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Development Of An Interleukin-4-Inducing Principle From Schistosoma Mansoni Eggs (Ipse)-Specific Pcr Assay As A Quantitative Predictor Of Schistosomiasis-Associated Morbidity, Dannah Farah, Evaristis Mbanefo, Michael H. Hsieh 2017 George Washington University

Development Of An Interleukin-4-Inducing Principle From Schistosoma Mansoni Eggs (Ipse)-Specific Pcr Assay As A Quantitative Predictor Of Schistosomiasis-Associated Morbidity, Dannah Farah, Evaristis Mbanefo, Michael H. Hsieh

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease affecting between 200-500 million people worldwide. The two species causing most human cases of schistosomiasis are Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium. The gold standard for diagnosis is parasitological detection of parasite eggs in stool using the Kato-Katz method. Counting eggs shed in stool is labor-intensive and inaccurate. Interleukin-4- inducing principle from Schistosoma mansoni eggs (IPSE) is the most abundant secreted protein from schistosome eggs. We hypothesized that the mRNA transcripts of the IPSE protein may be found in the liver tissue and stool of experimentally infected animals, and that these transcripts can be specifically ...


Dynamic Transcriptomes Identify Biogenic Amines And Insect-Like Hormonal Regulation For Mediating Reproduction In Schistosoma Japonicum., Jipeng Wang, Ying Yu, Haimo Shen, Tao Qing, Yuanting Zheng, Qing Li, Xiaojin Mo, Shuqi Wang, Nana Li, Riyi Chai, Bin Xu, Mu Liu, Paul J Brindley, Donald P McManus, Zheng Feng, Leming Shi, Wei Hu 2017 George Washington University

Dynamic Transcriptomes Identify Biogenic Amines And Insect-Like Hormonal Regulation For Mediating Reproduction In Schistosoma Japonicum., Jipeng Wang, Ying Yu, Haimo Shen, Tao Qing, Yuanting Zheng, Qing Li, Xiaojin Mo, Shuqi Wang, Nana Li, Riyi Chai, Bin Xu, Mu Liu, Paul J Brindley, Donald P Mcmanus, Zheng Feng, Leming Shi, Wei Hu

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Eggs produced by the mature female parasite are responsible for the pathogenesis and transmission of schistosomiasis. Female schistosomes rely on a unique male-induced strategy to accomplish reproductive development, a process that is incompletely understood. Here we map detailed transcriptomic profiles of male and female Schistosoma japonicum across eight time points throughout the sexual developmental process from pairing to maturation. The dynamic gene expression pattern data reveal clear sex-related characteristics, indicative of an unambiguous functional division between males and females during their interplay. Cluster analysis, in situ hybridization and RNAi assays indicate that males likely use biogenic amine neurotransmitters through the ...


The Evaluation Of Carbon Dioxide-Independent Media For Toxoplasma Gondii Growth, Matthew C. Martens 2017 University of Nebraska Omaha

The Evaluation Of Carbon Dioxide-Independent Media For Toxoplasma Gondii Growth, Matthew C. Martens

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Toxoplasma gondii is a human pathogen that plays a role as the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, a disease that produces many deleterious effects for immunocompromised individuals and infants. Current research involving this intracellular parasite requires the use and continues maintenance of costly cell incubators attached to bulky carbon dioxide canisters. To reduce laboratory costs and space requirements, we, therefore, propose a novel procedure by which human foreskin fibroblasts, as well as Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, may be grown in a commercially available carbon dioxide-independent media. Growth assays utilizing resazurin dye or relative fluorescence from parasites modified with a red fluorescent protein ...


Elevated Prevalence Of Helicobacter Species And Virulence Factors In Opisthorchiasis And Associated Hepatobiliary Disease., Raksawan Deenonpoe, Eimorn Mairiang, Pisaln Mairiang, Chawalit Pairojkul, Yaovalux Chamgramol, Gabriel Rinaldi, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley, Banchob Sripa 2017 George Washington University

Elevated Prevalence Of Helicobacter Species And Virulence Factors In Opisthorchiasis And Associated Hepatobiliary Disease., Raksawan Deenonpoe, Eimorn Mairiang, Pisaln Mairiang, Chawalit Pairojkul, Yaovalux Chamgramol, Gabriel Rinaldi, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley, Banchob Sripa

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Recent reports suggest that Opisthorchis viverrini serves as a reservoir of Helicobacter and implicate Helicobacter in pathogenesis of opisthorchiasis-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Here, 553 age-sex matched cases and controls, 293 and 260 positive and negative for liver fluke O. viverrini eggs, of residents in Northeastern Thailand were investigated for associations among infection with liver fluke, Helicobacter and hepatobiliary fibrosis. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was higher in O. viverrini-infected than uninfected participants. H. pylori bacterial load correlated positively with intensity of O. viverrini infection, and participants with opisthorchiasis exhibited higher frequency of virulent cagA-positive H. pylori than those free of ...


