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The Role Of Outcome Preferences In Optimizing Heterogenous Disease Control Strategies., Evan Milliken 2018 Arizona State University at the Tempe Campus

The Role Of Outcome Preferences In Optimizing Heterogenous Disease Control Strategies., Evan Milliken

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Ischemia Augments Alloimmune Injury Through Il-6-Driven Cd4(+) Alloreactivity, Mayuko Uehara, Zhabiz Solhjou, Naima Banouni, Vivek Kasinath, Ye Xiaqun, Li Dai, Osman Yilmam, Mine Yilmaz, Takaharu Ichimura, Paolo Fiorina, Paulo N.A. Martins, Shunsuke Ohori, Indira Guleria, Omar H. Maarouf, Stefan G. Tullius, Martina M. McGrath, Reza Abdi 2018 Harvard Medical School

Ischemia Augments Alloimmune Injury Through Il-6-Driven Cd4(+) Alloreactivity, Mayuko Uehara, Zhabiz Solhjou, Naima Banouni, Vivek Kasinath, Ye Xiaqun, Li Dai, Osman Yilmam, Mine Yilmaz, Takaharu Ichimura, Paolo Fiorina, Paulo N.A. Martins, Shunsuke Ohori, Indira Guleria, Omar H. Maarouf, Stefan G. Tullius, Martina M. Mcgrath, Reza Abdi

Open Access Articles

Ischemia reperfusion injuries (IRI) are unavoidable in solid organ transplantation. IRI augments alloimmunity but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Herein, we examined the effect of IRI on antigen specific alloimmunity. We demonstrate that ischemia promotes alloimmune activation, leading to more severe histological features of rejection, and increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell graft infiltration, with a predominantly CD8(+) IFNgamma(+) infiltrate. This process is dependent on the presence of alloreactive CD4(+) T cells, where depletion prevented infiltration of ischemic grafts by CD8(+) IFNgamma(+) T cells. IL-6 is a known driver of ischemia-induced rejection. Herein, depletion of donor antigen-presenting cells reduced ...


Enhanced Production Of Pro-Il-1Βeta Contributes To Immunopathology During The Coinfection Of Influenza A Virus And Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Angeline E. Rodriguez 2018 Missouri State University

Enhanced Production Of Pro-Il-1Βeta Contributes To Immunopathology During The Coinfection Of Influenza A Virus And Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Angeline E. Rodriguez

MSU Graduate Theses

Viral bacterial coinfections are known to cause severe pneumonia, especially in the elderly and in pediatric patients. Antibiotics like β-Lactams kill the bacteria but fail to improve symptoms suggesting a faulty immune system may play an important role in the disease. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is an important immune signaling cytokine responsible for inflammation. It exists as an inactive precursor that can be activated by caspase-1 containing inflammasomes (multi-protein complex). Influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) activate the inflammasome through the NOD-like receptor protein NLRP3 and/or AIM2. Previous reports in mice indicate that IL-1β levels are dramatically elevated ...


Prior Voluntary Wheel Running Prevents Memory Deficits And Enhanced Neuropathic Pain Presenting After Morphine Dosing Ceases, Nathan Plattner 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Prior Voluntary Wheel Running Prevents Memory Deficits And Enhanced Neuropathic Pain Presenting After Morphine Dosing Ceases, Nathan Plattner

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Clinical research studies show that chronic pain is a prevalent, difficult affliction to manage. The most common management for chronic pain is opioids, which research is showing to paradoxically induce persistent, worsened pain states as well as potentially having negative effects on memory. The necessity for understanding chronic pain and drug management options is apparent, and research is aiming to do just that. Exercise is one potential preventative measure or post hoc treatment possibility for chronic pain, as abundant research has shown. Knowledge of the interactions between exercise, morphine dosing, and peripheral nerve injury is nonexistent. As such, we desired ...


