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Population Characteristics Of Human-Commensal Rodents Present In Households From Mérida, Yucatán, México, Jesús Alonso Panti-May, Silvia F. Hernández-Betancourt, Marco A. Torres-Castro, Carlos Machaín-Williams, Nohemi Cigarroa-Toledo, Lorenzo Sodá, Gabriela López-Manzanero, Josué R. Meza-Sulú, Victor M. Vidal-Martínez 2016 Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán

Population Characteristics Of Human-Commensal Rodents Present In Households From Mérida, Yucatán, México, Jesús Alonso Panti-May, Silvia F. Hernández-Betancourt, Marco A. Torres-Castro, Carlos Machaín-Williams, Nohemi Cigarroa-Toledo, Lorenzo Sodá, Gabriela López-Manzanero, Josué R. Meza-Sulú, Victor M. Vidal-Martínez

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

Anthropocommensal rodents live in close proximity to humans in many habitats around the world. They are a threat to public health because of the pathogens they carry. Recent studies in Mérida, Yucatán, México, have shown that commensal rodents harbor potential zoonotic pathogens such as bacteria, helminths, and viruses. In this study, we describe reproductive and demographic parameters of house mice and black rats present in households from Mérida, Yucatán, México, a municipality located in a tropical region in southern México. Rodents were trapped in 142 households within the municipality of Mérida from 2011 to 2014. A total of 832 rodents ...


The Global Economic And Health Burden Of Human Hookworm Infection., Sarah M Bartsch, Peter J. Hotez, Lindsey Asti, Kristina M Zapf, Maria Elena Bottazzi, David J. Diemert, Bruce Y Lee 2016 George Washington University

The Global Economic And Health Burden Of Human Hookworm Infection., Sarah M Bartsch, Peter J. Hotez, Lindsey Asti, Kristina M Zapf, Maria Elena Bottazzi, David J. Diemert, Bruce Y Lee

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Even though human hookworm infection is highly endemic in many countries throughout the world, its global economic and health impact is not well known. Without a better understanding of hookworm's economic burden worldwide, it is difficult for decision makers such as funders, policy makers, disease control officials, and intervention manufacturers to determine how much time, energy, and resources to invest in hookworm control.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic and health burden of hookworm infection in every country, WHO region, and globally, in 2016 from the societal perspective. Globally, hookworm infection ...


Current Knowledge Of Studies Of Pathogens In Colombian Mammals, Viviana Gonzalez-Astudillo, Héctor E. Ramírez-Chaves, Joerg Henning, Thomas R. Gillespie 2016 University of Queensland, Gatton

Current Knowledge Of Studies Of Pathogens In Colombian Mammals, Viviana Gonzalez-Astudillo, Héctor E. Ramírez-Chaves, Joerg Henning, Thomas R. Gillespie

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

Mammals provide an important ecological habitat or niche space to microbial diversity, protistans (or protozoans) and metazoan parasites that can have profound effects on both human and animal health. Thus, understanding the status of mammalian species as hosts for pathogens holds relevance, especially during this time of anthropogenic environmental change. Despite the great diversity in the mammal fauna of Colombia, data in the literature on the occurrence of parasites and pathogens in these mammals are scarce and widely scattered. In order to understand the state of the knowledge of pathogens carried by wild mammals in Colombia, a systematic review of ...


The Importance Of Mammalogy, Infectious Disease Research, And Biosafety In The Field, Matthew R. Mauldin, Jeffrey B. Doty, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Ginny L. Emerson, Darin S. Carroll 2016 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Importance Of Mammalogy, Infectious Disease Research, And Biosafety In The Field, Matthew R. Mauldin, Jeffrey B. Doty, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Ginny L. Emerson, Darin S. Carroll

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

Large amounts of data and multitudes of publications have been independently generated by researchers in mammalogy and infectious diseases. The frequent confluence of these fields in epidemiological research as well as the facility of the data generated to be used in applied methods (e.g., conservation, public outreach, public health interventions) suggests that the intersection of these fields is important not only to their committed scientists but also to other areas of investigation, including public health. Given the increased frequency with which researchers in these fields interact with potentially infected humans, animals, and tissues, their occupations present a higher risk ...


