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Assesment Of Antibiotic Resistant Gene Expression In Clinical Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Dustin Esmond 2021 University of Texas at Tyler

Assesment Of Antibiotic Resistant Gene Expression In Clinical Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Dustin Esmond

Biology Theses

Increasing prevalence of nosocomial infections by antimicrobial resistant pathogens resulting in higher mortality rates and financial burden is of great concern. Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents one of six highly virulent “ESKAPE” pathogens that exhibit considerable intrinsic drug resistance as well as mechanisms for acquiring further resistance. As many of these mechanisms are regulated through gene expression, we sought to identify regulatory strategies and patterns at play in 23 clinical isolates collected from Baku, Azerbaijan and Tyler, Texas, USA. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on six gene targets implicated in resistance and contrasted with antibiotic phenotypes. We found AmpC cephalosporinase ...


Humoral And Cell-Mediated Immune Response In Colostrum From Women Diagnosed Positive For Sars-Cov-2, Vignesh Narayanaswamy, Brian Pentecost, Dominique Alfandari, Emily Chin, Kathleen Minor, Alyssa Kastrinakis, Tanya Lieberman, Kathleen F. Arcaro, Heidi Leftwich 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Humoral And Cell-Mediated Immune Response In Colostrum From Women Diagnosed Positive For Sars-Cov-2, Vignesh Narayanaswamy, Brian Pentecost, Dominique Alfandari, Emily Chin, Kathleen Minor, Alyssa Kastrinakis, Tanya Lieberman, Kathleen F. Arcaro, Heidi Leftwich

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Objective: To evaluate the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in colostrum from women who tested positive for the virus.

Methods: Between March and September 2020 we obtained bilateral colostrum samples collected on spot cards within 48 hours of delivery from 15 new mothers who had previously tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Four of 15 women provided liquid colostrum, which was used for validating results obtained from spot cards. Archived bilateral colostrum samples collected from 8 women during 2011-2013 were used as pre-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) controls. All samples were tested for reactivity to the receptor binding ...


Affinity Maturation Of Sars-Cov-2 Neutralizing Antibodies Confers Potency, Breadth, And Resilience To Viral Escape Mutations, Frauke Muecksch, Shurong Hou, Celia A. Schiffer, Michel C. Nussenzweig, Pamela J. Bjorkman, Theodora Hatziioannou, Paul D. Bieniasz 2021 Rockefeller University

Affinity Maturation Of Sars-Cov-2 Neutralizing Antibodies Confers Potency, Breadth, And Resilience To Viral Escape Mutations, Frauke Muecksch, Shurong Hou, Celia A. Schiffer, Michel C. Nussenzweig, Pamela J. Bjorkman, Theodora Hatziioannou, Paul D. Bieniasz

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Antibodies elicited by infection accumulate somatic mutations in germinal centers that can increase affinity for cognate antigens. We analyzed 6 independent groups of clonally related severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific antibodies from 5 individuals shortly after infection and later in convalescence to determine the impact of maturation over months. In addition to increased affinity and neutralization potency, antibody evolution changed the mutational pathways for the acquisition of viral resistance and restricted neutralization escape options. For some antibodies, maturation imposed a requirement for multiple substitutions to enable escape. For certain antibodies, affinity maturation enabled the neutralization ...


Rsv-Induced Guillain–Barré Syndrome, Priyanga Jayakumar, Christe Shen, Dylan Goldsmith, Steven Lippmann 2021 University of Louisville

Rsv-Induced Guillain–Barré Syndrome, Priyanga Jayakumar, Christe Shen, Dylan Goldsmith, Steven Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

A patient with respiratory syncytial virus-induced Guillain–Barré Syndrome and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is presented. This virus is the most common cause of upper respiratory infections, and it can become an etiology for extra-pulmonary pathology with serious complications. Such a case is rare, but the possibility of adverse comorbidities makes early diagnosis and treatment important.


High-Throughput Human Primary Cell-Based Airway Model For Evaluating Influenza, Coronavirus, Or Other Respiratory Viruses In Vitro, A. L. Gard, Ping Liu, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, J. T. Borenstein 2021 Draper

High-Throughput Human Primary Cell-Based Airway Model For Evaluating Influenza, Coronavirus, Or Other Respiratory Viruses In Vitro, A. L. Gard, Ping Liu, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, J. T. Borenstein

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Influenza and other respiratory viruses present a significant threat to public health, national security, and the world economy, and can lead to the emergence of global pandemics such as from COVID-19. A barrier to the development of effective therapeutics is the absence of a robust and predictive preclinical model, with most studies relying on a combination of in vitro screening with immortalized cell lines and low-throughput animal models. Here, we integrate human primary airway epithelial cells into a custom-engineered 96-device platform (PREDICT96-ALI) in which tissues are cultured in an array of microchannel-based culture chambers at an air-liquid interface, in a ...


