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Usability And Acceptability Of A Mobile App For Behavior Change And To Improve Immunization Coverage Among Children In Pakistan: A Mixed-Methods Study, Abdul Momin Kazi, Nazia Ahsan, Waliyah Mughis, Saima Jamal, Raheel Allana, Mehreen Raza, Sahrish Muneer, Muhammad Ayub Khan Mughal, Hussain Kalimuddin, Fareeha Sameen 2021 Aga Khan University

Usability And Acceptability Of A Mobile App For Behavior Change And To Improve Immunization Coverage Among Children In Pakistan: A Mixed-Methods Study, Abdul Momin Kazi, Nazia Ahsan, Waliyah Mughis, Saima Jamal, Raheel Allana, Mehreen Raza, Sahrish Muneer, Muhammad Ayub Khan Mughal, Hussain Kalimuddin, Fareeha Sameen

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Pakistan's immunization uptake rates are still significantly lower than anticipated despite several initiatives. Lack of awareness, forgetting about vaccination schedule, and vaccine misconception/misinformation are a few of the major drivers that mitigate the rates of immunization. The current COVID-19 pandemic emphasizes the importance of immunization. The significant reductions in regular childhood vaccination during pandemic have increased the risk of outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Concerns among parents over possibly exposing their children to COVID-19 during child visits may have contributed to the reported declines. Innovative and cost-effective mHealth interventions must be implemented in order to address the problem ...


Characterization Of Metabolic Gene Expression In The Raw 264.7 Monocyte Cell Line, Lauren Macaisa 2021 University of North Florida

Characterization Of Metabolic Gene Expression In The Raw 264.7 Monocyte Cell Line, Lauren Macaisa

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Immune cells undergo changes in gene expression and metabolism when activated by a foreign molecule. Although the changes are short-lived in response to an acute infection, they persist in disorders with underlying chronic inflammation. To understand how changes in gene expression relate to changes in metabolism, the expression of metabolic transporter proteins, was analyzed in response to chronic inflammation in a mouse monocyte cell line. Specifically, Glucose Transporter-1 (GLUT1), Monocarboxylate Transporter-1 (MCT1), Monocarboxylate Transporter-4 (MCT4), and Glutamate Aspartate Transporter (GLAST) were analyzed, and it was hypothesized that all the transporters would increase in expression in response to a prolonged inflammatory ...


Roles Of A Bradykinin Storm And A Cytokine Storm In Covid-19 Cases, Nouha H. Odeh 2021 Wayne State University

Roles Of A Bradykinin Storm And A Cytokine Storm In Covid-19 Cases, Nouha H. Odeh

Honors College Theses

In the light of recent events, it is imperative to understand the key inflammatory response elements that appear to be the source of more severe ailments resulting from a SARS-CoV-2 viral infection known as Covid-19 The more severe cases of Covid-19 are characterized by a severe inflammatory response resulting in tissue damage. My research proposal aims to investigate the two possible culprits of this response: a bradykinin (BK) storm and an interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated cytokine storm. In both systems respectively, the excess release of these signals subsequently signals the production of even more of the same response element, resulting in ...


Evolution Of Protection After Maternal Immunization For Respiratory Syncytial Virus In Cotton Rats [Preprint], Jorge C.G. Blanco, Lori McGinnes Cullen, Arash Kamali, Fatoumata Y. D. Sylla, Marina S. Boukhavalova, Trudy G. Morrison 2021 Sigmovir Biosystems, Inc

Evolution Of Protection After Maternal Immunization For Respiratory Syncytial Virus In Cotton Rats [Preprint], Jorge C.G. Blanco, Lori Mcginnes Cullen, Arash Kamali, Fatoumata Y. D. Sylla, Marina S. Boukhavalova, Trudy G. Morrison

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Maternal anti-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antibodies acquired by the fetus through the placenta protect neonates from RSV disease through the first weeks of life. In the cotton rat model of RSV infections, we previously reported that immunization of dams during pregnancy with virus-like particles assembled with mutation stabilized pre-fusion F protein as well as the wild type G protein resulted in robust protection of their offspring from RSV challenge (Blanco, et al Journal of Virology 93: e00914-19, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00914-19). Here we describe the durability of those protective responses in dams, the durability of protection in ...