Cryptosporidium Parvum Among Coprolites From La Cueva De Los Muertos Chiquitos (600–800 Ce), Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico, Johnica J. Morrow, Karl Reinhard 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Cryptosporidium Parvum Among Coprolites From La Cueva De Los Muertos Chiquitos (600–800 Ce), Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico, Johnica J. Morrow, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

In the present study, 90 coprolites from La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (CMC) were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for 3 diarrhea-inducing protozoan parasites, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia duodenalis, and Cryptosporidium parvum, to determine whether these parasites were present among the people who utilized this cave 1,200–1,400 yr ago. These people, the Loma San Gabriel, developed as a culture out of the Archaic Los Caracoles population and lived throughout much of present-day Durango and Zacatecas in Mexico. The Loma San Gabriel persisted through a mixed subsistence strategy of hunting-gathering and agricultural production. The results of ...


American Society Of Parasitologists Newsletter, V. 38, No. 3, Late Summer 2016, Scott Lyell Gardner 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

American Society Of Parasitologists Newsletter, V. 38, No. 3, Late Summer 2016, Scott Lyell Gardner

Newsletter of the American Society of Parasitologists

Newsletter issue of the American Society of Parasitologists.


Biliary Microbiota, Gallstone Disease And Infection With Opisthorchis Felineus., Irina V. Saltykova, Vjacheslav A Petrov, Maria D Logacheva, Polina G Ivanova, Nikolay V Merzlikin, Alexey E Sazonov, Ludmila M Ogorodova, Paul J. Brindley 2016 George Washington University

Biliary Microbiota, Gallstone Disease And Infection With Opisthorchis Felineus., Irina V. Saltykova, Vjacheslav A Petrov, Maria D Logacheva, Polina G Ivanova, Nikolay V Merzlikin, Alexey E Sazonov, Ludmila M Ogorodova, Paul J. Brindley

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the microbiome of the hepatobiliary system. This study investigated the influence of infection with the fish-borne liver fluke, Opisthorchis felineus on the biliary microbiome of residents of the Tomsk region of western Siberia.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples of bile were provided by 56 study participants, half of who were infected with O. felineus, and all of who were diagnosed with gallstone disease. The microbiota of the bile was investigated using high throughput, Illumina-based sequencing targeting the prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene. About 2,797, discrete phylotypes of prokaryotes were detected. At the level of phylum ...


Global Assessment Of Schistosomiasis Control Over The Past Century Shows Targeting The Snail Intermediate Host Works Best., Susanne H Sokolow, Chelsea L Wood, Isabel J Jones, Scott J Swartz, Melina Lopez, Michael H. Hsieh, Kevin D Lafferty, Armand M Kuris, Chloe Rickards, Giulio A De Leo 2016 George Washington University

Global Assessment Of Schistosomiasis Control Over The Past Century Shows Targeting The Snail Intermediate Host Works Best., Susanne H Sokolow, Chelsea L Wood, Isabel J Jones, Scott J Swartz, Melina Lopez, Michael H. Hsieh, Kevin D Lafferty, Armand M Kuris, Chloe Rickards, Giulio A De Leo

Urology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Despite control efforts, human schistosomiasis remains prevalent throughout Africa, Asia, and South America. The global schistosomiasis burden has changed little since the new anthelmintic drug, praziquantel, promised widespread control.

METHODOLOGY: We evaluated large-scale schistosomiasis control attempts over the past century and across the globe by identifying factors that predict control program success: snail control (e.g., molluscicides or biological control), mass drug administrations (MDA) with praziquantel, or a combined strategy using both. For data, we compiled historical information on control tactics and their quantitative outcomes for all 83 countries and territories in which: (i) schistosomiasis was allegedly endemic during ...


