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Size Selective Parasitism Of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) By Chestnut Lampreys (Ichthyomyzon Castaneus) In An Artificial Setting, Jeremiah M. Salinger, Ronald L. Johnson 2020 University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff

Size Selective Parasitism Of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) By Chestnut Lampreys (Ichthyomyzon Castaneus) In An Artificial Setting, Jeremiah M. Salinger, Ronald L. Johnson

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

Paradigms of optimal resource utilization by animals, both classical and more recent, were not originally developed in the context of parasitism. Though this oversight has slowly been reversed, little attention has been paid to optimal resource utilization by parasitic fishes, such as lampreys. Multiple explanations for host size selection by parasitic lampreys may be plausible, but results from previous studies have been inconsistent. We studied host size selection by Chestnut Lampreys (Ichthyomyzon castaneus) parasitizing Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in fish hatchery raceways in north central Arkansas during the late winter and early spring of 2013. Parasitized Rainbow Trout were significantly ...


Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) urges alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) are more efficacious when used with other dewormers and little is known on efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) to control gastrointestinal parasites. The objective was to examine the effects of DE and COWP on GIN control. Katahdin lambs (n = 32; ~150 d of age; 25.0 ± 1.8 kg) were randomly assigned to receive: 1) DE fed at an estimated 2% dry matter intake (with the assumption of moderate consumption of bermudagrass forage and provided supplement), 2) 1g COWP, 3) both 2% DE and ...


Before The Pandemic Ends: Making Sure This Never Happens Again, Daniel R. Brooks, Eric P. Hoberg, Walter A. Boeger, Scott Lyell Gardner, Sabrina B. L. Araujo, Katalin Bajer, Sebastian Botero-Cañola, Brian Byrd, Gábor Földvári, Joseph A. Cook, Jonathan L. Dunnum, Altangerel Tsogtsaikhan Dursahinhan, László Zsolt Garamszegi, Dávid Herczeg, Ferenc Jakab, Alicia Juarrero, Gábor Kemenesi, Kornélia Kurucz, Virginia León-Règagnon, Hugo H. Mejía-Madrid, Orsolya Molnár, Richard A. Nisbett, Wolfgang Preiser, Michael Stuart, Eors Szathmary, Valeria Trivellone 2020 Institute for Evolution

Before The Pandemic Ends: Making Sure This Never Happens Again, Daniel R. Brooks, Eric P. Hoberg, Walter A. Boeger, Scott Lyell Gardner, Sabrina B. L. Araujo, Katalin Bajer, Sebastian Botero-Cañola, Brian Byrd, Gábor Földvári, Joseph A. Cook, Jonathan L. Dunnum, Altangerel Tsogtsaikhan Dursahinhan, László Zsolt Garamszegi, Dávid Herczeg, Ferenc Jakab, Alicia Juarrero, Gábor Kemenesi, Kornélia Kurucz, Virginia León-Règagnon, Hugo H. Mejía-Madrid, Orsolya Molnár, Richard A. Nisbett, Wolfgang Preiser, Michael Stuart, Eors Szathmary, Valeria Trivellone

Scott Gardner Publications & Papers

Introduction

On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a Global Health Emergency of international concern attendant to the emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2, nearly two months after the first reported emergence of human cases in Wuhan, China. In the subsequent two months, global, national and local health personnel and infrastructures have been overwhelmed, leading to suffering and death for infected people, and the threat of socio-economic instability and potential collapse for humanity as a whole. This shows that our current and traditional mode of coping, anchored in responses after the fact, is not capable of dealing with ...


A New Genus And Two New Species Of Unarmed Hymenolepidid Cestodes (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) From Geomyid Rodents In Mexico And Costa Rica, Scott Lyell Gardner, Altangerel Tsogtsaikhan Dursahinhan, Mariel Campbell, S. Elizabeth Rácz 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A New Genus And Two New Species Of Unarmed Hymenolepidid Cestodes (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) From Geomyid Rodents In Mexico And Costa Rica, Scott Lyell Gardner, Altangerel Tsogtsaikhan Dursahinhan, Mariel Campbell, S. Elizabeth Rácz

Scott Gardner Publications & Papers

Two new cestodes of the family Hymenolepididae are described from two species of rodents of the family Geomyidae collected in Mexico and Costa Rica. One new species of Hymenolepis is described from Cratogeomys planiceps Merriam 1895 from near Toluca, Mexico and another that we allocate to a new genus is described from Heterogeomys heterodus (Peters, 1865) from near Irazú Volcano, Costa Rica. Hymenolepis s. str. includes those Hymenolepididae with an apical organ, with no hooks on suckers or apical organ, and three testes. Hobergia irazuensis n. gen., n. sp. includes a hymenolepidid with an apical organ, unarmed scolex, small pockets ...


