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Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty 2018 Nazareth College of Rochester

Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty

#History: A Journal of Student Research

At its peak, Roman Empire controlled over two million square miles of territory. To conquer and control that much land, Rome produced a highly skilled army. Casualties and deaths were to be expected, but ancient medical sources about caring for the wounded in the Roman army point to treatments considered advanced for the time period. Galen of Pergamum was an important contributor to this field. The use of food products and natural resources helped combat infections, healing the wounded soldiers and returning them to their military units. This paper identifies and analyzes what those specific products for wound care were ...


Investigation Into The Causes And Severity Of The 1918 Influenza Pandemic, Alex T. Freedenberg 2018 St. John Fisher College

Investigation Into The Causes And Severity Of The 1918 Influenza Pandemic, Alex T. Freedenberg

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

The 1918 Influenza outbreak is regarded as one of the worst pandemics in human history due to its widespread effects across the globe and its high death rate. This death rate was unusual among influenza infections as most strains do not cause the amount of death that is seen in this outbreak, with 20 million dead as a conservative estimate and 100 million by other estimations. This pandemic was not very well contained for a plethora of reasons. Two main reasons are that it came at a time when understanding viral mechanics still escaped medical professionals, and due to the ...


Genotype-Specific Insertion Of Cytotoxic Genetic Elements Into Cancer Cells, Ryan Englander 2018 University of Connecticut

Genotype-Specific Insertion Of Cytotoxic Genetic Elements Into Cancer Cells, Ryan Englander

University Scholar Projects

The new gene editing system CRISPR/Cas9, composed of a complex composed of a guide RNA and the Cas9 endonuclease, promises to revolutionize biological research and potentially allow clinicians to directly modify patient DNA in vivo. While its applications in the treatment of genetic diseases and in modifying immune cells for immunotherapy are currently being explored, CRISPR/Cas9’s potential utility as a modular system for targeting tumor-specific mutated sequences has not as of yet been explored. While CRISPR/Cas9 is specific enough to target small insertions and deletions or gross chromosomal rearrangements, it is not specific enough to reliably ...


Increasing Resistance To Azithromycin In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae In Eastern Chinese Cities: Resistance Mechanisms And Genetic Diversity Among Isolates From Nanjing, Chuan Wan, Yang Li, Wen-Jing Le, Yu-Rong Liu, Sai Li, Bao-Xi Wang, Peter A. Rice, Xiao-Hong Su 2018 Peking Union Medical College

Increasing Resistance To Azithromycin In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae In Eastern Chinese Cities: Resistance Mechanisms And Genetic Diversity Among Isolates From Nanjing, Chuan Wan, Yang Li, Wen-Jing Le, Yu-Rong Liu, Sai Li, Bao-Xi Wang, Peter A. Rice, Xiao-Hong Su

Open Access Articles

Azithromycin resistance (AZM-R) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is emerging as a clinical and public health challenge. We determined molecular characteristics of recent AZM-R Nanjing gonococcal isolates and tracked the emergence of AZM-R isolates in eastern Chinese cities in recent years. A total of 384 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Nanjing collected from 2013 to 2014 were tested for susceptibility to AZM and six additional antibiotics; all AZM-R strains were characterized genetically for resistance determinants by sequencing and were genotyped using N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Among the 384 isolates, 124 (32.3%) were AZM-R. High-level resistance (MIC, > /=256 mg/liter) was ...


A Novel Sialylation Site On Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide Links Heptose Ii Lactose Expression With Pathogenicity, Sanjay Ram, Sunita Gulati, Lisa A. Lewis, Srinjoy Chakraborti, Bo Zheng, Rosane B. de Oliveira, George W. Reed, Andrew D. Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St. Michael, Jacek Stupak, Xiao-Hong Su, Sudeshna Saha, Corinna S. Landig, Ajit Varki, Peter A. Rice 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Novel Sialylation Site On Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide Links Heptose Ii Lactose Expression With Pathogenicity, Sanjay Ram, Sunita Gulati, Lisa A. Lewis, Srinjoy Chakraborti, Bo Zheng, Rosane B. De Oliveira, George W. Reed, Andrew D. Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St. Michael, Jacek Stupak, Xiao-Hong Su, Sudeshna Saha, Corinna S. Landig, Ajit Varki, Peter A. Rice