Atlantic Salmon Physiological And Immune Response To Amoebic Gill Disease And Insight Into The Biology Of The Amoeba, Ottavia Benedicenti 2016 Scottish Fish Immunology Research Centre, University of Aberdeen, UK

Atlantic Salmon Physiological And Immune Response To Amoebic Gill Disease And Insight Into The Biology Of The Amoeba, Ottavia Benedicenti

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Leishmania Amazonensis Engages Cd36 To Drive Parasitophorous Vacuole Maturation, Kendi Okuda, Mei Tong, Brian Dempsey, Kathryn J. Moore, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Neal S. Silverman 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Leishmania Amazonensis Engages Cd36 To Drive Parasitophorous Vacuole Maturation, Kendi Okuda, Mei Tong, Brian Dempsey, Kathryn J. Moore, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Neal S. Silverman

Open Access Articles

Leishmania amastigotes manipulate the activity of macrophages to favor their own success. However, very little is known about the role of innate recognition and signaling triggered by amastigotes in this host-parasite interaction. In this work we developed a new infection model in adult Drosophila to take advantage of its superior genetic resources to identify novel host factors limiting Leishmania amazonensis infection. The model is based on the capacity of macrophage-like cells, plasmatocytes, to phagocytose and control the proliferation of parasites injected into adult flies. Using this model, we screened a collection of RNAi-expressing flies for anti-Leishmania defense factors. Notably, we ...


Anthelminthic Screening For Parasitic Nematodes, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Dan Lawler, Dirk Albrecht, Raffi V. Aroian 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Anthelminthic Screening For Parasitic Nematodes, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Dan Lawler, Dirk Albrecht, Raffi V. Aroian

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

For many parasitic diseases, high-throughput phenotypic screening is an important tool in finding new drugs. Some of the most important parasitic diseases are caused by nematodes. However, these parasitic nematodes are not typically amenable to high throughput screening. Due to the ease of its maintenance and suitability for high throughput assay, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is instead used. To address whether C. elegans is a good model for nematode drug discovery, we compared the drug susceptibility of C. elegans relative to the human hookworm nematode parasite Ancylostoma ceylanicum at several developmental stages using a library of FDA approved drugs. I ...


A Novel Population Of Natural Killer Cells Pplays A Critical Role In The Depletion Of Splenic B2 B Cells During Experimental Africian Trypanosomiasis, Deborah Frenkel, Samuel J. Black 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A Novel Population Of Natural Killer Cells Pplays A Critical Role In The Depletion Of Splenic B2 B Cells During Experimental Africian Trypanosomiasis, Deborah Frenkel, Samuel J. Black

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human sleeping sickness and a contributor to nagana in cattle, rapidly lose the capacity to mount VSG-specific antibody responses, and die with uncontrolled parasitemia. We have shown (Bockstal et al., 2011, PLOS Pathogens) that the loss of humoral immune competence in the infected mice results from depletion of developing and mature splenic B cells. We now report that T. brucei-induced splenic B cell depletion is dependent upon the presence of the pore forming molecule perforin which is present in the cytotoxic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer T cells and ...


A Conserved Dna Repeat Promotes Selection Of A Diverse Repertoire Of Trypanosoma Brucei Surface Antigens From The Genomic Archive., Galadriel Hovel-Miner, Monica R. Mugnier, Benjamin Goldwater, George A. M. Cross, F. Nina Papavasiliou 2016 George Washington University

A Conserved Dna Repeat Promotes Selection Of A Diverse Repertoire Of Trypanosoma Brucei Surface Antigens From The Genomic Archive., Galadriel Hovel-Miner, Monica R. Mugnier, Benjamin Goldwater, George A. M. Cross, F. Nina Papavasiliou

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

African trypanosomes are mammalian pathogens that must regularly change their protein coat to survive in the host bloodstream. Chronic trypanosome infections are potentiated by their ability to access a deep genomic repertoire of Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) genes and switch from the expression of one VSG to another. Switching VSG expression is largely based in DNA recombination events that result in chromosome translocations between an acceptor site, which houses the actively transcribed VSG, and a donor gene, drawn from an archive of more than 2,000 silent VSGs. One element implicated in these duplicative gene conversion events is a DNA ...