Advances In Neglected Tropical Disease Vaccines: Developing Relative Potency And Functional Assays For The Na-Gst-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine., Jill B. Brelsford, Jordan L Plieskatt, Anna Yakovleva, Amar Jariwala, Brian P Keegan, Jin Peng, Pengjun Xia, Guangzhao Li, Doreen Campbell, Maria Victoria Periago, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, David Diemert, Jeffrey M. Bethony 2017 George Washington University

Advances In Neglected Tropical Disease Vaccines: Developing Relative Potency And Functional Assays For The Na-Gst-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine., Jill B. Brelsford, Jordan L Plieskatt, Anna Yakovleva, Amar Jariwala, Brian P Keegan, Jin Peng, Pengjun Xia, Guangzhao Li, Doreen Campbell, Maria Victoria Periago, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, David Diemert, Jeffrey M. Bethony

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD vaccines, the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine was not developed by attenuation or inactivation of the pathogen (Necator americanus), so conventional methods for measuring relative ...


Interaction Of Plant Essential Oil Terpenoids With The Southern Cattle Tick Tyramine Receptor: A Potential Biopesticide Target, Aaron D. Gross, Kevin B. Temeyer, Tim A. Day, Adalberto A. Pérez de León, Michael J. Kimber, Joel R. Coats 2017 Iowa State University

Interaction Of Plant Essential Oil Terpenoids With The Southern Cattle Tick Tyramine Receptor: A Potential Biopesticide Target, Aaron D. Gross, Kevin B. Temeyer, Tim A. Day, Adalberto A. Pérez De León, Michael J. Kimber, Joel R. Coats

Entomology Publications

An outbreak of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, (Canestrini), in the United States would have devastating consequences on the cattle industry. Tick populations have developed resistance to current acaricides, highlighting the need to identify new biochemical targets along with new chemistry. Furthermore, acaricide resistance could further hamper control of tick populations during an outbreak. Botanically-based compounds may provide a safe alternative for efficacious control of the southern cattle tick. We have developed a heterologous expression system that stably expresses the cattle tick's tyramine receptor with a G-protein chimera, producing a system that is amenable to high-throughput screening ...


Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis And Human Malignancy., Hoang van Tong, Paul J. Brindley, Christian G Meyer, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan 2017 George Washington University

Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis And Human Malignancy., Hoang Van Tong, Paul J. Brindley, Christian G Meyer, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Cancer may be induced by many environmental and physiological conditions. Infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites have been recognized for years to be associated with human carcinogenicity. Here we review current concepts of carcinogenicity and its associations with parasitic infections. The helminth diseases schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis are highly carcinogenic while the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, has a dual role in the development of cancer, including both carcinogenic and anticancer properties. Although malaria per se does not appear to be causative in carcinogenesis, it is strongly associated with the occurrence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma in ...


A Comparison Of The Quality Of Informed Consent For Clinical Trials Of An Experimental Hookworm Vaccine Conducted In Developed And Developing Countries., David J. Diemert, Lucas Lobato, Ashley Styczynski, Maria Zumer, Amanda Soares, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli 2017 George Washington University

A Comparison Of The Quality Of Informed Consent For Clinical Trials Of An Experimental Hookworm Vaccine Conducted In Developed And Developing Countries., David J. Diemert, Lucas Lobato, Ashley Styczynski, Maria Zumer, Amanda Soares, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Informed consent is one of the principal ethical requirements of conducting clinical research, regardless of the study setting. Breaches in the quality of the informed consent process are frequently described in reference to clinical trials conducted in developing countries, due to low levels of formal education, a lack of familiarity with biomedical research, and limited access to health services in these countries. However, few studies have directly compared the quality of the informed consent process in developed and developing countries using the same tool and in similar clinical trials. This study was conducted to compare the quality of the informed ...