Testing Tick Repellent Effectiveness​, Katherine Bunakov, Caleigh Carlson, Marianna Denully, Kyle Keenan, Doug Gourley, Jordan Rupley 2020 Eastern Washington University

Testing Tick Repellent Effectiveness​, Katherine Bunakov, Caleigh Carlson, Marianna Denully, Kyle Keenan, Doug Gourley, Jordan Rupley

2020 Symposium Posters

In the animal kingdom, the largest biodiversity is found in arthropods. Specific species include, crabs, ticks, and spiders. Interestingly, ticks are a species responsible for transmitting at least 14 known pathogens in the United States, as well as newly emerging tick-borne diseases. It is notable that the tick species found in Washington state do not carry as many diseases as ticks of other states, however, the likelihood of disease is still relevant. Protective clothing, repellents, and staying out of tick-prone areas are the best preventative measures to becoming indisposed. Furthermore, studying which repellents are most effective allows individuals to prevent ...


Gaharitrema Droneni N. Gen., N. Sp. (Digenea: Zoogonidae: Lepidophyllinae) From The Pudgy Cuskeel, Spectrunculus Grandis (Ophidiiformes: Ophidiidae), From Deep Waters Off Oregon, With Updates Keys To Zoogonid Subfamilies And Genera, Charles K. Blend, Gábor R. Rácz, Scott Gardner 2020 Corpus Christi, Texas

Gaharitrema Droneni N. Gen., N. Sp. (Digenea: Zoogonidae: Lepidophyllinae) From The Pudgy Cuskeel, Spectrunculus Grandis (Ophidiiformes: Ophidiidae), From Deep Waters Off Oregon, With Updates Keys To Zoogonid Subfamilies And Genera, Charles K. Blend, Gábor R. Rácz, Scott Gardner

Scott Gardner Publications & Papers

Gaharitrema droneni n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Zoogonidae: Lepidophyllinae) is described from the intestine of the pudgy cuskeel, Spectrunculus grandis (Gu¨ nther, 1877) (Ophidiiformes: Ophidiidae), collected at 2,800 m depth from the northeastern Pacific Ocean off Oregon. The new genus is distinguished from Brachyenteron Manter, 1934 and Steganoderma Stafford, 1904, the 2 closest lepidophylline genera, and from 4 other zoogonid genera erected since 2007, the last major revision of the family, by a combination of diagnostic features including a pyriform or spindle-shaped body, smooth testes and ovary, narrow ceca that reach with the vitellarium into the hindbody, an unspecialized ...


Two New Nematodes From The Families Molineidae And Strongyloididae (Nemata): Parasites Of Caenolestes (Mammalia: Paucituberculata: Caenolestidae) From The Andes Of Ecuador, Ricardo Guerrero 2020 Universidad Central de Venezuela

Two New Nematodes From The Families Molineidae And Strongyloididae (Nemata): Parasites Of Caenolestes (Mammalia: Paucituberculata: Caenolestidae) From The Andes Of Ecuador, Ricardo Guerrero

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

A new genus and species of Molineinae (Nemata: Trichostrongyloidea) is described. It is similar to Molineus but differs in ray 4 being longest instead of shortest. In addition, a new species of Parastrongyloides is described that is characterized by a short digitiform appendix on the tail and spicule tips with fine points. It is the second species known with two morphotypes of the females.

Resumen:

Se describe un nuevo género y especie de Molineinae (Nemata: Trichostrongyloidea), similar a Molineus pero difiere en que en la bolsa caudal el rayo 4 es el más largo en lugar de sewr el más ...


The Enigmatic Spelaeorhynchidae Oudemans, 1902 (Acari: Mesostigmata) Blood-Feeding Ectoparasites Infesting Neotropical Bats, With Catalog And Notes On A Collection From The Manú Biosphere Reserve In Peru, Donald Gettinger, Madalyne Epperson, Candy Hermasillo, Scott Gardner 2020 Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

The Enigmatic Spelaeorhynchidae Oudemans, 1902 (Acari: Mesostigmata) Blood-Feeding Ectoparasites Infesting Neotropical Bats, With Catalog And Notes On A Collection From The Manú Biosphere Reserve In Peru, Donald Gettinger, Madalyne Epperson, Candy Hermasillo, Scott Gardner

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

A survey of ectoparasites associated with bats collected along an elevational transect in the Manú Biosphere Reserve, Peru, includes specimens of two species of an unusual and rarely collected family of parasitic mites, the Spelaeorhynchidae Oudemans, and reveals information on the natural occurrence of these infections. In lowland rainforest (450–1,000 m) along the Rio Alto Madre de Dios, Spelaeorhynchus soaresi Peracchi was recorded exclusively infecting two species of frugivorous Carollia, C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata. At higher elevations in the mountains and cloud forests, Spelaeorhynchus praecursor Neumann exclusively infected two species of nectarivorous Anoura, A. cultrata and A ...