Doxycycline Resistance In Plasmodium Falciparum Linked To Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In The Plasmodium Falciparum Apicoplast Small Subunit Ribosomal Rna (Pfssrrna) Gene, Amanda Wasko 2016 Dominican University of California

Doxycycline Resistance In Plasmodium Falciparum Linked To Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In The Plasmodium Falciparum Apicoplast Small Subunit Ribosomal Rna (Pfssrrna) Gene, Amanda Wasko

Scholarly and Creative Works Conference

Plasmodium falciparum, a protozoan parasite known as malaria, widely impacts human health; thus antimalarial drug investigations are critical. Doxycycline is a commonly used antimalarial prophylactic, but its mechanism of action is unclear. In prokaryotes, doxycycline works as an antibacterial by disrupting protein translation via the small subunit ribosome. Interestingly, P. falciparum has a small subunit ribosome of prokaryotic origins in the apicoplast, a plastid-like organelle. Therefore, we hypothesized that doxycycline works in P. falciparum by inhibiting protein synthesis via the small subunit ribosomal RNA and that mutations in the gene encoding the P. falciparum apicoplast small subunit ribosomal RNA (pfSSrRNA ...


The Effects Of The Fungus Beauvaria Sp. On The Cave Cricket, Hadenoecus Subterraneus, Christina N. Walker, Derrick J. Jent, Claire A. Fuller 2016 Murray State University

The Effects Of The Fungus Beauvaria Sp. On The Cave Cricket, Hadenoecus Subterraneus, Christina N. Walker, Derrick J. Jent, Claire A. Fuller

Scholars Week

The cave cricket, Hadenoecus subterraneus, is a keystone species in cave ecosystems within Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP). Within MCNP, many cricket cadavers have been found

with a thick, white fungus growing on them; this fungus has previously been identified to be Beauveria bassiana. However, new molecular data suggests that this may actually be the species B. amorpha. Cricket cadavers with Beauveria sp. were collected from MCNP and cultured on potato dextrose agar. Cultures will be sent to the USDA for a genetic analysis and identification of the fungus. The purpose of this study is to examine if the relationship ...


Cerebral Malaria: An Unusual Case Of Central Diabetes Insipidus, Resmi Premji, Nira Roopnarinesingh, Joshua Cohen, Sabyasachi Sen 2016 George Washington University

Cerebral Malaria: An Unusual Case Of Central Diabetes Insipidus, Resmi Premji, Nira Roopnarinesingh, Joshua Cohen, Sabyasachi Sen

Medicine Faculty Publications

Central diabetes insipidus is an uncommon feature of malaria. A previously healthy 72-year-old man presented with fever, rigors, and altered mental status after a recent trip to Liberia, a country known for endemic falciparum malaria. Investigations confirmed plasmodium falciparum parasitemia. Within one week after admission, the serum sodium rose to 166 mEq/L and the urine output increased to 7 liters/day. Other labs were notable for a high serum osmolality, low urine osmolality, and low urine specific gravity. The hypernatremia did not respond to hypotonic fluids. Diabetes insipidus was suspected and parenteral desmopressin was started with a prompt decrease ...