Identification Of Candidate Infection Genes From The Model Entomopathogenic Nematode Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora., Jonathan Vadnal, Ramesh Ratnappan, Melissa Keaney, Eric Kenney, Ioannis Eleftherianos, Damien O'Halloran, John M. Hawdon 2017 George Washington University

Identification Of Candidate Infection Genes From The Model Entomopathogenic Nematode Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora., Jonathan Vadnal, Ramesh Ratnappan, Melissa Keaney, Eric Kenney, Ioannis Eleftherianos, Damien O'Halloran, John M. Hawdon

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Despite important progress in the field of innate immunity, our understanding of host immune responses to parasitic nematode infections lags behind that of responses to microbes. A limiting factor has been the obligate requirement for a vertebrate host which has hindered investigation of the parasitic nematode infective process. The nematode parasite Heterorhabditis bacteriophora offers great potential as a model to genetically dissect the process of infection. With its mutualistic Photorhabdus luminescens bacteria, H. bacteriophora invades multiple species of insects, which it kills and exploits as a food source for the development of several nematode generations. The ability to culture ...


Pseudopecoelus Mccauleyi N. Sp. And Podocotyle Sp. (Digenea: Opecoelidae) From The Deep Waters Off Oregon And British Columbia With An Updated Key To The Species Of Pseudopecoelus Von Wicklen, 1946 And Checklist Of Parasites From Lycodes Cortezianus (Perciformes: Zoarcidae), Charles K. Blend, Norman O. Dronen, Gábor R. Rácz, Scott Lyell Gardner 2017 Corpus Christi, Texas

Pseudopecoelus Mccauleyi N. Sp. And Podocotyle Sp. (Digenea: Opecoelidae) From The Deep Waters Off Oregon And British Columbia With An Updated Key To The Species Of Pseudopecoelus Von Wicklen, 1946 And Checklist Of Parasites From Lycodes Cortezianus (Perciformes: Zoarcidae), Charles K. Blend, Norman O. Dronen, Gábor R. Rácz, Scott Lyell Gardner

Scott Gardner Publications & Papers

Pseudopecoelus mccauleyi n. sp. (Opecoelidae: Opecoelinae) is described from the intestine of the bigfin eelpout, Lycodes cortezianus (Gilbert, 1890) (Perciformes: Zoarcidae), collected at 200–800 m depths in the northeastern Pacific Ocean off Oregon and Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The new species is distinguished by possessing a unique combination of the following diagnostic characters: vitelline fields that extend to the posterior margin of the ventral sucker; a slender, tubular and sinuous seminal vesicle that extends some distance into the hindbody; an unspecialized, protuberant ventral sucker; a genital pore at pharynx level; lobed to deeply multilobed testes; a lobed ovary; and ...


Palynological Investigation Of Mummified Human Remains, Karl Reinhard, Marina Milanello do Amaral, Nicole Wall 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Palynological Investigation Of Mummified Human Remains, Karl Reinhard, Marina Milanello Do Amaral, Nicole Wall

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Pollen analysis was applied to a mummified homicide victim in Nebraska, U.S.A., to determine the location of death. A control sample showed the normal ambient pollen in the garage crime scene. Ambient windborne types, common in the air of the region, dominated the control. Internal samples were analyzed from the sacrum, intestine, and diaphragm. Microfossils were recovered from the rehydrated intestine lumen. The intestinal sample was dominated by Brassica (broccoli). The sacrum sample was high in dietary types but with a showing of ambient types. The pollen from the diaphragm was dominated by ambient pollen similar to the ...


Genomes Of Fasciola Hepatica From The Americas Reveal Colonization With Neorickettsia Endobacteria Related To The Agents Of Potomac Horse And Human Sennetsu Fevers., Samantha N McNulty, Jose F Tort, Gabriel Rinaldi, Bruce A Rosa, Victoria H. Mann, Patricia S. Latham, Paul J. Brindley, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Genomes Of Fasciola Hepatica From The Americas Reveal Colonization With Neorickettsia Endobacteria Related To The Agents Of Potomac Horse And Human Sennetsu Fevers., Samantha N Mcnulty, Jose F Tort, Gabriel Rinaldi, Bruce A Rosa, Victoria H. Mann, Patricia S. Latham, Paul J. Brindley, +Several Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Food borne trematodes (FBTs) are an assemblage of platyhelminth parasites transmitted through the food chain, four of which are recognized as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Fascioliasis stands out among the other NTDs due to its broad and significant impact on both human and animal health, as Fasciola sp., are also considered major pathogens of domesticated ruminants. Here we present a reference genome sequence of the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica isolated from sheep, complementing previously reported isolate from cattle. A total of 14,642 genes were predicted from the 1.14 GB genome of the liver fluke. Comparative genomics indicated ...