Insights About Diversity Of Tetrabothriidae (Eucestoda) Among Holarctic Alcidae (Charadriiformes): What Is Tetrabothrius Jagerskioeldi?, Eric P. Hoberg, Kaylen Marie Soudachanh 2020 University of New Mexico

Insights About Diversity Of Tetrabothriidae (Eucestoda) Among Holarctic Alcidae (Charadriiformes): What Is Tetrabothrius Jagerskioeldi?, Eric P. Hoberg, Kaylen Marie Soudachanh

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

Tetrabothriid cestodes are characteristic helminths that infect species of seabirds globally. We begin with the exploration of the diversity of tapeworms of the genus Tetrabothrius Rudolphi, 1819 (Eucestoda: Tetrabothriidae), some of which are distributed among seabirds of the family Alcidae (Charadriiformes) at boreal to higher latitudes of Holarctic seas. During the course of 2 decades of field inventory from 1975 through the early 1990s (in addition to earlier collections assembled by Robert L. Rausch and colleagues in Alaska initiated in the late 1940s), an extensive series of tapeworm specimens attributable to species of Tetrabothrius was recovered from seabirds across the ...


Lymesim 2.0: An Updated Simulation Of Blacklegged Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) Population Dynamics And Enzootic Transmission Of Borrelia Burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Holly Gaff, Rebecca J. Eisen, Lars Eisen, Robyn Nadolny, Jenna Bjork, Andrew J. Monaghan 2020 Old Dominion University

Lymesim 2.0: An Updated Simulation Of Blacklegged Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) Population Dynamics And Enzootic Transmission Of Borrelia Burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Holly Gaff, Rebecca J. Eisen, Lars Eisen, Robyn Nadolny, Jenna Bjork, Andrew J. Monaghan

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States, and the number of cases reported each year continues to rise. The complex nature of the relationships between the pathogen (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto), the tick vector (Ixodes scapularis Say), multiple vertebrate hosts, and numerous environmental factors creates challenges for understanding and predicting tick population and pathogen transmission dynamics. LYMESIM is a mechanistic model developed in the late 1990s to simulate the life-history of I. scapularis and transmission dynamics of B. burgdorferi s.s. Here we present LYMESIM 2.0, a modernized version of LYMESIM, that includes ...


Coproid Predicts The Source Of Coprolites And Paleofeces Using Microbiome Composition And Host Dna Content, Maxime Borry, Bryan Cordova, Angela Perri, Marsha Wibowo, Tanvi Prasad Honap, Jada Ko, Kate Britton, Linus Girdland-Flink, Robert C. Power, Ingelise Stuijts, Domingo C. Salazar-García, Courtney Hofman, Richard Hagan, Thérèse Samdapawindé Kagoné, Nicolas Meda, Helene Carabin, David Jacobson, Karl Reinhard, Cecil Lewis, Aleksandar Kostic, Choongwon Jeong, Alexander Herbig, Alexander Hübner, Christina Warinner 2020 Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History

Coproid Predicts The Source Of Coprolites And Paleofeces Using Microbiome Composition And Host Dna Content, Maxime Borry, Bryan Cordova, Angela Perri, Marsha Wibowo, Tanvi Prasad Honap, Jada Ko, Kate Britton, Linus Girdland-Flink, Robert C. Power, Ingelise Stuijts, Domingo C. Salazar-García, Courtney Hofman, Richard Hagan, Thérèse Samdapawindé Kagoné, Nicolas Meda, Helene Carabin, David Jacobson, Karl Reinhard, Cecil Lewis, Aleksandar Kostic, Choongwon Jeong, Alexander Herbig, Alexander Hübner, Christina Warinner

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Shotgun metagenomics applied to archaeological feces (paleofeces) can bring new insights into the composition and functions of human and animal gut microbiota from the past. However, paleofeces often undergo physical distortions in archaeological sediments, making their source species difficult to identify on the basis of fecal morphology or microscopic features alone. Here we present a reproducible and scalable pipeline using both host and microbial DNA to infer the host source of fecal material. We apply this pipeline to newly sequenced archaeological specimens and show that we are able to distinguish morphologically similar human and canine paleofeces, as well as non-fecal ...


