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Atlantic Salmon Physiological And Immune Response To Amoebic Gill Disease And Insight Into The Biology Of The Amoeba, Ottavia Benedicenti 2016 Scottish Fish Immunology Research Centre, University of Aberdeen, UK

Atlantic Salmon Physiological And Immune Response To Amoebic Gill Disease And Insight Into The Biology Of The Amoeba, Ottavia Benedicenti

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Anthelminthic Screening For Parasitic Nematodes, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Dan Lawler, Dirk Albrecht, Raffi V. Aroian 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Anthelminthic Screening For Parasitic Nematodes, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Dan Lawler, Dirk Albrecht, Raffi V. Aroian

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

For many parasitic diseases, high-throughput phenotypic screening is an important tool in finding new drugs. Some of the most important parasitic diseases are caused by nematodes. However, these parasitic nematodes are not typically amenable to high throughput screening. Due to the ease of its maintenance and suitability for high throughput assay, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is instead used. To address whether C. elegans is a good model for nematode drug discovery, we compared the drug susceptibility of C. elegans relative to the human hookworm nematode parasite Ancylostoma ceylanicum at several developmental stages using a library of FDA approved drugs. I ...


A Novel Population Of Natural Killer Cells Pplays A Critical Role In The Depletion Of Splenic B2 B Cells During Experimental Africian Trypanosomiasis, Deborah Frenkel, Samuel J. Black 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A Novel Population Of Natural Killer Cells Pplays A Critical Role In The Depletion Of Splenic B2 B Cells During Experimental Africian Trypanosomiasis, Deborah Frenkel, Samuel J. Black

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human sleeping sickness and a contributor to nagana in cattle, rapidly lose the capacity to mount VSG-specific antibody responses, and die with uncontrolled parasitemia. We have shown (Bockstal et al., 2011, PLOS Pathogens) that the loss of humoral immune competence in the infected mice results from depletion of developing and mature splenic B cells. We now report that T. brucei-induced splenic B cell depletion is dependent upon the presence of the pore forming molecule perforin which is present in the cytotoxic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer T cells and ...


Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, S. A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna Johnson 2016 Iowa State University

Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, S. A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna Johnson

Nancy Cornick

With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coli infections, were individually housed and ...


A Conserved Dna Repeat Promotes Selection Of A Diverse Repertoire Of Trypanosoma Brucei Surface Antigens From The Genomic Archive., Galadriel Hovel-Miner, Monica R. Mugnier, Benjamin Goldwater, George A. M. Cross, F. Nina Papavasiliou 2016 George Washington University

A Conserved Dna Repeat Promotes Selection Of A Diverse Repertoire Of Trypanosoma Brucei Surface Antigens From The Genomic Archive., Galadriel Hovel-Miner, Monica R. Mugnier, Benjamin Goldwater, George A. M. Cross, F. Nina Papavasiliou

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

African trypanosomes are mammalian pathogens that must regularly change their protein coat to survive in the host bloodstream. Chronic trypanosome infections are potentiated by their ability to access a deep genomic repertoire of Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) genes and switch from the expression of one VSG to another. Switching VSG expression is largely based in DNA recombination events that result in chromosome translocations between an acceptor site, which houses the actively transcribed VSG, and a donor gene, drawn from an archive of more than 2,000 silent VSGs. One element implicated in these duplicative gene conversion events is a DNA ...


Doxycycline Resistance In Plasmodium Falciparum Linked To Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In The Plasmodium Falciparum Apicoplast Small Subunit Ribosomal Rna (Pfssrrna) Gene, Amanda Wasko 2016 Dominican University of California

Doxycycline Resistance In Plasmodium Falciparum Linked To Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In The Plasmodium Falciparum Apicoplast Small Subunit Ribosomal Rna (Pfssrrna) Gene, Amanda Wasko

Scholarly and Creative Works Conference

Plasmodium falciparum, a protozoan parasite known as malaria, widely impacts human health; thus antimalarial drug investigations are critical. Doxycycline is a commonly used antimalarial prophylactic, but its mechanism of action is unclear. In prokaryotes, doxycycline works as an antibacterial by disrupting protein translation via the small subunit ribosome. Interestingly, P. falciparum has a small subunit ribosome of prokaryotic origins in the apicoplast, a plastid-like organelle. Therefore, we hypothesized that doxycycline works in P. falciparum by inhibiting protein synthesis via the small subunit ribosomal RNA and that mutations in the gene encoding the P. falciparum apicoplast small subunit ribosomal RNA (pfSSrRNA ...