Bone Marrow Derived Progenitor Cells And Their Contributions To The Thymic Stroma, Mohammed Hoque 2018 CUNY City College

Bone Marrow Derived Progenitor Cells And Their Contributions To The Thymic Stroma, Mohammed Hoque

Master's Theses

The thymus serves as the primary lymphoid organ responsible for the development and selection of a self-tolerant T cell repertoire. In paradox to its critical functions for the adaptive immune response, the thymus undergoes a profound age associated decline beginning in early adult life resulting in significant decline in T-cell function.Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are the most critical component of the thymic microenvironment and undergo rapid turn-over, so understanding the cellular mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of TEC number and organization will be critical in counteracting age associated involution, particularly in cancer patients, due to enhanced degeneration in response ...


Age-Structured And Vaccination Models Of Devil Facial Tumor Disease, Christopher D. Bruno, Timothy Comar, Megan O. Powell, Adjo Tameklo 2017 University of St. Francis

Age-Structured And Vaccination Models Of Devil Facial Tumor Disease, Christopher D. Bruno, Timothy Comar, Megan O. Powell, Adjo Tameklo

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

Tasmanian devil populations have been devastated by devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) since its first appearance in 1996. The average lifespan of a devil has decreased from six years to three years. We present an age-structured model to represent how the disease has affected the age and breeding structures of the population. We show that with the recent increase in the breeding of juvenile devils, the overall devil population will increase but not nearly to pre-DFTD levels. The basic reproductive number may be increased with the influx of young breeding devils. In addition, our model shows that the release of ...


Cytoplasmic Proteins As Autoantigens In The Development Of Inflammatory Heart Disease, Bharathi Yalaka 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Cytoplasmic Proteins As Autoantigens In The Development Of Inflammatory Heart Disease, Bharathi Yalaka

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Inflammatory heart disease can result from infectious or non-infectious etiologies. When infectious causes are involved, autoimmune responses are commonly suspected to explain persistence of inflammation, leading to the suggestion that pathogens primarily affecting the target organs can lead to a secondary generation of autoimmune responses. In addressing this hypothesis, we had previously reported that Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB) infection accompanies the generation of cardiac myosin-specific T cells, which can transfer disease to naïve mice. This work led us to propose that the postinfectious phase of CVB infection involves the generation of autoreactive T cells with multiple antigen specificities. To this end ...


Cd80 Expressed By Cd8+ T Cells Contributes To Pd-L1-Induced Apoptosis Of Activated Cd8+ T Cells, Meagan R. Rollins, Rachel M. Gibbons Johnson 2017 University of Minnesota - Morris and Mayo Clinic

Cd80 Expressed By Cd8+ T Cells Contributes To Pd-L1-Induced Apoptosis Of Activated Cd8+ T Cells, Meagan R. Rollins, Rachel M. Gibbons Johnson

Biology Publications

Tumor cells are capable of limiting antitumor CD8+ T cell responses through their cell surface expression of PD-L1. In addition to PD-1 expressed by CD8+ T cells, PD-L1 also binds to CD80 expressed by CD8+ T cells. The influence of the PD-L1/CD80 interaction on CD8+ T cell function has not been fully characterized, so we sought to investigate the impact of the PD-L1/CD80 interaction on PD-L1-induced apoptosis of activated CD8+ T cells. We found that CD8+ T cells that lacked CD80 expression got activated to the same extent as wild-type CD8+ T cells, but when cultured with anti-CD3 ...


Modeling Vaccination Strategies To Control White-Nose Syndrome In Little Brown Bat Colonies, Eva Cornwell, David Elzinga, Shelby Stowe, Alex Capaldi 2017 St. Olaf College

Modeling Vaccination Strategies To Control White-Nose Syndrome In Little Brown Bat Colonies, Eva Cornwell, David Elzinga, Shelby Stowe, Alex Capaldi

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


A Model Of Dengue Transmission With Wolbachia-Free And Wolbachia-Infected Mosquitoes, Iftikhar Ahmed 2017 Illinois State University

A Model Of Dengue Transmission With Wolbachia-Free And Wolbachia-Infected Mosquitoes, Iftikhar Ahmed

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Intermittent Preventive Treatment For Malaria In Saving Lives And Promoting Drug Resistance, Carrie Manore 2017 Illinois State University

The Role Of Intermittent Preventive Treatment For Malaria In Saving Lives And Promoting Drug Resistance, Carrie Manore

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins

Tracy Collins, Ph.D.