The Immune Microenvironment And Relation To Outcome In Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer Treated With Docetaxel With Or Without Gemcitabine, Elisabeth S. Stovgaard, Karama Asleh, Nazia Riaz, Samuel Leung, Dongxia Gao, Lise B. Nielsen, Anne-Vibeke Lænkholm, Eva Balslev, Maj-Britt Jensen, Dorte Nielsen, Torsten O. Nielsen 2021 University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark

The Immune Microenvironment And Relation To Outcome In Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer Treated With Docetaxel With Or Without Gemcitabine, Elisabeth S. Stovgaard, Karama Asleh, Nazia Riaz, Samuel Leung, Dongxia Gao, Lise B. Nielsen, Anne-Vibeke Lænkholm, Eva Balslev, Maj-Britt Jensen, Dorte Nielsen, Torsten O. Nielsen

Centre for Regenerative Medicine & Stem Cell Research

Preclinical studies suggest that some effects of conventional chemotherapy, and in particular, gemcitabine, are mediated through enhanced antitumor immune responses. The objective of this study was to use material from a randomized clinical trial to evaluate whether patients with preexisting immune infiltrates responded better to treatment with gemcitabine + docetaxel (GD) compared to docetaxel alone. Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues from SBG0102 phase 3 trial patients randomly assigned to treatment with GD or docetaxel were used. Immunohistochemical staining for CD8, FOXP3, LAG3, PD-1, PD-L1 and CD163 was performed. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and tumor associated macrophages were evaluated. Prespecified statistical ...


Resident Memory T Cells In Autoimmune Skin Diseases, Grace E. Ryan, John E. Harris, Jillian M. Richmond 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Resident Memory T Cells In Autoimmune Skin Diseases, Grace E. Ryan, John E. Harris, Jillian M. Richmond

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Tissue resident memory T cells (TRM) are a critical component of the immune system, providing the body with an immediate and highly specific response against pathogens re-infecting peripheral tissues. More recently, however, it has been demonstrated that TRM cells also form during autoimmunity. TRM mediated autoimmune diseases are particularly destructive, because unlike foreign antigens, the self-antigens are never cleared, continuously activating self-reactive TRM T cells. In this article, we will focus on how TRMs mediate disease in autoimmune skin conditions, specifically vitiligo, psoriasis, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, alopecia areata and frontal fibrosing alopecia.


Effects Of A Low Crude Protein Diet With And Without Spirulina Platensis Inclusion On The Concentrations And Proportions Of Circulating Immune Cells In Broilers, Heather Glenn 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of A Low Crude Protein Diet With And Without Spirulina Platensis Inclusion On The Concentrations And Proportions Of Circulating Immune Cells In Broilers, Heather Glenn

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Immune system health is an important aspect of broiler production, especially with the reduction of the use of antibiotics. Nutritional aspects, like crude protein percentage, and natural alternatives to antibiotics are being investigated to see the effect they have on immunity. Spirulina is an alternative proteinaceous ingredient that producers are looking into, not only due to its high nutritional value, but also its immune boosting properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a low crude protein diet (LCP) and a Spirulina-supplemented low crude protein (LCP-SP) diet on broiler blood cell measurements, including, concentrations and proportions ...


Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel 2021 Missouri State University

Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel

MSU Graduate Theses

Pyruvate is produced in duplicate at the end of glycolysis in addition to ATP and NADH. Pyruvate is the metabolite of choice in most cells, whether obtained exogenously or endogenously. Recently we found that the addition of pyruvate’s conjugate base, sodium pyruvate, to cell culture media dampened the immune response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection in cultured innate immune cells. Thus, I decided to investigate the mechanism and potential for treatment of IAV. In vitro using bone marrow derived macrophages that were infected with IAV we found that adding sodium pyruvate to the media decreased immune signaling pathways ...


