proposed to explain disease pathogenesis, considering the roles of increased inflammatory and cytotoxic immune responses, neuropeptides, microvascular anomalies, intrinsic abnormalities in melanocyte and keratinocyte adhesion, as well as oxidative stress. Over the past decades, clinical, basic, and translational research on patient samples as well as in vitro and in vivo models have tremendously improved our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and highlighted its ...


Means, Motive, And Opportunity: Do Non-Islet-Reactive Infiltrating T Cells Contribute To Autoimmunity In Type 1 Diabetes, Teresa Rodriguez-Calvo, Gustaf Christoffersson, Christine Bender, Matthias G. von Herrath, Roberto Mallone, Sally C. Kent, Eddie A. James 2021 German Research Center for Environmental Health

Means, Motive, And Opportunity: Do Non-Islet-Reactive Infiltrating T Cells Contribute To Autoimmunity In Type 1 Diabetes, Teresa Rodriguez-Calvo, Gustaf Christoffersson, Christine Bender, Matthias G. Von Herrath, Roberto Mallone, Sally C. Kent, Eddie A. James

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

In human type 1 diabetes and animal models of the disease, a diverse assortment of immune cells infiltrates the pancreatic islets. CD8(+) T cells are well represented within infiltrates and HLA multimer staining of pancreas sections provides clear evidence that islet epitope reactive T cells are present within autoimmune lesions. These bona fide effectors have been a key research focus because these cells represent an intellectually attractive culprit for beta cell destruction. However, T cell receptors are highly diverse in human insulitis. This suggests correspondingly broad antigen specificity, which includes a majority of T cells for which there is no ...


T Cell Receptor Genotype And Ubash3a Determine Susceptibility To Rat Autoimmune Diabetes, John P. Mordes, Laura Cort, Zhijun Liu, Ryan Eberwine, Elizabeth P. Blankenhorn, Brian G. Pierce 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

T Cell Receptor Genotype And Ubash3a Determine Susceptibility To Rat Autoimmune Diabetes, John P. Mordes, Laura Cort, Zhijun Liu, Ryan Eberwine, Elizabeth P. Blankenhorn, Brian G. Pierce

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Genetic analyses of human type 1 diabetes (T1D) have yet to reveal a complete pathophysiologic mechanism. Inbred rats with a high-risk class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype (RT1B/D(u)) can illuminate such mechanisms. Using T1D-susceptible LEW.1WR1 rats that express RT1B/D(u) and a susceptible allele of the Ubd promoter, we demonstrate that germline knockout of Tcrb-V13S1A1, which encodes the Vbeta13a T cell receptor beta chain, completely prevents diabetes. Using the RT1B/D(u)-identical LEW.1W rat, which does not develop T1D despite also having the same Tcrb-V13S1A1 beta chain gene but a different allele at ...


The Immune Microenvironment And Relation To Outcome In Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer Treated With Docetaxel With Or Without Gemcitabine, Elisabeth S. Stovgaard, Karama Asleh, Nazia Riaz, Samuel Leung, Dongxia Gao, Lise B. Nielsen, Anne-Vibeke Lænkholm, Eva Balslev, Maj-Britt Jensen, Dorte Nielsen, Torsten O. Nielsen 2021 University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark

The Immune Microenvironment And Relation To Outcome In Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer Treated With Docetaxel With Or Without Gemcitabine, Elisabeth S. Stovgaard, Karama Asleh, Nazia Riaz, Samuel Leung, Dongxia Gao, Lise B. Nielsen, Anne-Vibeke Lænkholm, Eva Balslev, Maj-Britt Jensen, Dorte Nielsen, Torsten O. Nielsen

Centre for Regenerative Medicine & Stem Cell Research

Preclinical studies suggest that some effects of conventional chemotherapy, and in particular, gemcitabine, are mediated through enhanced antitumor immune responses. The objective of this study was to use material from a randomized clinical trial to evaluate whether patients with preexisting immune infiltrates responded better to treatment with gemcitabine + docetaxel (GD) compared to docetaxel alone. Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues from SBG0102 phase 3 trial patients randomly assigned to treatment with GD or docetaxel were used. Immunohistochemical staining for CD8, FOXP3, LAG3, PD-1, PD-L1 and CD163 was performed. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and tumor associated macrophages were evaluated. Prespecified statistical ...


Resident Memory T Cells In Autoimmune Skin Diseases, Grace E. Ryan, John E. Harris, Jillian M. Richmond 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Resident Memory T Cells In Autoimmune Skin Diseases, Grace E. Ryan, John E. Harris, Jillian M. Richmond

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Tissue resident memory T cells (TRM) are a critical component of the immune system, providing the body with an immediate and highly specific response against pathogens re-infecting peripheral tissues. More recently, however, it has been demonstrated that TRM cells also form during autoimmunity. TRM mediated autoimmune diseases are particularly destructive, because unlike foreign antigens, the self-antigens are never cleared, continuously activating self-reactive TRM T cells. In this article, we will focus on how TRMs mediate disease in autoimmune skin conditions, specifically vitiligo, psoriasis, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, alopecia areata and frontal fibrosing alopecia.


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