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Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, Alex Hopke 2016 University of Maine

Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, Alex Hopke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Molecular camouflage is used by a diverse set of pathogens to disguise their identity and avoid recognition by protective host receptors. The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a good example, as it masks the inflammatory component β-glucan in its cell wall to evade detection by the immune receptor Dectin-1. Interestingly, it has been seen that β-glucan becomes unmasked during infection in vivo, though the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Exposure levels of this epitope may be important, as Dectin-1 mediates protection from some strains of C. albicans and alterations in the organization and composition of the Candida cell wall can ...


Channa Striatus Tnfr-1: Molecular Cloning, Characterization And Gene Expression, Rajesh Palanisamy 2016 SRM Institute of Science and Technology

Channa Striatus Tnfr-1: Molecular Cloning, Characterization And Gene Expression, Rajesh Palanisamy

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Toward Adaptive Control Of Acute Inflammation, Judy D. Day, Seddik M. Djouadi, Ouassim Bara, Gregory L. Zitelli 2016 The University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Toward Adaptive Control Of Acute Inflammation, Judy D. Day, Seddik M. Djouadi, Ouassim Bara, Gregory L. Zitelli

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Mathematical Modeling Of Endotoxin-Induced Inflammation In Young Men, Renee Brady 2016 North Carolina State University at Raleigh

Mathematical Modeling Of Endotoxin-Induced Inflammation In Young Men, Renee Brady

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Disease-Causing Fungi In Homes And Yards In The Midwestern United States, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Disease-Causing Fungi In Homes And Yards In The Midwestern United States, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Dennis J. Baumgardner. MD

A number of fungal pathogens that may result in a variety of human diseases are found in residential homes and yards. The growth of these microscopic fungi is often favored by particular characteristics of the dwelling and nearby outdoor environment. Evolved virulence factors or increased ability of specific fungi to grow in diverse, and sometimes harsh, microenvironments presented by the domestic environment may promote growth and pathogenesis. Infection may occur by inhalation or direct inoculation and include endemic fungi in addition to opportunistic or emerging species. Systemic or locally aggressive fungal infections are particularly likely and may be life-threatening in ...


Characterization Of Induced Rnai Silencing Of Vaccinia Virus Essential Genes, Kewa Jiang 2016 University of Connecticut

Characterization Of Induced Rnai Silencing Of Vaccinia Virus Essential Genes, Kewa Jiang

University Scholar Projects

Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus and the prototypical member of the family Poxviridae and is most notable for its use as the vaccine that eradicated smallpox (variola virus). More recently, VACV has been used to develop recombinant vaccines and immunotherapies. However, many of these processes require VACV replication to be tightly controlled. RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for in vitro silencing of mRNAs that are complimentary to 19-21 base pairs (bp) of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). This project outlines the design and preliminary analysis of two inducible RNAi silencing constructs targeting multiple VACV essential genes ...


Stabilization Of Gp120 Outer Domain For Hiv-1-1 Vaccine Immunogen Design, Duoyi Hu 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Stabilization Of Gp120 Outer Domain For Hiv-1-1 Vaccine Immunogen Design, Duoyi Hu

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The sole envelope glycoprotein spike on the surface of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) is composed of two subunits: gp120 and gp41. The gp120 consists of three domains: the inner domain, outer domain and bridging sheet, to which the viral primary receptor CD4 binds and induces a conformational change in gp120 to expose the co-receptor binding site. Previous studies have found that the outer domain of gp120 is relatively more stable than the inner domain and bridging sheet. When superimposed, the co-crystal structures of CD4-gp120 complex and VRC01-gp120 complex revealed that the CD4-binding site (CD4-BS) antibody VRC01 actually mainly bound to ...


Characterization Of Induced Rnai Silencing Of Vaccinia Virus Essential Genes, Kewa Jiang 2016 University of Connecticut

Characterization Of Induced Rnai Silencing Of Vaccinia Virus Essential Genes, Kewa Jiang

Honors Scholar Theses

Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus and the prototypical member of the family Poxviridae and is most notable for its use as the vaccine that eradicated smallpox (variola virus). More recently, VACV has been used to develop recombinant vaccines and immunotherapies. However, many of these processes require VACV replication to be tightly controlled. RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for in vitro silencing of mRNAs that are complementary to 19-21 base pairs (bp) of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). This project outlines the design and preliminary analysis of two inducible RNAi silencing constructs targeting multiple VACV essential genes ...