High Seroprevalence Of Anti-Sars-Cov-2 Antibodies Among Ethiopian Healthcare Workers [Preprint], Tesfaye Gelanew, Jote T. Bulcha, Fikadu G. Tafesse, Alemseged Abdissa 2021 Armauer Hansen Research Institute

High Seroprevalence Of Anti-Sars-Cov-2 Antibodies Among Ethiopian Healthcare Workers [Preprint], Tesfaye Gelanew, Jote T. Bulcha, Fikadu G. Tafesse, Alemseged Abdissa

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Background COVID-19 pandemic has a devastating impact on the economies and health care system of sub-Saharan Africa. Healthcare workers (HWs), the main actors of the health system, are at higher-risk because of their occupation. Serology-based estimates of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HWs represent a measure of HWs’ exposure to the virus and a guide to the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the community. This information is currently lacking in Ethiopia and other African countries. This study aimed to develop an in-house antibody testing assay, assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among Ethiopian high-risk frontline HWs.

Methods and findings A cross-sectional seroprevalence study ...


Lessons From A Local Effort To Screen For Sars-Cov-2, Noah J. Silverstein, Jeremy Luban 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Lessons From A Local Effort To Screen For Sars-Cov-2, Noah J. Silverstein, Jeremy Luban

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

It is breathtaking to consider how the response to pandemic viral pathogens has been transformed over the past century by greater knowledge of fundamental biology and technological innovations including PCR and next-generation sequencing. In striking contrast to the current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, the pathogen responsible for the 1918 influenza pandemic was not identified until years after the outbreak. The definitive text in 1927 described influenza as “an epidemiologic conception” likely caused by the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae. Six decades later, HIV-1 was discovered within a few years of the first report of AIDS, although it took ...


Prophylactic Phage Therapy In Infant Rabbits Model Of Cholera, sadeq AG Kaabi Asst Prof Dr 2021 Mustansiriyah University - College of Science- Biology Dept.

Prophylactic Phage Therapy In Infant Rabbits Model Of Cholera, Sadeq Ag Kaabi Asst Prof Dr

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

A number of 8 phages lytic of V. cholerae O1- biotype-EI-Tor, serotype Inaba were selected for the formulation of a phage cocktail. A phage cocktail composed of 8 phages was prepared and showed 100% inhibition of V. cholerae isolates comparing with a percentage ranged from 0-75% for every single phage in growth inhibition assay. The potential activity of phage cocktail of prophylactic therapy for infant rabbits model of cholera was evaluated through phage retention time and length of phage prophylaxis studies. Results have been showed that phage cocktail was potent in the prevention of development of cholera in infant rabbits ...


High-Affinity, Neutralizing Antibodies To Sars-Cov-2 Can Be Made In The Absence Of T Follicular Helper Cells [Preprint], Jennifer S. Chen, Gowthaman Uthaman, Craig B. Wilen, Yale University 2021 Yale University

High-Affinity, Neutralizing Antibodies To Sars-Cov-2 Can Be Made In The Absence Of T Follicular Helper Cells [Preprint], Jennifer S. Chen, Gowthaman Uthaman, Craig B. Wilen, Yale University

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are the conventional drivers of protective, germinal center (GC)-based antiviral antibody responses. However, loss of Tfh cells and GCs has been observed in patients with severe COVID-19. As T cell-B cell interactions and immunoglobulin class switching still occur in these patients, non-canonical pathways of antibody production may be operative during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that both Tfh-dependent and -independent antibodies were induced against SARS-CoV-2 as well as influenza A virus. Tfh-independent responses were mediated by a population we call lymph node (LN)-Th1 cells, which remain in the LN and interact with B cells ...


Report Of The National Institutes Of Health Sars-Cov-2 Antiviral Therapeutics Summit, Matthew D. Hall, James M. Anderson, Celia A. Schiffer, Anthony J. Conley, Mindy I. Davis 2021 National Institutes of Health

Report Of The National Institutes Of Health Sars-Cov-2 Antiviral Therapeutics Summit, Matthew D. Hall, James M. Anderson, Celia A. Schiffer, Anthony J. Conley, Mindy I. Davis

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

The NIH Virtual SARS-CoV-2 Antiviral Summit, held on November 6, 2020, was organized to provide an overview on the status and challenges in developing antiviral therapeutics for COVID-19, including combinations of antivirals. Scientific experts from the public and private sectors convened virtually during a live videocast to discuss SARS-CoV-2 targets for drug discovery as well as the preclinical tools needed to develop and evaluate effective small molecule antivirals. The goals of the Summit were to review the current state of the science, identify unmet research needs, share insights and lessons learned from treating other infectious diseases, identify opportunities for public-private ...