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Sialylation of lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) extending from heptose I (HepI) of gonococcal lipooligosaccharide (LOS) contributes to pathogenesis. Previously, gonococcal LOS sialyltransterase (Lst) was shown to sialylate LOS in Triton X-100 extracts of strain 15253, which expresses lactose from both HepI and HepII, the minimal structure required for mAb 2C7 binding. Ongoing work has shown that growth of 15253 in cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac)-containing media enables binding to CD33/Siglec-3, a cell surface receptor that binds sialic acid, suggesting that lactose termini on LOS of intact gonococci can be sialylated. Neu5Ac was detected on LOSs of strains 15253 and a MS11 ...


Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. McCauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. Mccauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

HIV-1-infected people who take drugs that suppress viremia to undetectable levels are protected from developing AIDS. Nonetheless, these individuals have chronic inflammation associated with heightened risk of cardiovascular pathology. HIV-1 establishes proviruses in long-lived CD4+ memory T cells, and perhaps other cell types, that preclude elimination of the virus even after years of continuous antiviral therapy. Though the majority of proviruses that persist during antiviral therapy are defective for production of infectious virions, many are expressed, raising the possibility that the HIV-1 provirus or its transcripts contribute to ongoing inflammation. Here we found that the HIV-1 provirus activated innate immune ...


Primate Immunodeficiency Virus Vpx And Vpr Counteract Transcriptional Repression Of Proviruses By The Hush Complex, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, Mehmet Hakan Guney, Kyusik Kim, Shih Lin Goh, Sean M. McCauley, Ann Dauphin, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Primate Immunodeficiency Virus Vpx And Vpr Counteract Transcriptional Repression Of Proviruses By The Hush Complex, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, Mehmet Hakan Guney, Kyusik Kim, Shih Lin Goh, Sean M. Mccauley, Ann Dauphin, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Drugs that inhibit HIV-1 replication and prevent progression to AIDS do not eliminate HIV-1 proviruses from the chromosomes of long-lived CD4+ memory T cells. To escape eradication by these antiviral drugs, or by the host immune system, HIV-1 exploits poorly defined host factors that silence provirus transcription. These same factors, though, must be overcome by all retroviruses, including HIV-1 and other primate immunodeficiency viruses, in order to activate provirus transcription and produce new virus. Here we show that Vpx and Vpr, proteins from a wide range of primate immunodeficiency viruses, activate provirus transcription in human CD4+ T cells. Provirus activation ...


Pathogen Recognition By Cd4 Effectors Drives Key Effector And Most Memory Cell Generation Against Respiratory Virus, Priyadharshini Devarajan, Michael C. Jones, Olivia Kugler-Umana, Allen M. Vong, Jingya Xia, Susan L. Swain 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Pathogen Recognition By Cd4 Effectors Drives Key Effector And Most Memory Cell Generation Against Respiratory Virus, Priyadharshini Devarajan, Michael C. Jones, Olivia Kugler-Umana, Allen M. Vong, Jingya Xia, Susan L. Swain

Open Access Articles

Although much is known about the mechanisms by which pathogen recognition drives the initiation of T cell responses, including those to respiratory viruses, the role of pathogen recognition in fate decisions of T cells once they have become effectors remains poorly defined. Here, we review our recent studies that suggest that the generation of CD4 T cell memory is determined by recognition of virus at an effector "checkpoint." We propose this is also true of more highly differentiated tissue-restricted effector cells, including cytotoxic "ThCTL" in the site of infection and TFH in secondary lymphoid organs. We point out that ThCTL ...


Down-Regulation Of Microrna-203-3p Initiates Type 2 Pathology During Schistosome Infection Via Elevation Of Interleukin-33, Xing He, Jun Xie, Yange Wang, Xiaobin Fan, Qin Su, Yue Sun, Nanhang Lei, Dongmei Zhang, Guangping Gao, Weiqing Pan 2018 Second Military Medical University

Down-Regulation Of Microrna-203-3p Initiates Type 2 Pathology During Schistosome Infection Via Elevation Of Interleukin-33, Xing He, Jun Xie, Yange Wang, Xiaobin Fan, Qin Su, Yue Sun, Nanhang Lei, Dongmei Zhang, Guangping Gao, Weiqing Pan

Open Access Articles

The type 2 immune response is the central mechanism of disease progression in schistosomiasis, but the signals that induce it after infection remain elusive. Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression is a hallmark of human diseases including schistosomiasis, and targeting the deregulated miRNA can mitigate disease outcomes. Here, we demonstrate that efficient and sustained elevation of miR-203-3p in liver tissues, using the highly hepatotropic recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (rAAV8), protects mice against lethal schistosome infection by alleviating hepatic fibrosis. We show that miR-203-3p targets interleukin-33 (IL-33), an inducer of type 2 immunity, in hepatic stellate cells to regulate the expansion and ...