A Study Of Hiv And Stigma At The University Of Tennessee: A Discussion Of Its Prevalence And How Hiv Awareness Correlates With Stigma, Renee L. Adamec 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Study Of Hiv And Stigma At The University Of Tennessee: A Discussion Of Its Prevalence And How Hiv Awareness Correlates With Stigma, Renee L. Adamec

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Plants, Prions And Possibilities: Current Understanding And Significance Of Prion Uptake Into Plants, Tracy A. Nichols 2016 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Plants, Prions And Possibilities: Current Understanding And Significance Of Prion Uptake Into Plants, Tracy A. Nichols

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an infectious, neurodegenerative disease of deer (white-tailed and mule), elk, moose, sika deer and muntjac caused by a misfolded version of a normally occurring protein. The notion that CWD could be spread indirectly via the environment has been documented and accepted in the scientific community for quite some time. Deer and elk consume soil, inhale dust and lick objects that have infectious material on them, resulting in chronic, low dose exposure. Surface contamination of plants with urine or feces is likely an additional source of exposure via ingestion and has been modeled in the laboratory ...


Disease-Causing Fungi In Homes And Yards In The Midwestern United States, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Disease-Causing Fungi In Homes And Yards In The Midwestern United States, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

A number of fungal pathogens that may result in a variety of human diseases are found in residential homes and yards. The growth of these microscopic fungi is often favored by particular characteristics of the dwelling and nearby outdoor environment. Evolved virulence factors or increased ability of specific fungi to grow in diverse, and sometimes harsh, microenvironments presented by the domestic environment may promote growth and pathogenesis. Infection may occur by inhalation or direct inoculation and include endemic fungi in addition to opportunistic or emerging species. Systemic or locally aggressive fungal infections are particularly likely and may be life-threatening in ...


Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, Philion L. Hoff, Denise Zinniel, Raúl G. Barletta 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, Philion L. Hoff, Denise Zinniel, Raúl G. Barletta

UCARE Research Products

Amino acids are the building blocks of life. If DNA is the blueprint, amino acids are the lumber that proteins are built with. Proteins are built with left-handed, L- forms of amino acids. Bacteria have an essential cell wall component that happens to be an exception: peptidoglycan. Bacteria have enzymes called racemases that convert L- amino acid forms into right-handed, D- forms. Amino acids participate in many reactions with keto acids. Transaminases allow conversion between amino acids by transfer of an amino group.

Previous reports claimed there is no D-ala transaminase activity in mycobacteria and thus alr and murI genes ...


Next-Generation Sequencing Of A Multi-Drug Resistance Plasmid Captured From Stream Sediment, kevin G. libuit 2016 James Madison University

Next-Generation Sequencing Of A Multi-Drug Resistance Plasmid Captured From Stream Sediment, Kevin G. Libuit

Masters Theses

Plasmids in agriculturally-impacted bodies of water may play a significant role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Previously, Erika Gehr, as part of her M.S. thesis work in our laboratory, captured environmental plasmids without cultivation of host bacteria from stream sediment into Escherichia coli. Individual plasmids were capable of conferring resistance to a surprising array of antibiotics including aminoglycosides and extended-spectrum β-lactams. In this study, we developed a method to sequence multi-drug resistance plasmids using both Oxford Nanopore MinION and Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine sequencers. Plasmid pEG1-1 was sequenced on both platforms and a hybrid assembly utilizing data ...


The Impact Of Urbanization On Mosquito-Borne Viruses, Nikhita Puthuveetil 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Impact Of Urbanization On Mosquito-Borne Viruses, Nikhita Puthuveetil

Undergraduate Research Posters

Mosquito-borne diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile are rapidly emerging across the globe. Their emergence is often aided by the growth of their vector population, or the organisms that transmit the virus to the host. Urbanization and land use often destroys the habitat of the virus and its vector. However, the virus and its vector often survive despite the changes to its environment. The goal of this paper is to find out exactly how urbanization and changes in land use affect mosquito-borne viruses and how these viruses survive despite the destruction of their habitats. To understand how ...


Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell-Mediated Humoral Autoimmunity, Stephanie M. Dorta-Estremera Ph.D. 2015 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell-Mediated Humoral Autoimmunity, Stephanie M. Dorta-Estremera Ph.D.

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Humoral autoimmunity is characterized by the breakdown of B cell immune tolerance to self-antigens and consequent production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a potent type I interferon (IFN-I) producer, have been linked to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototypic systemic humoral autoimmune disease. However, the cellular events that stimulate the development of humoral autoimmunity as a result of pDC activation have not been characterized. Moreover, the B cell subset(s) responsible for the generation of autoantibodies remains to be clearly identified.

The immunization of DNA-containing amyloids into non-autoimmune mice triggers the activation of pDCs and ...


Defining The Molecular Networks Necessary For Thymus Fate And Organogenesis, Kaitlin A. Reeh 2015 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Defining The Molecular Networks Necessary For Thymus Fate And Organogenesis, Kaitlin A. Reeh

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The thymus and parathyroid (PT) glands originate from endodermal progenitors in the bilateral third pharyngeal pouches (3rd pps). By E11.5 during mouse development, cells committed to the thymus lineage express Foxn1 whereas PT-fated cells express Gcm2. While these transcription factors are required for organ-specific differentiation, the exact molecular mechanisms that specify endodermal progenitors to either the thymus or parathyroid lineage are not well defined. Tbx1 is initially expressed throughout the 3rd pp endoderm, as it is required for segmentation of the pharyngeal apparatus, but is downregulated in the thymus-fated domain by E10.5. Despite the widely held ...