The Effects Of The Fungus Beauvaria Sp. On The Cave Cricket, Hadenoecus Subterraneus, Christina N. Walker, Derrick J. Jent, Claire A. Fuller 2016 Murray State University

The Effects Of The Fungus Beauvaria Sp. On The Cave Cricket, Hadenoecus Subterraneus, Christina N. Walker, Derrick J. Jent, Claire A. Fuller

Scholars Week

The cave cricket, Hadenoecus subterraneus, is a keystone species in cave ecosystems within Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP). Within MCNP, many cricket cadavers have been found

with a thick, white fungus growing on them; this fungus has previously been identified to be Beauveria bassiana. However, new molecular data suggests that this may actually be the species B. amorpha. Cricket cadavers with Beauveria sp. were collected from MCNP and cultured on potato dextrose agar. Cultures will be sent to the USDA for a genetic analysis and identification of the fungus. The purpose of this study is to examine if the relationship ...


Identification Of An Ascaris G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor With Atypical Muscarinic Pharmacology, Michael J. Kimber, Laura Sayegh, Fouad El-Shehabi, Chuanzhe Song, Mostafa Zamanian, Debra J. Woods, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro 2016 Iowa State University

Identification Of An Ascaris G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor With Atypical Muscarinic Pharmacology, Michael J. Kimber, Laura Sayegh, Fouad El-Shehabi, Chuanzhe Song, Mostafa Zamanian, Debra J. Woods, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro

Michael J. Kimber

Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the nematode nervous system and induces its effects through interaction with both ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The structure, pharmacology and physiological importance of LGICs have been appreciably elucidated in model nematodes, including parasitic species where they are targets for anthelmintic drugs. Significantly less, however, is understood about nematode ACh GPCRs, termed GARs (G protein-linked ACh receptors). What is known comes from the free-livingCaenorhabditis elegans as no GARs have been characterized from parasitic species. Here we clone a putative GAR from the pig gastrointestinal nematode Ascaris suum with ...


Cerebral Malaria: An Unusual Case Of Central Diabetes Insipidus, Resmi Premji, Nira Roopnarinesingh, Joshua Cohen, Sabyasachi Sen 2016 George Washington University

Cerebral Malaria: An Unusual Case Of Central Diabetes Insipidus, Resmi Premji, Nira Roopnarinesingh, Joshua Cohen, Sabyasachi Sen

Medicine Faculty Publications

Central diabetes insipidus is an uncommon feature of malaria. A previously healthy 72-year-old man presented with fever, rigors, and altered mental status after a recent trip to Liberia, a country known for endemic falciparum malaria. Investigations confirmed plasmodium falciparum parasitemia. Within one week after admission, the serum sodium rose to 166 mEq/L and the urine output increased to 7 liters/day. Other labs were notable for a high serum osmolality, low urine osmolality, and low urine specific gravity. The hypernatremia did not respond to hypotonic fluids. Diabetes insipidus was suspected and parenteral desmopressin was started with a prompt decrease ...


Neuromuscular Function In Plant Parasitic Nematodes: A Target For Novel Control Strategies?, M. J. Kimber, C. C. Fleming 2016 Iowa State University

Neuromuscular Function In Plant Parasitic Nematodes: A Target For Novel Control Strategies?, M. J. Kimber, C. C. Fleming

Michael J. Kimber

Over the last decade the need for new strategies and compounds to control parasitic helminths has become increasingly urgent. The neuromuscular systems of these worms have been espoused as potential sources of target molecules for new drugs which may address this need. One facet of helminth neuromuscular biology which has garnered considerable research interest is that of neuropeptidergic neurotransmission, particularly regarding parasites of humans and animals, as well as free-living nematode model species. This research interest has been piqued by the fact that neuropeptides have been demonstrated to be fundamentally important to nematode biology and thus may be of utility ...


Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (Qsars) Of Monoterpenoids At An Expressed American Cockroach Octopamine Receptor, Aaron D. Gross, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro, Joel R. Coats 2016 Iowa State University

Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (Qsars) Of Monoterpenoids At An Expressed American Cockroach Octopamine Receptor, Aaron D. Gross, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro, Joel R. Coats

Michael J. Kimber

Monoterpenoids are found in essential oils from numerous plant families. Octopamine is a biogenic monoamine found within various invertebrates, including insects. Octopamine exerts its physiological effects through the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs are an under-utilized receptor target in the agrochemical industry. Here we report the expression of an octopamine receptor from the brain of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) inSaccharomyces cerevisiae, creating a ligand-independent histidine-auxotrophic assay. The majority of monoterpenoids acted as an inverse agonist in this system. Three QSAR models show that electronic properties are most important for monoterpenoid interaction with this octopamine receptor in this ...