Use Of Elispot Assay To Study Hbs-Specific B Cell Responses In Vaccinated And Hbv Infected Humans, Chen Tian, Yuxin Chen, Yong Liu, Shixia Wang, Yang Li, Guiyang Wang, Juan Xia, Xiang-An Zhao, Rui Huang, Shan Lu, Chao Wu 2018 Nanjing University

Use Of Elispot Assay To Study Hbs-Specific B Cell Responses In Vaccinated And Hbv Infected Humans, Chen Tian, Yuxin Chen, Yong Liu, Shixia Wang, Yang Li, Guiyang Wang, Juan Xia, Xiang-An Zhao, Rui Huang, Shan Lu, Chao Wu

Open Access Articles

Hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) plays a critical role in protecting against infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and were extensively studied in literature. At the same time, the status of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs)-specific B cells in both vaccinated and HBV infected people received limited attention. In the current study, we adopted a highly specific B-cell Enzyme Linked ImmunoSpot (ELISpot) assay to analyze HBs-specific B cells in various clinical settings: healthy individuals with the history of HBV vaccination before and after receiving an extra HBV vaccine boost, people chronically infected with HBV (CHB) in various clinical stages ...


The Major Histocompatibility Complex In Song Sparrows: Immunity, Signals, And Mate Choice, Joel W.G. Slade 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Major Histocompatibility Complex In Song Sparrows: Immunity, Signals, And Mate Choice, Joel W.G. Slade

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In recent years, sexual selection theory has redefined genetic quality to consider not only additive genetic effects on fitness but also non-additive genetic effects, such as heterozygote advantage or disadvantage. In jawed vertebrates, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene family has been shown to exhibit both additive and non-additive genetic effects on fitness. MHC gene products are involved in initiating adaptive immune responses, and MHC genotype determines the range of pathogens to which an individual can respond. Therefore, parasite-mediated selection at MHC may favour locally-adapted, rare, or particular combination of alleles. Because heterozygote advantage at MHC is widespread, sexual selection ...


A Long Cytoplasmic Loop Governs The Sensitivity Of The Anti-Viral Host Protein Serinc5 To Hiv-1 Nef, Weiwei Dai, Yoshiko Usami, Yuanfei Wu, Heinrich G. Gottlinger 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Long Cytoplasmic Loop Governs The Sensitivity Of The Anti-Viral Host Protein Serinc5 To Hiv-1 Nef, Weiwei Dai, Yoshiko Usami, Yuanfei Wu, Heinrich G. Gottlinger

Open Access Articles

We recently identified the multipass transmembrane protein SERINC5 as an antiviral protein that can potently inhibit HIV-1 infectivity and is counteracted by HIV-1 Nef. We now report that the anti-HIV-1 activity, but not the sensitivity to Nef, is conserved among vertebrate SERINC5 proteins. However, a Nef-resistant SERINC5 became Nef sensitive when its intracellular loop 4 (ICL4) was replaced by that of Nef-sensitive human SERINC5. Conversely, human SERINC5 became resistant to Nef when its ICL4 was replaced by that of a Nef-resistant SERINC5. In general, ICL4 regions from SERINCs that exhibited resistance to a given Nef conferred resistance to the same ...