Inhibition Of Sterile Danger Signals, Uric Acid And Atp, Prevents Inflammasome Activation And Protects From Alcoholic Steatohepatitis In Mice., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Abhishek Satishchandran, Benedek Gyongyosi, Banishree Saha, Karen Kodys, Katherine Fitzgerald, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Gyongyi Szabo 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester

Inhibition Of Sterile Danger Signals, Uric Acid And Atp, Prevents Inflammasome Activation And Protects From Alcoholic Steatohepatitis In Mice., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Abhishek Satishchandran, Benedek Gyongyosi, Banishree Saha, Karen Kodys, Katherine Fitzgerald, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Background & Aims: The inflammasome is a well-characterized inducer of inflammation in alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH). Inflammasome activation requires two signals for mature interleukin (IL)-1β production. Here we asked whether metabolic danger signals trigger inflammasome activation in ASH.

Results:The sterile danger signals, ATP and uric acid, were increased in the serum and liver of alcohol-fed mice. Depletion of uric acid or ATP, or lack of ATP signaling attenuated ASH and prevented inflammasome activation and its major downstream cytokine, IL-1β. Pharmacological depletion of uric acid with allopurinol provided significant protection from alcohol-induced inflammatory response, steatosis and liver damage, and additional protection ...


Metabolic Danger Signals, Uric Acid And Atp, Mediate Inflammatory Cross-Talk Between Hepatocytes And Immune Cells In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Banishree Saha, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Katherine Fitzgerald, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Gyongyi Szabo 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Metabolic Danger Signals, Uric Acid And Atp, Mediate Inflammatory Cross-Talk Between Hepatocytes And Immune Cells In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Banishree Saha, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Katherine Fitzgerald, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Inflammation defines the progression of ALD from reversible to advanced stages. Translocation of bacterial LPS to the liver from the gut is necessary for alcohol-induced liver inflammation. However, it is not known whether endogenous, metabolic danger signals are required for inflammation in ALD. Uric acid and ATP, 2 major proinflammatory danger signals, were evaluated in the serum of human volunteers exposed to a single dose of ethanol or in supernatants of primary human hepatocytes exposed to ethanol. In vitro studies were used to evaluate the role of uric acid and ATP in inflammatory cross-talk between hepatocytes and immune cells. The ...


Inhibition Of Sterile Danger Signals, Uric Acid And Atp, Prevents Inflammasome Activation And Protects From Alcoholic Steatohepatitis In Mice., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Abhishek Satishchandran, Benedek Gyongyosi, Banishree Saha, Karen Kodys, Katherine Fitzgerald, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Gyongyi Szabo 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester

Inhibition Of Sterile Danger Signals, Uric Acid And Atp, Prevents Inflammasome Activation And Protects From Alcoholic Steatohepatitis In Mice., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Abhishek Satishchandran, Benedek Gyongyosi, Banishree Saha, Karen Kodys, Katherine Fitzgerald, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Gyongyi Szabo

Arvin Iracheta-Vellve

Background & Aims: The inflammasome is a well-characterized inducer of inflammation in alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH). Inflammasome activation requires two signals for mature interleukin (IL)-1β production. Here we asked whether metabolic danger signals trigger inflammasome activation in ASH.

Results:The sterile danger signals, ATP and uric acid, were increased in the serum and liver of alcohol-fed mice. Depletion of uric acid or ATP, or lack of ATP signaling attenuated ASH and prevented inflammasome activation and its major downstream cytokine, IL-1β. Pharmacological depletion of uric acid with allopurinol provided significant protection from alcohol-induced inflammatory response, steatosis and liver damage, and additional protection ...


Manipulation Of The Microbiome And Its Impact On Functional Recovery Following Ischemic Stroke, Michal Jandzinski 2015 University of Connecticut

Manipulation Of The Microbiome And Its Impact On Functional Recovery Following Ischemic Stroke, Michal Jandzinski

Honors Scholar Theses

Each year, nearly 800,000 individuals residing in the United States will have a stroke. Of these, about 130,000 cases will prove fatal while many of the survivors will be forced to live with disability for the remainder of their lives. Out of all strokes over 87% are ischemic strokes. The widespread incidence of this debilitating condition costs the United States an estimated $36.5 billion dollars every single year. Despite this, clinicians are armed with very little to combat the disease. Recent research developments have brought about the rise in awareness about the importance of the microbiome, the ...


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