Clarification Of Human Blood Ilc Subtype Interrelatedness And Discovery Of Amphiregulin Production By Human Nk Cells Shed Light On Hiv-1 Pathogenesis [Preprint], Yetao Wang, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Noah J. Silverstein, Esther Mintzer, Kevin Luk, Pamela St. Louis, Michael A. Brehm, Scot A. Wolfe, Steven G. Deeks, Jeremy Luban 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Clarification Of Human Blood Ilc Subtype Interrelatedness And Discovery Of Amphiregulin Production By Human Nk Cells Shed Light On Hiv-1 Pathogenesis [Preprint], Yetao Wang, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Noah J. Silverstein, Esther Mintzer, Kevin Luk, Pamela St. Louis, Michael A. Brehm, Scot A. Wolfe, Steven G. Deeks, Jeremy Luban

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Human blood innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which include ILCs and natural killer (NK) cells, derive from a common CD117+ILC precursor (ILCP). Yet, the relationship among the ILC subsets remains unclear. Bulk and single cell RNA-Seq and ATAC-Seq showed that blood ILC subsets cluster into ILC2s, ILCPs, a mixed cluster of CD56dim and CD56 NK cells, and a separate cluster of CD56hiNK cells that share features with both ILCs and CD56dimNK cells. In surprising contrast to mice, tissue repair protein amphiregulin was produced by human NK cells, with higher levels in CD56hiNK cells ...


Association Of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors With Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma In Kenyan Children, Beatrice M. Muriuki, Catherine Forconi, Peter O. Oluoch, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Anita Ghansah, Ann M. Moormann, John M. Ong'echa 2021 University of Ghana

Association Of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors With Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma In Kenyan Children, Beatrice M. Muriuki, Catherine Forconi, Peter O. Oluoch, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Anita Ghansah, Ann M. Moormann, John M. Ong'echa

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is an aggressive pediatric B cell lymphoma, common in Equatorial Africa. Co-infections with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum, coupled with c-myc translocation are involved in eBL etiology. Infection-induced immune evasion mechanisms to avoid T cell cytotoxicity may increase the role of Natural killer (NK) cells in anti-tumor immunosurveillance. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes on NK cells exhibit genotypic and allelic variations and are associated with susceptibility to diseases and malignancies. However, their role in eBL pathogenesis remains undefined. This retrospective study genotyped sixteen KIR genes and compared their frequencies in eBL patients (n = 104) and ...


Non-Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting The Immunogenic Regions Of Hiv-1 Envelope Reduce Mucosal Infection And Virus Burden In Humanized Mice [Preprint], Catarina E. Hioe, Guangnan Hu, Shixia Wang, Shan Lu 2021 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Non-Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting The Immunogenic Regions Of Hiv-1 Envelope Reduce Mucosal Infection And Virus Burden In Humanized Mice [Preprint], Catarina E. Hioe, Guangnan Hu, Shixia Wang, Shan Lu

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Antibodies are principal immune components elicited by vaccines to induce protection from microbial pathogens. In the Thai RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial, vaccine efficacy was 31% and the sole primary correlate of reduced risk was shown to be vigorous antibody response targeting the V1V2 region of HIV-1 envelope. Antibodies against V3 also were inversely correlated with infection risk in subsets of vaccinees. Antibodies recognizing these regions, however, do not exhibit potent neutralizing activity. Therefore, we examined the antiviral potential of poorly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against immunodominant V1V2 and V3 sites by passive administration of human mAbs to humanized mice engrafted ...