Hiv-1 Unmasks The Plasticity Of Innate Lymphoid Cells, Yetao Wang, Kyle Gellatly, Alan G. Derr, Smita Jaiswal, Alper Kucukural, Patrick McDonel, Thomas C. Greenough, JeanMarie Houghton, Manuel Garber, Jeremy Luban 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hiv-1 Unmasks The Plasticity Of Innate Lymphoid Cells, Yetao Wang, Kyle Gellatly, Alan G. Derr, Smita Jaiswal, Alper Kucukural, Patrick Mcdonel, Thomas C. Greenough, Jeanmarie Houghton, Manuel Garber, Jeremy Luban

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Pharmaceuticals that suppress HIV-1 viremia preserve CD4+ T cells and prevent AIDS. Nonetheless, HIV-1 infected people taking these drugs have chronic inflammation attributable to persistent disruption of intestinal barrier function with increased rates of cardiovascular mortality. To better understand the etiology of this inflammation we examined the effect of HIV-1 infection on innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). These innate immune counterparts of T cells lack clonotypic antigen receptors, classify according to signature transcription factors and cytokines, and maintain homeostasis in inflamed tissues. ILCs have been defined, in part, by the IL-7Rα, CD127. Here we report that the vast majority of type ...


Hiv-1 R5 Macrophage-Tropic Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers Bind Cd4 With High Affinity, While The Cd4 Binding Site On Non-Macrophage-Tropic, T-Tropic R5 Envelopes Is Occluded, Briana Quitadamo, Paul J. Peters, Alexander Repik, Olivia O'Connell, Zhongming Mou, Matthew Koch, Mohan Somasundaran, Robin M. Brody, Katherine Luzuriaga, Aaron Wallace, Shixia Wang, Shan Lu, Sean M. McCauley, Jeremy Luban, Maria J. Duenas-Decamp, Maria Paz Paz Gonzalez-Perez, Paul R. Clapham 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hiv-1 R5 Macrophage-Tropic Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers Bind Cd4 With High Affinity, While The Cd4 Binding Site On Non-Macrophage-Tropic, T-Tropic R5 Envelopes Is Occluded, Briana Quitadamo, Paul J. Peters, Alexander Repik, Olivia O'Connell, Zhongming Mou, Matthew Koch, Mohan Somasundaran, Robin M. Brody, Katherine Luzuriaga, Aaron Wallace, Shixia Wang, Shan Lu, Sean M. Mccauley, Jeremy Luban, Maria J. Duenas-Decamp, Maria Paz Paz Gonzalez-Perez, Paul R. Clapham

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

HIV-1 R5 variants exploit CCR5 as a coreceptor to infect both T cells and macrophages. R5 viruses that are transmitted or derived from immune tissue and peripheral blood are mainly inefficient at mediating infection of macrophages. In contrast, highly macrophage-tropic (mac-tropic) R5 viruses predominate in brain tissue and can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid but are infrequent in immune tissue or blood even in late disease. These mac-tropic R5 variants carry envelope glycoproteins (Envs) adapted to exploit low levels of CD4 on macrophages to induce infection. However, it is unclear whether this adaptation is conferred by an increased affinity of ...


Enhanced Production Of Pro-Il-1Βeta Contributes To Immunopathology During The Coinfection Of Influenza A Virus And Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Angeline E. Rodriguez 2018 Missouri State University

Enhanced Production Of Pro-Il-1Βeta Contributes To Immunopathology During The Coinfection Of Influenza A Virus And Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Angeline E. Rodriguez

MSU Graduate Theses

Viral bacterial coinfections are known to cause severe pneumonia, especially in the elderly and in pediatric patients. Antibiotics like β-Lactams kill the bacteria but fail to improve symptoms suggesting a faulty immune system may play an important role in the disease. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is an important immune signaling cytokine responsible for inflammation. It exists as an inactive precursor that can be activated by caspase-1 containing inflammasomes (multi-protein complex). Influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) activate the inflammasome through the NOD-like receptor protein NLRP3 and/or AIM2. Previous reports in mice indicate that IL-1β levels are dramatically elevated ...


The Phagocyte Oxidase Controls Tolerance To Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection., Andrew J. Olive, Clare M. Smith, Michael C. Kiritsy, Christopher M. Sassetti 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Phagocyte Oxidase Controls Tolerance To Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection., Andrew J. Olive, Clare M. Smith, Michael C. Kiritsy, Christopher M. Sassetti

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Protection from infectious disease relies on two distinct mechanisms. 'Antimicrobial resistance' directly inhibits pathogen growth, whereas 'infection tolerance' controls tissue damage. A single immune-mediator can differentially contribute to these mechanisms in distinct contexts, confounding our understanding of protection to different pathogens. For example, the NADPH-dependent phagocyte oxidase complex (Phox) produces anti-microbial superoxides and protects from tuberculosis in humans. However, Phox-deficient mice do not display the expected defect in resistance to M. tuberculosis leaving the role of this complex unclear. We re-examined the mechanisms by which Phox contributes to protection from TB and found that mice lacking the Cybb subunit of ...