Burkholderia cepacia and Candida albicans both exhibit cell-to-cell communication through the use of quorum-sensing molecules (QSM) known as autoinducers. E,E-farnesol is a QSM produced by C. albicans which regulates its conversion from yeast to mycelium. Because there is a positive correlation between the presence of B. cepacia and C. albicans in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), we examined whether E,E-farnesol had an effect on swarming motility in B. cepacia. Swarming motility was inhibited when B. cepacia was exposed to 250 µM of E,E-farnesol. In addition, there was a 26.8% decrease in rhamnolipid production ...


Computational Drug Design: A Multitargeted Approach In Bladder Cancer, Travis C. Lantz, Joydeb Majumder, Gaurav Chopra 2017 Purdue University

Computational Drug Design: A Multitargeted Approach In Bladder Cancer, Travis C. Lantz, Joydeb Majumder, Gaurav Chopra

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Cancer is a complex, robust disease with multiple redundant disease pathways which lead to tumor development, growth, and eventually even death. Despite known redundancies, cancer therapeutics continue to be developed against a single protein target. Initial disease regression occurs followed by relapse in a drug resistant disease state. In response, combinational drug clinical trial targeting multiple pathways began, and have failed due to increased toxicity caused by adverse drug interactions. Development of a single drug that differentially targets multiple disease pathways will result in a more potent therapeutic while inducing minimal toxicity. This was done computationally through in-lab software packages ...


Requirement Of Ehd Family Of Endocytic Recycling Regulators For T-Cell Functions, Fany M. Iseka 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Requirement Of Ehd Family Of Endocytic Recycling Regulators For T-Cell Functions, Fany M. Iseka

Theses & Dissertations

T-cells use the endocytic pathway for key cell biological functions, including receptor turn-over and maintenance of the immunological synapse. Some of the established players include the Rab GTPases, SNARE complex proteins, and others which in non-T-cell systems function together with Eps15 Homology Domain-containing (EHD) proteins. To date, the role of the EHD protein family in T-cell function remains unexplored. We generated conditional EHD1/3/4 knockout mice using CD4-Cre and crossed these with mice bearing a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific TCR transgene. We found that CD4+ T-cells from these mice exhibited a reduced antigen-driven cell proliferation and IL-2 secretion ...


Migration Frustrations Of Mir-146a Regulation, Emma Baccus, Victoria Gahman, Hannah Phillips, Shannon Rappaport, Alyssa Reiter, Kaleb M. Pauley 2017 Cedarville University

Migration Frustrations Of Mir-146a Regulation, Emma Baccus, Victoria Gahman, Hannah Phillips, Shannon Rappaport, Alyssa Reiter, Kaleb M. Pauley

Kaleb M. Pauley, Ph.D.

The autoimmune disease, Sjögren’s Syndrome (SS), causes the degradation of salivary and lacrimal glands due to an influx of immune cells. In previous studies, a significant increase in miR-146a was observed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of SS patients. Since immune cell infiltration is critical in SS pathogenesis, the following research examines the effect of miR-146a on cell migration. We hypothesize that transfecting THP-1 human monocytes with synthetic miR-146a will downregulate migration of the monocytes based on other studies stating that miR-146a downregulates migration in vivo. In order to execute our experiment, we transfected THP-1 cells with ...