A Diamidobenzimidazole Sting Agonist Protects Against Sars-Cov-2 Infection, Fiachra Humphries, Liraz Shmuel-Galia, Zhaozhao Jiang, Ruth Wilson, Philip Landis, Sze-Ling Ng, Krishna M. Parsi, Rene Maehr, John Cruz, Angel Morales-Ramos, Joshi M. Ramanjulu, John Bertin, G. Scott Pesiridis, Katherine A. Fitzgerald 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Diamidobenzimidazole Sting Agonist Protects Against Sars-Cov-2 Infection, Fiachra Humphries, Liraz Shmuel-Galia, Zhaozhao Jiang, Ruth Wilson, Philip Landis, Sze-Ling Ng, Krishna M. Parsi, Rene Maehr, John Cruz, Angel Morales-Ramos, Joshi M. Ramanjulu, John Bertin, G. Scott Pesiridis, Katherine A. Fitzgerald

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Coronaviruses are a family of RNA viruses that cause acute and chronic diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract in humans and other animals. SARS-CoV-2 is a recently emerged coronavirus that has led to a global pandemic causing a severe respiratory disease known as COVID-19 with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development of antiviral therapeutics are urgently needed while vaccine programs roll out worldwide. Here we describe a diamidobenzimidazole compound, diABZI-4, that activates STING and is highly effective in limiting SARS-CoV-2 replication in cells and animals. diABZI-4 inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung epithelial cells. Administration of diABZI-4 intranasally ...


Tissue-Resident-Like Cd4+ T Cells Secreting Il-17 Control Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In The Human Lung, Paul Ogongo, Liku B. Tezera, Amanda Ardain, Shepherd Nhamoyebonde, Duran Ramsuran, Alveera Singh, Abigail Ng'oepe, Farina Karim, Taryn Naidoo, Khadija Khan, Kaylesh J. Dullabh, Michael Fehlings, Boon Heng. Lee, Alessandra Nardin, Cecilia S. Lindestam Arlehamn, Alessandro Sette, Samuel M. Behar, Adrie Jc. Steyn, Rajhmun Madansein, Henrik N. Kloverpris, Paul T. Elkington, Alasdair Leslie 2021 University of KwaZulu-Natal

Tissue-Resident-Like Cd4+ T Cells Secreting Il-17 Control Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In The Human Lung, Paul Ogongo, Liku B. Tezera, Amanda Ardain, Shepherd Nhamoyebonde, Duran Ramsuran, Alveera Singh, Abigail Ng'oepe, Farina Karim, Taryn Naidoo, Khadija Khan, Kaylesh J. Dullabh, Michael Fehlings, Boon Heng. Lee, Alessandra Nardin, Cecilia S. Lindestam Arlehamn, Alessandro Sette, Samuel M. Behar, Adrie Jc. Steyn, Rajhmun Madansein, Henrik N. Kloverpris, Paul T. Elkington, Alasdair Leslie

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

T cell immunity is essential for the control of tuberculosis (TB), an important disease of the lung, and is generally studied in humans using peripheral blood cells. Mounting evidence, however, indicates that tissue-resident memory T cells (Trms) are superior at controlling many pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), and can be quite different from those in circulation. Using freshly resected lung tissue, from individuals with active or previous TB, we identified distinct CD4+ and CD8+ Trm-like clusters within TB-diseased lung tissue that were functional and enriched for IL-17-producing cells. M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells producing TNF-alpha, IL-2, and IL-17 were ...


Nhr-49/Ppar-Alpha And Hlh-30/Tfeb Cooperate For C. Elegans Host Defense Via A Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase, Khursheed A. Wani, Debanjan Goswamy, Stefan Taubert, Ramesh Ratnappan, Arjumand Ghazi, Javier E. Irazoqui 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Nhr-49/Ppar-Alpha And Hlh-30/Tfeb Cooperate For C. Elegans Host Defense Via A Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase, Khursheed A. Wani, Debanjan Goswamy, Stefan Taubert, Ramesh Ratnappan, Arjumand Ghazi, Javier E. Irazoqui

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans mounts transcriptional defense responses against intestinal bacterial infections that elicit overlapping starvation and infection responses, the regulation of which is not well understood. Direct comparison of C. elegans that were starved or infected with Staphylococcus aureus revealed a large infection-specific transcriptional signature, which was almost completely abrogated by deletion of transcription factor hlh-30/TFEB, except for six genes including a flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) gene, fmo-2/FMO5. Deletion of fmo-2/FMO5 severely compromised infection survival, thus identifying the first FMO with innate immunity functions in animals. Moreover, fmo-2/FMO5 induction required the nuclear hormone receptor, NHR-49 ...


