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Computational Drug Design: A Multitargeted Approach In Bladder Cancer, Travis C. Lantz, Joydeb Majumder, Gaurav Chopra 2017 Purdue University

Computational Drug Design: A Multitargeted Approach In Bladder Cancer, Travis C. Lantz, Joydeb Majumder, Gaurav Chopra

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Cancer is a complex, robust disease with multiple redundant disease pathways which lead to tumor development, growth, and eventually even death. Despite known redundancies, cancer therapeutics continue to be developed against a single protein target. Initial disease regression occurs followed by relapse in a drug resistant disease state. In response, combinational drug clinical trial targeting multiple pathways began, and have failed due to increased toxicity caused by adverse drug interactions. Development of a single drug that differentially targets multiple disease pathways will result in a more potent therapeutic while inducing minimal toxicity. This was done computationally through in-lab software packages ...


E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Burkholderia cepacia and Candida albicans both exhibit cell-to-cell communication through the use of quorum-sensing molecules (QSM) known as autoinducers. E,E-farnesol is a QSM produced by C. albicans which regulates its conversion from yeast to mycelium. Because there is a positive correlation between the presence of B. cepacia and C. albicans in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), we examined whether E,E-farnesol had an effect on swarming motility in B. cepacia. Swarming motility was inhibited when B. cepacia was exposed to 250 µM of E,E-farnesol. In addition, there was a 26.8% decrease in rhamnolipid production ...


Migration Frustrations Of Mir-146a Regulation, Emma Baccus, Victoria Gahman, Hannah Phillips, Shannon Rappaport, Alyssa Reiter, Kaleb M. Pauley 2017 Cedarville University

Migration Frustrations Of Mir-146a Regulation, Emma Baccus, Victoria Gahman, Hannah Phillips, Shannon Rappaport, Alyssa Reiter, Kaleb M. Pauley

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The autoimmune disease, Sjögren’s Syndrome (SS), causes the degradation of salivary and lacrimal glands due to an influx of immune cells. In previous studies, a significant increase in miR-146a was observed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of SS patients. Since immune cell infiltration is critical in SS pathogenesis, the following research examines the effect of miR-146a on cell migration. We hypothesize that transfecting THP-1 human monocytes with synthetic miR-146a will downregulate migration of the monocytes based on other studies stating that miR-146a downregulates migration in vivo. In order to execute our experiment, we transfected THP-1 cells with ...


Disease Models With Immigration, Reem Almarashi 2017 Wilfrid Laurier University

Disease Models With Immigration, Reem Almarashi

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In this thesis we focus first on studying the susceptible, exposed, and infected ($SEI$) disease model without immigration. We determine the basic reproduction number $\mathcal{R}_0$, which can be interpreted as the expected number of new cases that can be produced by a single infection in a completely susceptible population. Further, by using the Jacobian matrix, we determine the local stability of the disease model. Then we have the result that when $\mathcal{R}_0<1$ the DFE point is locally asymptotically stable(L.A.S). In contrast, when $\mathcal{R}_0>1$ we find that the endemic equilibrium is L.A.S. After that, we analyze the $SEI$ model with immigration of infected individuals.

Furthermore ...


Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, Alex Hopke 2016 University of Maine

Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, Alex Hopke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Molecular camouflage is used by a diverse set of pathogens to disguise their identity and avoid recognition by protective host receptors. The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a good example, as it masks the inflammatory component β-glucan in its cell wall to evade detection by the immune receptor Dectin-1. Interestingly, it has been seen that β-glucan becomes unmasked during infection in vivo, though the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Exposure levels of this epitope may be important, as Dectin-1 mediates protection from some strains of C. albicans and alterations in the organization and composition of the Candida cell wall can ...


Improving Aedes Mosquito Surveillance And La Crosse Virus Screening In Eastern Tennessee, Cassandra Urquhart 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Improving Aedes Mosquito Surveillance And La Crosse Virus Screening In Eastern Tennessee, Cassandra Urquhart

Masters Theses

La Crosse virus (LACV), transmitted by infected Aedes triseriatus, Ae. albopictus, and Ae. japonicus mosquitoes is the leading cause of pediatric arboviral encephalitis. Severe cases of LAC encephalitis occur in individuals 16-years-old or younger and may cause permanent neurological damage or fatality. No vaccines exist making mosquito control and disease prevention crucial to public health. Effective screening and surveillance practices are key components to these goals. While a number of standard mosquito surveillance methods exist, continuous testing and improved understanding of vector biology to determine the best ways to implement these methods is important. Additionally, the current standard for screening ...