Novel Combinatorial Microrna-Binding Sites In Aav Vectors Synergistically Diminish Antigen Presentation And Transgene Immunity For Efficient And Stable Transduction, Manish Muhuri, Wei Zhan, Yukiko Maeda Garrison, Jia Li, Anoushka Lotun, Jennifer Chen, Katelyn E. Sylvia, Ishani Dasgupta, Motahareh Arjomandnejad, Thomas Nixon, Allison M. Keeler, Sangeetha Manokaran, Ran He, Qin Su, Phillip W. L. Tai, Guangping Gao 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Novel Combinatorial Microrna-Binding Sites In Aav Vectors Synergistically Diminish Antigen Presentation And Transgene Immunity For Efficient And Stable Transduction, Manish Muhuri, Wei Zhan, Yukiko Maeda Garrison, Jia Li, Anoushka Lotun, Jennifer Chen, Katelyn E. Sylvia, Ishani Dasgupta, Motahareh Arjomandnejad, Thomas Nixon, Allison M. Keeler, Sangeetha Manokaran, Ran He, Qin Su, Phillip W. L. Tai, Guangping Gao

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) platforms hold promise for in vivo gene therapy but are undermined by the undesirable transduction of antigen presenting cells (APCs), which in turn can trigger host immunity towards rAAV-expressed transgene products. In light of recent adverse events in patients receiving high systemic AAV vector doses that were speculated to be related to host immune responses, development of strategies to mute innate and adaptive immunity is imperative. The use of miRNA binding sites (miR-BSs) to confer endogenous miRNA-mediated regulation to detarget transgene expression from APCs has shown promise for reducing transgene immunity. Studies have shown that designing ...


Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Restore Thymic Architecture And T Cell Function Disrupted By Neonatal Hyperoxia, Monica Reis, Gareth R. Willis, Angeles Fernandez-Gonzalez, Vincent Yeung, Elizabeth Taglauer, Margaret Magaletta, Teagan J. Parsons, Alan G. Derr, Xianlan Liu, Rene Maehr, Stella Kourembanas, S. Alex Mitsialis 2021 Harvard Medical School

Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Restore Thymic Architecture And T Cell Function Disrupted By Neonatal Hyperoxia, Monica Reis, Gareth R. Willis, Angeles Fernandez-Gonzalez, Vincent Yeung, Elizabeth Taglauer, Margaret Magaletta, Teagan J. Parsons, Alan G. Derr, Xianlan Liu, Rene Maehr, Stella Kourembanas, S. Alex Mitsialis

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Treating premature infants with high oxygen is a routine intervention in the context of neonatal intensive care. Unfortunately, the increase in survival rates is associated with various detrimental sequalae of hyperoxia exposure, most notably bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a disease of disrupted lung development. The effects of high oxygen exposure on other developing organs of the infant, as well as the possible impact such disrupted development may have on later life remain poorly understood. Using a neonatal mouse model to investigate the effects of hyperoxia on the immature immune system we observed a dramatic involution of the thymic medulla, and this ...


B25: Generation And Characterization Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein-Pseudotyped Lentivirus Particles For Use In Neutralizing Antibody Titer Testing Of Human Serum, Luis Sanchez 2021 Roseman University of Health Sciences

B25: Generation And Characterization Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein-Pseudotyped Lentivirus Particles For Use In Neutralizing Antibody Titer Testing Of Human Serum, Luis Sanchez

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Simulated Contact Tracing Of Covid-19 Propagation At Kutztown University For Fall 2020, Dale E. Parson 2021 Kutztown University

Simulated Contact Tracing Of Covid-19 Propagation At Kutztown University For Fall 2020, Dale E. Parson

Computer Science and Information Technology Faculty

From mid-May through August 2020 the author designed, built, revised, and analyzed resulting data from two simulation programs for virtual contact tracing of COVID-19 infection propagation at Kutztown University in the fall 2020 semester. The first was command-line driven and non-graphical, with results distributed to faculty and administrators on May 28. The second was a three-dimensional interactive graphical simulation, distributed to faculty, administrators, and the public as a narrated video via YouTube on July 16. The algorithm is an adaptation of spreading activation as used in theoretical psychology and artificial intelligence research since the 1970s. It propagates discrete, probable infections ...