Cholinergic Receptors On Intestine Cells Of Ascaris Suum And Activation Of Nachrs By Levamisole, Mark McHugh, Paul Williams, Saurabh Verma, Jo Anne Powell-Coffman, Alan P. Robertson, Richard J. Martin 2020 Iowa State University

Cholinergic Receptors On Intestine Cells Of Ascaris Suum And Activation Of Nachrs By Levamisole, Mark Mchugh, Paul Williams, Saurabh Verma, Jo Anne Powell-Coffman, Alan P. Robertson, Richard J. Martin

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Cholinergic agonists, like levamisole, are a major class of anthelmintic drug that are known to act selectively on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on the somatic muscle and nerves of nematode parasites to produce their contraction and spastic paralysis. Previous studies have suggested that in addition to the nAChRs found on muscle and nerves, there are nAChRs on non-excitable tissues of nematode parasites. We looked for evidence of nAChRs expression in the cells of the intestine of the large pig nematode, Ascaris suum, using RT-PCR and RNAscope in situ hybridization and detected mRNA of nAChR subunits in the cells. These subunits ...


Analysis Of Genetic Structure And Pathogen Dynamics Of Ixodes Scapularis In Southwestern Virginia, Leemu Jackson 2020 Hollins University

Analysis Of Genetic Structure And Pathogen Dynamics Of Ixodes Scapularis In Southwestern Virginia, Leemu Jackson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Ixodes scapularis, or the blacklegged tick, is the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi. This pathogen is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common vector-transmitted disease in the United States. Although I. scapularis is distributed throughout the eastern U.S., Lyme disease is only considered endemic in the northeastern region of the country. Prior to 2007, Lyme disease was uncommon in Virginia, but since then cases of Lyme disease have increased dramatically with a hotspot forming in the Roanoke-Blacksburg area. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether B. burgdorferi prevalence and the genetic structure of I ...


Characterization Of Microsporidian Ameson Herrnkindi Sp. Nov. Infecting Caribbean Spiny Lobsters Panulirus Argus, Hamish J. Small, GD Stentiford, DC Behringer, MA Freeman, NAM Atherley, Kimberly S. Reece, Jeffrey D. Shields 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Characterization Of Microsporidian Ameson Herrnkindi Sp. Nov. Infecting Caribbean Spiny Lobsters Panulirus Argus, Hamish J. Small, Gd Stentiford, Dc Behringer, Ma Freeman, Nam Atherley, Kimberly S. Reece, Jeffrey D. Shields

VIMS Articles

The Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus supports a large and valuable fishery in the Caribbean Sea. In 2007-2008, a rare microsporidian parasite with spore characteristics typical of the Ameson genus was detected in 2 spiny lobsters from southeast Florida (FL). However, the parasite species was not confirmed by molecular analyses. To address this deficiency, reported here are structural and molecular data on single lobsters displaying comparable ‘cotton-like’ abdominal muscle containing ovoid microsporidian spores found at different locations in FL in 2014 and 2018 and in Saint Kitts and Nevis Islands in 2017. In the lobster from 2014, multiple life stages ...


Cercarial Parasitism Of Freshwater Snails In Sandhills Ponds Versus Streams, Caroline Emily Spethman 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Cercarial Parasitism Of Freshwater Snails In Sandhills Ponds Versus Streams, Caroline Emily Spethman

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Parasite prevalence was calculated for all aquatic snails collected from four freshwater localities in Western Nebraska from Summer 2016 to 2019: Dunwoody Pond, Haythorn Ranch, Neven’s Restoration, and Breen’s Flyaway. With data of increasing trematode cercarial infection specifically at Dunwoody Pond, this community was further studied. In Summer 2019, a total of 217 freshwater snails representing species of Physa sp., Stagnicola elodes (Say,1821), and Helisoma anceps (Menke,1830) were collected from Dunwoody Pond and Dunwoody stream, near Ogallala, Nebraska. Eighty-one snails were collected from Dunwoody Pond, 76 snails were collected 31 meters upstream, and 60 snails were ...