Molecular And Functional Analysis Of The Pixb Gene In Xenorhabdus Nematophila, John Lucas 2016 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Molecular And Functional Analysis Of The Pixb Gene In Xenorhabdus Nematophila, John Lucas

Theses and Dissertations

Xenorhabdus nematophila and the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae form a mutualistic relationship facilitating the infection, death and consumption of an insect host. The infective juvenile (IJ) form of S. carpocapsae invades the insect host through natural openings and proceeds to the hemocoel where exposure to hemolymph stimulates the release of X. nematophila from the anterior vesicle. Excreted X. nematophila releases immunosuppressive compounds and insect toxins into the insect hemolymph that facilitates death of the host. As X. nematophila reaches high cell density it secretes exoenzymes that degrade insect tissues and produces antibiotics that reduce microbial competition. S. carpocapsae utilizes the ...


Diversity And Impacts Of Mining On The Non-Volant Small Mammal Communities Of Two Vegetation Types In The Brazilian Amazon, Natália Carneiro Ardente, Átilla Colombo Ferreguetti, Donald Gettinger, Pricila Leal, Ana Cristina Mendes-Oliveira, Fernanda Martins-Hatano, Helena Godoy Bergallo 2016 Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

Diversity And Impacts Of Mining On The Non-Volant Small Mammal Communities Of Two Vegetation Types In The Brazilian Amazon, Natália Carneiro Ardente, Átilla Colombo Ferreguetti, Donald Gettinger, Pricila Leal, Ana Cristina Mendes-Oliveira, Fernanda Martins-Hatano, Helena Godoy Bergallo

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

The CarajaÂs National Forest contains some of the largest iron ore deposits in the world. The majority of the minerals are found below a plant community known as Savana Metalo fila, or ªCangaº, which represents only 3% of the landscape within the CarajaÂs National Forest (CNF). The aim of our study was to understand the diversity of community of non-volant small mammals in the two predominant vegetation types: Ombrophilous Forest and Canga, and to examine how mining impacts these communities. Sampling was conducted from January 2010 to August 2011 in 11 sampling sites divided by the total area of Canga ...


A Chimeric Protein-Based Malaria Vaccine Candidate Induces Robust T Cell Responses Against Plasmodium Vivax Msp119, Jairo Andres Fonseca, Monica Cabrera-Mora, Balwan Singh, Joseli Oliveira-Ferreira, Josue Da Costa Lima-Junior, J. Mauricio Calvo-Calle, Jose Manuel Lozano, Alberto Moreno 2016 Emory University

A Chimeric Protein-Based Malaria Vaccine Candidate Induces Robust T Cell Responses Against Plasmodium Vivax Msp119, Jairo Andres Fonseca, Monica Cabrera-Mora, Balwan Singh, Joseli Oliveira-Ferreira, Josue Da Costa Lima-Junior, J. Mauricio Calvo-Calle, Jose Manuel Lozano, Alberto Moreno

Open Access Articles

The most widespread Plasmodium species, Plasmodium vivax, poses a significant public health threat. An effective vaccine is needed to reduce global malaria burden. Of the erythrocytic stage vaccine candidates, the 19 kDa fragment of the P. vivax Merozoite Surface Protein 1 (PvMSP119) is one of the most promising. Our group has previously defined several promiscuous T helper epitopes within the PvMSP1 protein, with features that allow them to bind multiple MHC class II alleles. We describe here a P. vivax recombinant modular chimera based on MSP1 (PvRMC-MSP1) that includes defined T cell epitopes genetically fused to PvMSP119. This vaccine candidate ...


Multi-Sector Analysis Of The Progress And Challenges Of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Eradication In Rural Udaipur, Jessica Ellis 2016 SIT Study Abroad

Multi-Sector Analysis Of The Progress And Challenges Of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Eradication In Rural Udaipur, Jessica Ellis

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

India is home to 240 million children currently at risk of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis, which is spread via unclean water, soil, and food, and causes acute pain and malnutrition. While acknowledging the research debates over WASH and mass drug administration, this study seeks to identify the systemic multidisciplinary issues affecting STH elimination efforts in rural Udaipur. Twenty-three interviews were conducted in villages, government departments, NGOs, and medical sectors to identify the challenges within each approach to deworming, and their experiences with multi-sectoral collaboration. The most recurring issues across disciplines were need for invested local leadership, increase in health literacy of adults ...