Perspectives On Covid, Glenn Bass 2021 Liberty University

Perspectives On Covid, Glenn Bass

CULTURE & CRISIS: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis

The purpose of this paper is to delve further into the topic of Culture & Crisis: Reconciling Constitutionalism & Federalism in a Time of Crisis through Liberty University’s Helms School of Government & Journal of Statesmanship & Public Policy. The United States of America is currently under siege by the COVID-19 virus. This virus has steadily killed hundreds of individuals and consequently nearly shutdown the American socio-economic system. Through a constitutional government and federal principles, the executive functions have been able to address this time of crisis. However, there are different views referencing exactly how to address the needs of our nation during this time of crisis. This threat to public health is perceived differently by the Republican and Democratic parties. Democrats have been viewed as trying to present the severity of the situation, in terms of health, finances, and safety. The Republicans are viewed as presenting information that does not demonstrate such a severity of the situation; however, they do understand the perceived threats which have invoked several governmental functions (e.g., relief funds, unemployment insurance). These views can be skewed, as Republicans and Democrats, as they live in different counties which have been impacted differently by the COVID-19 virus. Tensions have been on the rise due to this phenomenon which can be handled efficiently through the execution of deliberative constitutionalism. These issues and more will be discussed further.


Vectored Immunotherapeutics For Infectious Diseases: Can Raavs Be The Game Changers For Fighting Transmissible Pathogens?, Wei Zhan, Manish Muhuri, Phillip W. L. Tai, Guangping Gao 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Vectored Immunotherapeutics For Infectious Diseases: Can Raavs Be The Game Changers For Fighting Transmissible Pathogens?, Wei Zhan, Manish Muhuri, Phillip W. L. Tai, Guangping Gao

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Conventional vaccinations and immunotherapies have encountered major roadblocks in preventing infectious diseases like HIV, influenza, and malaria. These challenges are due to the high genomic variation and immunomodulatory mechanisms inherent to these diseases. Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing antibodies may offer partial protection, but these treatments require repeated dosing. Some recombinant viral vectors, such as those based on lentiviruses and adeno-associated viruses (AAVs), can confer long-term transgene expression in the host after a single dose. Particularly, recombinant (r)AAVs have emerged as favorable vectors, given their high in vivo transduction efficiency, proven clinical efficacy, and low immunogenicity profiles. Hence, rAAVs ...


Robust Igm Responses Following Vaccination Are Associated With Prevention Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection In Macaques [Preprint], Edward B. Irvine, Wenjun Li, Sarah Fortune, Galit Alter 2021 Harvard University

Robust Igm Responses Following Vaccination Are Associated With Prevention Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection In Macaques [Preprint], Edward B. Irvine, Wenjun Li, Sarah Fortune, Galit Alter

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Development of an effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccine has suffered from an incomplete understanding of the correlates of protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, recent work has shown that compared to standard intradermal Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, intravenous (IV) BCG vaccination provides nearly complete protection against TB in rhesus macaques. While studies have focused on cellular immunity in this setting, the antibody response elicited by IV BCG vaccination remains incompletely defined. Using an agnostic antibody profiling approach, here we show that IV BCG drives superior antibody responses in the plasma and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). While IV BCG immunization resulted ...


Kshv Infection Drives Poorly Cytotoxic Cd56-Negative Natural Killer Cell Differentiation In Vivo Upon Kshv/Ebv Dual Infection, Nicole Caduff, Donal McHugh, Lisa Rieble, Catherine Forconi, John M. Ong'echa, Peter O. Oluoch, Ana Raykova, Anita Murer, Michelle Boni, Lara Zuppiger, Thomas F. Schulz, David J. Blackbourn, Obinna Chijioke, Ann M. Moormann, Christian Munz 2021 University of Zurich

Kshv Infection Drives Poorly Cytotoxic Cd56-Negative Natural Killer Cell Differentiation In Vivo Upon Kshv/Ebv Dual Infection, Nicole Caduff, Donal Mchugh, Lisa Rieble, Catherine Forconi, John M. Ong'echa, Peter O. Oluoch, Ana Raykova, Anita Murer, Michelle Boni, Lara Zuppiger, Thomas F. Schulz, David J. Blackbourn, Obinna Chijioke, Ann M. Moormann, Christian Munz

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Herpesvirus infections shape the human natural killer (NK) cell compartment. While Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) expands immature NKG2A(+) NK cells, human cytomegalovirus (CMV) drives accumulation of adaptive NKG2C(+) NK cells. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a close relative of EBV, and both are associated with lymphomas, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which nearly always harbors both viruses. In this study, KSHV dual infection of mice with reconstituted human immune system components leads to the accumulation of CD56(-)CD16(+)CD38(+)CXCR6(+) NK cells. CD56(-)CD16(+) NK cells were also more frequently found in KSHV-seropositive Kenyan children. This NK cell subset is poorly ...


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