Using Empirical And Theoretical Approaches To Control Outbreaks Of An Emerging Disease (Swimmer’S Itch) In The Midwest Of The U.S.A., Gregory J. Sandland, James Peirce 2019 University of Wisconsin - La Crosse

Using Empirical And Theoretical Approaches To Control Outbreaks Of An Emerging Disease (Swimmer’S Itch) In The Midwest Of The U.S.A., Gregory J. Sandland, James Peirce

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Molecular Investigation And Phylogeny Of Species Of The Anaplasmataceae Infecting Animals And Ticks In Senegal, Mustapha Dahmani, Bernard davoust, Masse Sambou, Hubert Bassene, Pierre Scandola, Tinhinene Ameur, Didier Raoult, Florence Feenollar, Oleg Mediannikov 2019 Old Dominion University

Molecular Investigation And Phylogeny Of Species Of The Anaplasmataceae Infecting Animals And Ticks In Senegal, Mustapha Dahmani, Bernard Davoust, Masse Sambou, Hubert Bassene, Pierre Scandola, Tinhinene Ameur, Didier Raoult, Florence Feenollar, Oleg Mediannikov

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Our study aimed to assess the diversity of the species of Anaplasmataceae in Senegal that infect animals and ticks in three areas: near Keur Momar Sarr (northern region), Dielmo and Diop (Sine Saloum, central region of Senegal), and in Casamance (southern region of Senegal).

Methods: A total of 204 ticks and 433 blood samples were collected from ruminants, horses, donkeys and dogs. Ticks were identified morphologically and by molecular characterization targeting the 12S rRNA gene. Molecular characterization of species of Anaplasmataceae infecting Senegalese ticks and animals was conducted using the 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA, rpoB and groEL genes.

Results ...


Innate Antibodies, Murine Models, And Evolution: A Study Of Trypanosome Lytic Factor Functions And Their Translational Applications, Joseph P. Verdi 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Innate Antibodies, Murine Models, And Evolution: A Study Of Trypanosome Lytic Factor Functions And Their Translational Applications, Joseph P. Verdi

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Trypanosome lytic factors (TLFs) are primate-specific antimicrobial protein complexes that lyse African trypanosome parasites by delivering the channel-forming toxin APOL1 to the invading microorganisms. Human serum contains two TLFs that are delivered to the parasite by separate mechanisms, only one of which has been characterized. TLF1 is endocytosed by a receptor that is typically blocked by other serum factors in vivo, suggesting that TLF2 is the more relevant lytic factor in the context of trypanosome immunity. TLF2 is non-covalently associated with polyclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, which we report here to be involved in the uptake mechanism. The TLF2-IgMs are ...


Drug Screening For Discovery Of Broad-Spectrum Agents For Soil-Transmitted Nematodes, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Sergey N. Savinov, Raffi V. Aroian 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Drug Screening For Discovery Of Broad-Spectrum Agents For Soil-Transmitted Nematodes, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Sergey N. Savinov, Raffi V. Aroian

Open Access Articles

Soil-transmitted nematodes (STNs), namely hookworms, whipworms, and ascarids, are extremely common parasites, infecting 1-2 billion of the poorest people worldwide. Two benzimidazoles, albendazole and mebendazole, are currently used in STN mass drug administration, with many instances of low/reduced activity reported. New drugs against STNs are urgently needed. We tested various models for STN drug screening with the aim of identifying the most effective tactics for the discovery of potent, safe and broad-spectrum agents. We screened a 1280-compound library of approved drugs to completion against late larval/adult stages and egg/larval stages of both the human hookworm parasite Ancylostoma ...


Cxcr3 Chemokine Receptor Guides Trypanosoma Cruzi-Specific T-Cells Triggered By Dna/Adenovirus Asp2 Vaccine To Heart Tissue After Challenge, Camila Pontes Ferreira, Leonardo Moro Cariste, Barbara Ferri Moraschi, Bianca Ferrarini Zanetti, Sang Won Han, Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Alexandre Vieira Machado, Joseli Lannes-Vieira, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Jose Ronnie Vasconcelos Carvalho 2019 Federal University of São Paulo

Cxcr3 Chemokine Receptor Guides Trypanosoma Cruzi-Specific T-Cells Triggered By Dna/Adenovirus Asp2 Vaccine To Heart Tissue After Challenge, Camila Pontes Ferreira, Leonardo Moro Cariste, Barbara Ferri Moraschi, Bianca Ferrarini Zanetti, Sang Won Han, Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Alexandre Vieira Machado, Joseli Lannes-Vieira, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Jose Ronnie Vasconcelos Carvalho

Open Access Articles

CD8+ T lymphocytes play an important role in controlling infections by intracellular pathogens. Chemokines and their receptors are crucial for the migration of CD8+ T-lymphocytes, which are the main IFNgamma producers and cytotoxic effectors cells. Although the participation of chemokine ligands and receptors has been largely explored in viral infection, much less is known in infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. After T. cruzi infection, CXCR3 chemokine receptor is highly expressed on the surface of CD8+ T-lymphocytes. Here, we hypothesized that CXCR3 is a key molecule for migration of parasite-specific CD8+ T-cells towards infected tissues, where ...


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