Cgas-Sting Pathway Does Not Promote Autoimmunity In Murine Models Of Sle, Mona Motwani, Jason D. McGowan, Jennifer Antonovitch, Kevin MingJie Gao, Zhaozhao Jiang, Shrutie Sharma, Gretchen A. Baltus, Kevin M. Nickerson, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Katherine A. Fitzgerald 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cgas-Sting Pathway Does Not Promote Autoimmunity In Murine Models Of Sle, Mona Motwani, Jason D. Mcgowan, Jennifer Antonovitch, Kevin Mingjie Gao, Zhaozhao Jiang, Shrutie Sharma, Gretchen A. Baltus, Kevin M. Nickerson, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Detection of DNA is an important determinant of host-defense but also a driver of autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Failure to degrade self-DNA in DNAseII or III(TREX1)-deficient mice results in activation of the cGAS-STING pathway. Deficiency of cGAS or STING in these models ameliorates disease manifestations. However, the contribution of the cGAS-STING pathway, relative to endosomal TLRs, in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is controversial. In fact, STING deficiency failed to rescue, and actually exacerbated, disease manifestations in Fas-deficient SLE-prone mice. We have now extended these observations to a chronic model of SLE induced by the i.p. injection of ...


H1n1 Influenza Virus (Swine Flu): A Comprehensive Insight Into Escalating Catch-22 Scenarios, Muhammad Shahzaib, Ehsan Ul Haq 2021 University of Sargodha, Sargodha

H1n1 Influenza Virus (Swine Flu): A Comprehensive Insight Into Escalating Catch-22 Scenarios, Muhammad Shahzaib, Ehsan Ul Haq

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Viruses have always been a major cause of various disastrous pandemics in mankind’s history. H1N1 became a threat when its original strain was first discovered back in the swine flu pandemic of 2009. It became highly catastrophic on a large scale because none of the therapeutic interventions and methodologies that were already present at the time were effective against the virus.

Methods: A vast amount of literature and research is available regarding H1N1 influenza from different reputable sources online. The data was gathered following the contrasting and relative situations of 1918 as well as the 2009 pandemic in ...


Cnbp, Rel, And Bhlhe40 Variants Are Associated With Il-12 And Il-10 Responses And Tuberculosis Risk [Preprint], Javeed A. Shah, Christopher M. Sassetti, Katherine A. Fitzgerald 2021 University of Washington

Cnbp, Rel, And Bhlhe40 Variants Are Associated With Il-12 And Il-10 Responses And Tuberculosis Risk [Preprint], Javeed A. Shah, Christopher M. Sassetti, Katherine A. Fitzgerald

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Rationale: The major human genes regulating M. tuberculosis (Mtb)-induced immune responses and tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility are poorly understood. Although IL-12 and IL-10 are critical for TB pathogenesis, the genetic factors that regulate their expression are unknown. CNBP, REL, and BHLHE40 are master regulators of IL-12 and IL-10 signaling.

Objectives: To determine whether common human genetic variation in CNBP, REL and BHLHE40 is associated with IL-12 and IL-10 expression, adaptive immune responses to mycobacteria, and susceptibility to TB.

Methods and Main Measurements: We characterized the association between common variants in CNBP, REL, and BHLHE40 and innate immune responses in dendritic ...


Cd4 T Cell Help Prevents Cd8 T Cell Exhaustion And Promotes Control Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection [Preprint], Yu-Jung Lu, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Shayla Boyce, Jennifer Powers, Kelly Cavallo, Samuel M. Behar 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cd4 T Cell Help Prevents Cd8 T Cell Exhaustion And Promotes Control Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection [Preprint], Yu-Jung Lu, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Shayla Boyce, Jennifer Powers, Kelly Cavallo, Samuel M. Behar

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

CD4 T cells are essential for immunity to tuberculosis because they produce cytokines including interferon-γ. Whether CD4 T cells act as “helper” cells to promote optimal CD8 T cell responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis is unknown. Using two independent models, we show that CD4 T cell help enhances CD8 effector functions and prevents CD8 T cell exhaustion. We demonstrate synergy between CD4 and CD8 T cells in promoting the survival of infected mice. Purified helped, but not helpless, CD8 T cells efficiently restrict intracellular bacterial growth in vitro. Thus, CD4 T cell help plays an essential role in generating protective CD8 ...