Impact Of Plasmodium Falciparum Coinfection On Longitudinal Epstein-Barr Virus Kinetics In Kenyan Children, Arnold Reynaldi, Timothy Schlub, Kiprotich Chelimo, Peter Sumba, Erwan Piriou, Sidney Ogolla, Ann Moormann, Rosemary Rochford, Miles Davenport 2016 University of New South Wales

Impact Of Plasmodium Falciparum Coinfection On Longitudinal Epstein-Barr Virus Kinetics In Kenyan Children, Arnold Reynaldi, Timothy Schlub, Kiprotich Chelimo, Peter Sumba, Erwan Piriou, Sidney Ogolla, Ann Moormann, Rosemary Rochford, Miles Davenport

Ann M. Moormann

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum coinfection, although how P. falciparum exposure affects the dynamics of EBV infection is unclear. We have used a modeling approach to study EBV infection kinetics in a longitudinal cohort of children living in regions of high and low malaria transmission in Kenya. Residence in an area of high malaria transmission was associated with a higher rate of EBV expansion during primary EBV infection in infants and during subsequent episodes of EBV DNA detection, as well as with longer episodes of EBV DNA detection and shorter intervals between subsequent ...


Laelapine Mite (Acari: Laelapidae) Morphometric Analysis Reflects Taxonomic And Geographic Clusters Of South American Oryzomyines (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae), Donald D. Gettinger, Robert D. Owen 2016 Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Laelapine Mite (Acari: Laelapidae) Morphometric Analysis Reflects Taxonomic And Geographic Clusters Of South American Oryzomyines (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae), Donald D. Gettinger, Robert D. Owen

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

Ongoing efforts to survey and inventory nonvolant small mammals across the Neotropics are beginning to reveal a highly structured and diverse fauna of rodents and marsupials. By increasing the foundation of specimens in museums around the world, it has become possible, for the first time, to evaluate and quantify the similarities and differences among small mammals collected from a broad range of geographic locali­ties, ecoregions, and habitats. Because ectoparasites were sampled in the process of collecting mammalian voucher specimens, we are able to study the laelapine mites (Acari: Laelapidae) associated with well-iden­tified and verifiable host specimens. Here, we ...


Local Parasite Lineage Sharing In Temperate Grassland Birds Provides Clues About Potential Origins Of Galapagos Avian Plasmodium, Iris I. Levin, Rachel E. Colborn, Daniel Kim, Noah G. Perlut, Rosalind B. Renfrew, Patricia G. Parker 2016 University of Missouri - St Louis

Local Parasite Lineage Sharing In Temperate Grassland Birds Provides Clues About Potential Origins Of Galapagos Avian Plasmodium, Iris I. Levin, Rachel E. Colborn, Daniel Kim, Noah G. Perlut, Rosalind B. Renfrew, Patricia G. Parker

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

Oceanic archipelagos are vulnerable to natural introduction of parasites via migratory birds. Our aim was to characterize the geographic origins of two Plasmodium parasite lineages detected in the Galapagos Islands and in North American breeding bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) that regularly stop in Galapagos during migration to their South American overwintering sites. We used samples from a grassland breeding bird assemblage in Nebraska, United States, and parasite DNA sequences from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, to compare to global data in a DNA sequence registry. Homologous DNA sequences from parasites detected in bobolinks and more sedentary birds (e.g., brown-headed cowbirds Molothrus ...


Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Salivary Cortisol And Cyathostome Infestation In Horses, Danielle L. Keating 2016 Otterbein University

Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Salivary Cortisol And Cyathostome Infestation In Horses, Danielle L. Keating

Honors Thesis Projects

With an increase in anthelmintic resistance and decreased efficacy of many commercial dewormers, understanding factors that contribute to parasite infestations in horses is integral to their management. The goal of this study was to look at the potential relationship between parasites and stress response by evaluating salivary cortisol levels and cyathostome egg shedding levels. Using a sample size of n = 200 horses from the state of Ohio, fecal and saliva samples were collected from each horse. Fecal egg counts were performed for each horse with a modified Stoll method, and saliva samples were tested with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ...


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