Prehistoric Pathoecology As Represented By Parasites Of A Mummy From The Peruaçu Valley, Brazil, Karl Reinhard, Adauto Araújo 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Prehistoric Pathoecology As Represented By Parasites Of A Mummy From The Peruaçu Valley, Brazil, Karl Reinhard, Adauto Araújo

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Paleopathologists have begun exploring the pathoecology of parasitic diseases in relation to diet and environment. We are summarizing the parasitological findings from a mummy in the site of Lapa do Boquete, a Brazilian cave in the state of Minas Gerais. These findings in context of the archaeology of the site provided insights into the pathoecology of disease transmission in cave and rockshelter environments. We are presenting a description of the site followed by the evidence of hookworm, intestinal fluke, and Trypanosoma infection with resulting Chagas disease in the mummy discovered in the cave. These findings are used to reconstruct the ...


The Nih-Niaid Schistosomiasis Resource Center At The Biomedical Research Institute: Molecular Redux., James J Cody, Wannaporn Ittiprasert, André N Miller, Lucie Henein, Margaret M Mentink-Kane, Michael H. Hsieh 2016 George Washington University

The Nih-Niaid Schistosomiasis Resource Center At The Biomedical Research Institute: Molecular Redux., James J Cody, Wannaporn Ittiprasert, André N Miller, Lucie Henein, Margaret M Mentink-Kane, Michael H. Hsieh

Urology Faculty Publications

Schistosomiasis remains a health burden in many parts of the world. The complex life cycle of Schistosoma parasites and the economic and societal conditions present in endemic areas make the prospect of eradication unlikely in the foreseeable future. Continued and vigorous research efforts must therefore be directed at this disease, particularly since only a single World Health Organization (WHO)-approved drug is available for treatment. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Schistosomiasis Resource Center (SRC) at the Biomedical Research Institute provides investigators with the critical raw materials needed to carry out this ...


Hiv-1 Integrates Widely Throughout The Genome Of The Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma Mansoni., Sutas Suttiprapa, Gabriel Rinaldi, Isheng J Tsai, Victoria H. Mann, Larisa Dubrovsky, Hong-Bin Yan, Nancy Holroyd, Thomas Huckvale, Caroline Durrant, Anna V Protasio, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Sergey Iordanskiy, Matthew Berriman, Michael I. Bukrinsky, Paul J. Brindley 2016 George Washington University

Hiv-1 Integrates Widely Throughout The Genome Of The Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma Mansoni., Sutas Suttiprapa, Gabriel Rinaldi, Isheng J Tsai, Victoria H. Mann, Larisa Dubrovsky, Hong-Bin Yan, Nancy Holroyd, Thomas Huckvale, Caroline Durrant, Anna V Protasio, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Sergey Iordanskiy, Matthew Berriman, Michael I. Bukrinsky, Paul J. Brindley

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Schistosomiasis is the most important helminthic disease of humanity in terms of morbidity and mortality. Facile manipulation of schistosomes using lentiviruses would enable advances in functional genomics in these and related neglected tropical diseases pathogens including tapeworms, and including their non-dividing cells. Such approaches have hitherto been unavailable. Blood stream forms of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of the hepatointestinal schistosomiasis, were infected with the human HIV-1 isolate NL4-3 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. The appearance of strong stop and positive strand cDNAs indicated that virions fused to schistosome cells, the nucleocapsid internalized and the ...


Viral Zoonoses That Fly With Bats: A Review, Alfonso Calderon, Camilo Guzman, Jorge Salazar-Bravo, Luiz Tadeu Figueiredo, Salim Mattar, German Arrieta 2016 Universidad de Cordoba, Monteria, Colombia

Viral Zoonoses That Fly With Bats: A Review, Alfonso Calderon, Camilo Guzman, Jorge Salazar-Bravo, Luiz Tadeu Figueiredo, Salim Mattar, German Arrieta

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

Emerging infectious diseases are a growing threat to human health and a great challenge for global medical attention systems. Governmental agencies in tropical regions with abundant zoonotic pathogens should implement an active vigilance/monitoring model in bat reservoir populations because of their species richness, abundance and dispersal capabilities. Chiropterans represent approximately 20% of all mammal species, the second largest order in terms of number of species after rodents. Importantly, bats constitute natural reservoirs for potential infection of humans of several infectious disease agents such as Coronavirus, Filovirus, Lyssavirus, Paramyxovirus, and Flavivirus. Local disease outbreaks caused by new pathogens can expand ...


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