Flp-32 Ligand/Receptor Silencing Phenocopy Faster Plant Pathogenic Nematodes, Louise E. Atkinson, Michael Stevenson, Ciaran J. McCoy, Nikki J. Marks, Colin Fleming, Mostafa Zamanian, Timothy A. Day, Michael J. Kimber, Aaron G. MAule, Angela Mousley 2016 Queen's University Belfast

Flp-32 Ligand/Receptor Silencing Phenocopy Faster Plant Pathogenic Nematodes, Louise E. Atkinson, Michael Stevenson, Ciaran J. Mccoy, Nikki J. Marks, Colin Fleming, Mostafa Zamanian, Timothy A. Day, Michael J. Kimber, Aaron G. Maule, Angela Mousley

Michael J. Kimber

Restrictions on nematicide usage underscore the need for novel control strategies for plant pathogenic nematodes such as Globodera pallida (potato cyst nematode) that impose a significant economic burden on plant cultivation activities. The nematode neuropeptide signalling system is an attractive resource for novel control targets as it plays a critical role in sensory and motor functions. The FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) form the largest and most diverse family of neuropeptides in invertebrates, and are structurally conserved across nematode species, highlighting the utility of the FLPergic system as a broad-spectrum control target. flp-32 is expressed widely across nematode species. This study ...


Impact Of Plasmodium Falciparum Coinfection On Longitudinal Epstein-Barr Virus Kinetics In Kenyan Children, Arnold Reynaldi, Timothy Schlub, Kiprotich Chelimo, Peter Sumba, Erwan Piriou, Sidney Ogolla, Ann Moormann, Rosemary Rochford, Miles Davenport 2016 University of New South Wales

Impact Of Plasmodium Falciparum Coinfection On Longitudinal Epstein-Barr Virus Kinetics In Kenyan Children, Arnold Reynaldi, Timothy Schlub, Kiprotich Chelimo, Peter Sumba, Erwan Piriou, Sidney Ogolla, Ann Moormann, Rosemary Rochford, Miles Davenport

Ann M. Moormann

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum coinfection, although how P. falciparum exposure affects the dynamics of EBV infection is unclear. We have used a modeling approach to study EBV infection kinetics in a longitudinal cohort of children living in regions of high and low malaria transmission in Kenya. Residence in an area of high malaria transmission was associated with a higher rate of EBV expansion during primary EBV infection in infants and during subsequent episodes of EBV DNA detection, as well as with longer episodes of EBV DNA detection and shorter intervals between subsequent ...


Laelapine Mite (Acari: Laelapidae) Morphometric Analysis Reflects Taxonomic And Geographic Clusters Of South American Oryzomyines (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae), Donald D. Gettinger, Robert D. Owen 2016 Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Laelapine Mite (Acari: Laelapidae) Morphometric Analysis Reflects Taxonomic And Geographic Clusters Of South American Oryzomyines (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae), Donald D. Gettinger, Robert D. Owen

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

Ongoing efforts to survey and inventory nonvolant small mammals across the Neotropics are beginning to reveal a highly structured and diverse fauna of rodents and marsupials. By increasing the foundation of specimens in museums around the world, it has become possible, for the first time, to evaluate and quantify the similarities and differences among small mammals collected from a broad range of geographic locali­ties, ecoregions, and habitats. Because ectoparasites were sampled in the process of collecting mammalian voucher specimens, we are able to study the laelapine mites (Acari: Laelapidae) associated with well-iden­tified and verifiable host specimens. Here, we ...


Local Parasite Lineage Sharing In Temperate Grassland Birds Provides Clues About Potential Origins Of Galapagos Avian Plasmodium, Iris I. Levin, Rachel E. Colborn, Daniel Kim, Noah G. Perlut, Rosalind B. Renfrew, Patricia G. Parker 2016 University of Missouri - St Louis

Local Parasite Lineage Sharing In Temperate Grassland Birds Provides Clues About Potential Origins Of Galapagos Avian Plasmodium, Iris I. Levin, Rachel E. Colborn, Daniel Kim, Noah G. Perlut, Rosalind B. Renfrew, Patricia G. Parker

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

Oceanic archipelagos are vulnerable to natural introduction of parasites via migratory birds. Our aim was to characterize the geographic origins of two Plasmodium parasite lineages detected in the Galapagos Islands and in North American breeding bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) that regularly stop in Galapagos during migration to their South American overwintering sites. We used samples from a grassland breeding bird assemblage in Nebraska, United States, and parasite DNA sequences from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, to compare to global data in a DNA sequence registry. Homologous DNA sequences from parasites detected in bobolinks and more sedentary birds (e.g., brown-headed cowbirds Molothrus ...


Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Salivary Cortisol And Cyathostome Infestation In Horses, Danielle L. Keating 2016 Otterbein University

Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Salivary Cortisol And Cyathostome Infestation In Horses, Danielle L. Keating

Honors Thesis Projects

With an increase in anthelmintic resistance and decreased efficacy of many commercial dewormers, understanding factors that contribute to parasite infestations in horses is integral to their management. The goal of this study was to look at the potential relationship between parasites and stress response by evaluating salivary cortisol levels and cyathostome egg shedding levels. Using a sample size of n = 200 horses from the state of Ohio, fecal and saliva samples were collected from each horse. Fecal egg counts were performed for each horse with a modified Stoll method, and saliva samples were tested with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ...


Endohelminth Parasites Of Some Midwater And Benthopelagic Stomiiform Fishes From The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Michael J. Andres, Mark S. Peterson, Robin M. Overstreet 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Endohelminth Parasites Of Some Midwater And Benthopelagic Stomiiform Fishes From The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Michael J. Andres, Mark S. Peterson, Robin M. Overstreet

Gulf and Caribbean Research

: Mesopelagic fishes represent significant ecological links between mesozooplankton and the larger pelagic squids, fishes, and marine mammals. As such, these fishes also play a significant role as intermediate or paratenic hosts for parasites that require a crustacean intermediate host and mature in marine mammals or pelagic fishes. We examined a total of 208 individuals representing 5 species of Sternoptychidae and 88 individuals representing 2 species of Phosichthyidae from 20 locations in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM). Six of the 7 species we examined are mesopelagic and one species was benthopelagic. We found the larval stages of Anisakis brevispiculata, A ...


Modeling The Geographic Distribution Of Ixodes Scapularis And Ixodes Pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) In The Contiguous United States, Micah B. Hahn, Catherine S. Jarnevich, Andrew J. Monaghan, Rebecca J. Eisen 2016 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO

Modeling The Geographic Distribution Of Ixodes Scapularis And Ixodes Pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) In The Contiguous United States, Micah B. Hahn, Catherine S. Jarnevich, Andrew J. Monaghan, Rebecca J. Eisen

Entomology Papers from Other Sources

In addition to serving as vectors of several other human pathogens, the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls, are the primary vectors of the spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) that causes Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Over the past two decades, the geographic range of I. pacificus has changed modestly while, in contrast, the I. scapularis range has expanded substantially, which likely contributes to the concurrent expansion in the distribution of human Lyme disease cases in the Northeastern, North-Central and Mid-Atlantic states. Identifying counties that contain suitable habitat ...


Evaluating The Relationship Between Free-Living Biodiversity And Disease Risk Using Experimental Manipulations: An Example From Freshwater Ponds Of California, Margaret R. Summerside 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Evaluating The Relationship Between Free-Living Biodiversity And Disease Risk Using Experimental Manipulations: An Example From Freshwater Ponds Of California, Margaret R. Summerside

Undergraduate Honors Theses

How changes in biodiversity affect infectious diseases remains largely unknown. As biodiversity on Earth continues to change, due both to invasive species introductions and native species losses, understanding this relationship will become increasingly important in the study of disease outbreak. Trematodes, which are parasitic flatworms with complex life cycles, offer a useful system in which to study the effects of change in biodiversity on rates of disease prevalence. Here, we used a field experiment to evaluate the effects of change in bird diversity and abundance on patterns of infections by trematode in California freshwater ecosystems. We deployed large-scale environmental manipulations ...


Dynamical Features Of The Plasmodium Falciparum Ribosome During Translation, Ming Sun, Wen Li, Karin Blomqvist, Sanchaita Das, Yaser Hashem, Jeffrey D. Dvorin, Joachim Frank 2015 Columbia University

Dynamical Features Of The Plasmodium Falciparum Ribosome During Translation, Ming Sun, Wen Li, Karin Blomqvist, Sanchaita Das, Yaser Hashem, Jeffrey D. Dvorin, Joachim Frank

Open Access Articles

Plasmodium falciparum, the mosquito-transmitted Apicomplexan parasite, causes the most severe form of human malaria. In the asexual blood-stage, the parasite resides within erythrocytes where it proliferates, multiplies and finally spreads to new erythrocytes. Development of drugs targeting the ribosome, the site of protein synthesis, requires specific knowledge of its structure and work cycle, and, critically, the ways they differ from those in the human host. Here, we present five cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstructions of ribosomes purified from P. falciparum blood-stage schizonts at sub-nanometer resolution. Atomic models were built from these density maps by flexible fitting. Significantly, our study has taken ...


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