Identification Of A Neutralizing Epitope Within Minor Repeat Region Of Plasmodium Falciparum Cs Protein, J. Mauricio Calvo-Calle, Robert Mitchell, Rita Altszuler, Caroline Othoro, Elizabeth Nardin 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Identification Of A Neutralizing Epitope Within Minor Repeat Region Of Plasmodium Falciparum Cs Protein, J. Mauricio Calvo-Calle, Robert Mitchell, Rita Altszuler, Caroline Othoro, Elizabeth Nardin

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with 219 million infections and 435,000 deaths predominantly in Africa. The infective Plasmodium sporozoite is the target of a potent humoral immune response that can protect murine, simian and human hosts against challenge by malaria-infected mosquitoes. Early murine studies demonstrated that sporozoites or subunit vaccines based on the sporozoite major surface antigen, the circumsporozoite (CS) protein, elicit antibodies that primarily target the central repeat region of the CS protein. In the current murine studies, using monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal sera obtained following immunization with P. falciparum sporozoites or synthetic ...


Human Antibody Immune Responses Are Personalized By Selective Removal Of Mhc-Ii Peptide Epitopes [Preprint], Matias Gutiérrez-González, Padma P. Nanaware, Liying Lu, Lawrence J. Stern, Brandon J. DeKosky 2021 University of Kansas

Human Antibody Immune Responses Are Personalized By Selective Removal Of Mhc-Ii Peptide Epitopes [Preprint], Matias Gutiérrez-González, Padma P. Nanaware, Liying Lu, Lawrence J. Stern, Brandon J. Dekosky

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Human antibody responses are established by the generation of combinatorial sequence diversity in antibody variable domains, followed by iterative rounds of mutation and selection via T cell recognition of antigen peptides presented on MHC-II. Here, we report that MHC-II peptide epitope deletion from B cell receptors (BCRs) correlates with antibody development in vivo. Large-scale antibody sequence analysis and experimental validation of peptide binding revealed that MHC-II epitope removal from BCRs is linked to genetic signatures of T cell help, and donor-specific antibody repertoire modeling demonstrated that somatic hypermutation selectively targets the personalized MHC-II epitopes in antibody variable regions. Mining of ...


Innate Lymphoid Cells And Disease Tolerance In Sars-Cov-2 Infection [Preprint], Noah J. Silverstein, Yetao Wang, Zachary Manickas-Hill, Claudia C. Carbone, Ann Dauphin, MGH COVID-19 Collection & Processing Team, Jonathan Z. Li, Bruce D. Walker, Xu G. Yu, Jeremy Luban 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Innate Lymphoid Cells And Disease Tolerance In Sars-Cov-2 Infection [Preprint], Noah J. Silverstein, Yetao Wang, Zachary Manickas-Hill, Claudia C. Carbone, Ann Dauphin, Mgh Covid-19 Collection & Processing Team, Jonathan Z. Li, Bruce D. Walker, Xu G. Yu, Jeremy Luban

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases with age, is greater in males, and is associated with decreased numbers of blood lymphoid cells. Though the reasons for these robust associations are unclear, effects of age and sex on innate and adaptive lymphoid subsets, including on homeostatic innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) implicated in disease tolerance, may underlie the effects of age and sex on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.

METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to quantitate subsets of blood lymphoid cells from people infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), comparing those hospitalized with severe COVID-19 (n=40 ...


Current And Time‐Lagged Effects Of Climate On Innate Immunity In Two Sympatric Snake Species, Lucia L. Combrink, Anne M. Bronikowski, David A. W. Miller, Amanda M. Sparkman 2021 Westmont College

Current And Time‐Lagged Effects Of Climate On Innate Immunity In Two Sympatric Snake Species, Lucia L. Combrink, Anne M. Bronikowski, David A. W. Miller, Amanda M. Sparkman

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

  1. Changing environments result in alterations at all levels of biological organization, from genetics to physiology to demography. The increasing frequency of droughts worldwide is associated with higher temperatures and reduced precipitation that can impact population persistence via effects on individual immune function and survival.
  2. We examined the effects of annual climate variation on immunity in two sympatric species of garter snakes from four populations in California over a seven‐year period that included the record‐breaking drought.
  3. We examined three indices of innate immunity: bactericidal competence (BC), natural antibodies (NABs), and complement‐mediated lysis (CL).
  4. Precipitation was the only climatic ...


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