Screening Of Primary Gp120 Immunogens To Formulate The Next Generation Polyvalent Dna Prime-Protein Boost Hiv-1 Vaccines, Shixia Wang, Te-Hui Chou, Anthony Hackett, Veronica Efros, Yan Wang, Dong Han, Aaron Wallace, Yuxin Chen, Guangnan Hu, Shuying Liu, Paul R. Clapham, James Arthos, David Montefiori, Shan Lu 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Screening Of Primary Gp120 Immunogens To Formulate The Next Generation Polyvalent Dna Prime-Protein Boost Hiv-1 Vaccines, Shixia Wang, Te-Hui Chou, Anthony Hackett, Veronica Efros, Yan Wang, Dong Han, Aaron Wallace, Yuxin Chen, Guangnan Hu, Shuying Liu, Paul R. Clapham, James Arthos, David Montefiori, Shan Lu

Open Access Articles

Our previous preclinical studies and a Phase I clinical trial DP6-001 have indicated that a polyvalent Env formulation was able to elicit broadly reactive antibody responses including low titer neutralizing antibody responses against viral isolates of subtypes A, B, C and AE. In the current report, a panel of 62 gp120 immunogens were screened in a rabbit model to identify gp120 immunogens that can elicit improved binding and neutralizing antibody responses and some of them can be included in the next polyvalent formulation. Only about 19% of gp120 immunogens in this panel were able to elicit neutralizing antibodies against greater ...


Type Ix Secretion System : Characterization Of An Effector Protein And An Insight Into The Role Of C-Terminal Domain Dimeration In Outer Membrane Translocation., Lahari Koneru 2017 University of Louisville

Type Ix Secretion System : Characterization Of An Effector Protein And An Insight Into The Role Of C-Terminal Domain Dimeration In Outer Membrane Translocation., Lahari Koneru

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are two of the primary pathogens that are associated in the etiology and progression of chronic periodontitis. In T. forsythia, KLIKK proteases are the recently identified group of proteolytic enzymes that are secreted through Type IX secretion system (T9SS). Among, these KLIKK proteases a synergistic relationship was observed between karilysin and mirolysin in invading the host complement system for the survival of the bacteria. Since, karilysin has been already characterized, in this study we propose to study about mirolysin through structural, biochemical and biological characterization. The obtained results from the experiments has shown the propensity ...


Histomonas Elisa, Jessica L Martinez 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Histomonas Elisa, Jessica L Martinez

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Histomonas meleagridis is a protozoan parasite of avians and is the causative agent in Histomonosis, commonly known as Blackhead Disease. Current methods for diagnosing the presence of H. meleagridis are limited to parasite culture or Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to amplify target DNA. This project aims to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for faster and more sensitive diagnosis of Histomonas infections. Cultures of H. meleagridis parasites were purified, and surface antigens were extracted using a spectrum of chemical solutions. The various antigen solutions were subjected to an ELISA, with serum from birds immunized for H. meleagridis as positive controls ...


Molecular Evolution Of Dengue Type 2 Virus In Thailand, Rebeca Rico-Hesse, Lisa M. Harrison, Ananda Nisalak, David W. Vaughn, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Sharone Green, Alan L. Rothman, Francis A. Ennis 2017 Yale University School of Medicine

Molecular Evolution Of Dengue Type 2 Virus In Thailand, Rebeca Rico-Hesse, Lisa M. Harrison, Ananda Nisalak, David W. Vaughn, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Sharone Green, Alan L. Rothman, Francis A. Ennis

Sharone Green

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection that in recent years has become a major international public health concern. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), first recognized in Southeast Asia in the 1950s, is today a leading cause of childhood death in many countries. The pathogenesis of this illness is poorly understood, mainly because there are no laboratory or animal models of disease. We have studied the genetic relationships of dengue viruses of serotype 2, one of four antigenically distinct dengue virus groups, to determine if viruses obtained from cases of less severe dengue fever (DF) have distinct evolutionary origins from those obtained ...


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