E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Burkholderia cepacia and Candida albicans both exhibit cell-to-cell communication through the use of quorum-sensing molecules (QSM) known as autoinducers. E,E-farnesol is a QSM produced by C. albicans which regulates its conversion from yeast to mycelium. Because there is a positive correlation between the presence of B. cepacia and C. albicans in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), we examined whether E,E-farnesol had an effect on swarming motility in B. cepacia. Swarming motility was inhibited when B. cepacia was exposed to 250 µM of E,E-farnesol. In addition, there was a 26.8% decrease in rhamnolipid production ...


Migration Frustrations Of Mir-146a Regulation, Emma Baccus, Victoria Gahman, Hannah Phillips, Shannon Rappaport, Alyssa Reiter, Kaleb M. Pauley 2017 Cedarville University

Migration Frustrations Of Mir-146a Regulation, Emma Baccus, Victoria Gahman, Hannah Phillips, Shannon Rappaport, Alyssa Reiter, Kaleb M. Pauley

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The autoimmune disease, Sjögren’s Syndrome (SS), causes the degradation of salivary and lacrimal glands due to an influx of immune cells. In previous studies, a significant increase in miR-146a was observed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of SS patients. Since immune cell infiltration is critical in SS pathogenesis, the following research examines the effect of miR-146a on cell migration. We hypothesize that transfecting THP-1 human monocytes with synthetic miR-146a will downregulate migration of the monocytes based on other studies stating that miR-146a downregulates migration in vivo. In order to execute our experiment, we transfected THP-1 cells with ...


A Critical Appraisal Of Extracorporeal Photopheresis As A Treatment Modality For Acute And Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease, HInd Rafei, Mohamed Kharfan-Dabaja, Taiga Nishihori 2017 George Washington University

A Critical Appraisal Of Extracorporeal Photopheresis As A Treatment Modality For Acute And Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Hind Rafei, Mohamed Kharfan-Dabaja, Taiga Nishihori

Medicine Faculty Publications

Although significant advances have been made in the biologic understanding of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and its treatment options, GVHD remains the single most challenging obstacle to the success of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) due to high risk of disabling morbidity and mortality. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) has promising effects in controlling steroid-refractory GVHD, both acute and chronic, and it has been studied extensively. Its putative immunomodulatory mechanisms, while not immunosuppressive, position ECP as an attractive treatment strategy for GVHD patients who are already receiving global immunosuppression. However, ECP is relatively underutilized due in part to limited access and time commitment ...


Disease Models With Immigration, Reem Almarashi 2017 Wilfrid Laurier University

Disease Models With Immigration, Reem Almarashi

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In this thesis we focus first on studying the susceptible, exposed, and infected ($SEI$) disease model without immigration. We determine the basic reproduction number $\mathcal{R}_0$, which can be interpreted as the expected number of new cases that can be produced by a single infection in a completely susceptible population. Further, by using the Jacobian matrix, we determine the local stability of the disease model. Then we have the result that when $\mathcal{R}_0<1$ the DFE point is locally asymptotically stable(L.A.S). In contrast, when $\mathcal{R}_0>1$ we find that the endemic equilibrium is L.A.S. After that, we analyze the $SEI$ model with immigration of infected individuals.

Furthermore ...


A Presence-Only Species Distribution Model Comparison Predicting The Distribution Of The Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis), Melanie L. Torres 2017 Murray State University

A Presence-Only Species Distribution Model Comparison Predicting The Distribution Of The Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis), Melanie L. Torres

Murray State Theses and Dissertations

Global anthropogenic impacts have incited devastating effects on both human and wildlife populations. Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are one consequence of these impacts. One particular EID, chytridiomycosis, is a threat to global amphibian populations, causing massive die-offs and several species extinctions. While predictive modeling has helped the general understanding of where the aquatic pathogen causing chytridiomycosis, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), could spread to, most models are on continental or countrywide scales. This coarse-scale modeling makes local management and conservation planning for imperiled amphibians difficult. In addition, modeling efforts can vary depending on location and species, making it necessary to test the ...


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