Channa Striatus Tnfr-1: Molecular Cloning, Characterization And Gene Expression, Rajesh Palanisamy 2016 SRM Institute of Science and Technology

Channa Striatus Tnfr-1: Molecular Cloning, Characterization And Gene Expression, Rajesh Palanisamy

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Toward Adaptive Control Of Acute Inflammation, Judy D. Day, Seddik M. Djouadi, Ouassim Bara, Gregory L. Zitelli 2016 The University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Toward Adaptive Control Of Acute Inflammation, Judy D. Day, Seddik M. Djouadi, Ouassim Bara, Gregory L. Zitelli

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Mathematical Modeling Of Endotoxin-Induced Inflammation In Young Men, Renee Brady 2016 North Carolina State University at Raleigh

Mathematical Modeling Of Endotoxin-Induced Inflammation In Young Men, Renee Brady

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Disease-Causing Fungi In Homes And Yards In The Midwestern United States, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Disease-Causing Fungi In Homes And Yards In The Midwestern United States, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Dennis J. Baumgardner. MD

A number of fungal pathogens that may result in a variety of human diseases are found in residential homes and yards. The growth of these microscopic fungi is often favored by particular characteristics of the dwelling and nearby outdoor environment. Evolved virulence factors or increased ability of specific fungi to grow in diverse, and sometimes harsh, microenvironments presented by the domestic environment may promote growth and pathogenesis. Infection may occur by inhalation or direct inoculation and include endemic fungi in addition to opportunistic or emerging species. Systemic or locally aggressive fungal infections are particularly likely and may be life-threatening in ...


Stabilization Of Gp120 Outer Domain For Hiv-1-1 Vaccine Immunogen Design, Duoyi Hu 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Stabilization Of Gp120 Outer Domain For Hiv-1-1 Vaccine Immunogen Design, Duoyi Hu

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The sole envelope glycoprotein spike on the surface of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) is composed of two subunits: gp120 and gp41. The gp120 consists of three domains: the inner domain, outer domain and bridging sheet, to which the viral primary receptor CD4 binds and induces a conformational change in gp120 to expose the co-receptor binding site. Previous studies have found that the outer domain of gp120 is relatively more stable than the inner domain and bridging sheet. When superimposed, the co-crystal structures of CD4-gp120 complex and VRC01-gp120 complex revealed that the CD4-binding site (CD4-BS) antibody VRC01 actually mainly bound to ...


Characterization Of Induced Rnai Silencing Of Vaccinia Virus Essential Genes, Kewa Jiang 2016 University of Connecticut

Characterization Of Induced Rnai Silencing Of Vaccinia Virus Essential Genes, Kewa Jiang

University Scholar Projects

Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus and the prototypical member of the family Poxviridae and is most notable for its use as the vaccine that eradicated smallpox (variola virus). More recently, VACV has been used to develop recombinant vaccines and immunotherapies. However, many of these processes require VACV replication to be tightly controlled. RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for in vitro silencing of mRNAs that are complimentary to 19-21 base pairs (bp) of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). This project outlines the design and preliminary analysis of two inducible RNAi silencing constructs targeting multiple VACV essential genes ...


A Study Of Hiv And Stigma At The University Of Tennessee: A Discussion Of Its Prevalence And How Hiv Awareness Correlates With Stigma, Renee L. Adamec 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Study Of Hiv And Stigma At The University Of Tennessee: A Discussion Of Its Prevalence And How Hiv Awareness Correlates With Stigma, Renee L. Adamec

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Plants, Prions And Possibilities: Current Understanding And Significance Of Prion Uptake Into Plants, Tracy A. Nichols 2016 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Plants, Prions And Possibilities: Current Understanding And Significance Of Prion Uptake Into Plants, Tracy A. Nichols

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an infectious, neurodegenerative disease of deer (white-tailed and mule), elk, moose, sika deer and muntjac caused by a misfolded version of a normally occurring protein. The notion that CWD could be spread indirectly via the environment has been documented and accepted in the scientific community for quite some time. Deer and elk consume soil, inhale dust and lick objects that have infectious material on them, resulting in chronic, low dose exposure. Surface contamination of plants with urine or feces is likely an additional source of exposure via ingestion and has been modeled in the laboratory ...


Characterization Of Induced Rnai Silencing Of Vaccinia Virus Essential Genes, Kewa Jiang 2016 University of Connecticut

Characterization Of Induced Rnai Silencing Of Vaccinia Virus Essential Genes, Kewa Jiang

Honors Scholar Theses

Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus and the prototypical member of the family Poxviridae and is most notable for its use as the vaccine that eradicated smallpox (variola virus). More recently, VACV has been used to develop recombinant vaccines and immunotherapies. However, many of these processes require VACV replication to be tightly controlled. RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for in vitro silencing of mRNAs that are complementary to 19-21 base pairs (bp) of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). This project outlines the design and preliminary analysis of two inducible RNAi silencing constructs targeting multiple VACV essential genes ...


Disease-Causing Fungi In Homes And Yards In The Midwestern United States, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Disease-Causing Fungi In Homes And Yards In The Midwestern United States, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

A number of fungal pathogens that may result in a variety of human diseases are found in residential homes and yards. The growth of these microscopic fungi is often favored by particular characteristics of the dwelling and nearby outdoor environment. Evolved virulence factors or increased ability of specific fungi to grow in diverse, and sometimes harsh, microenvironments presented by the domestic environment may promote growth and pathogenesis. Infection may occur by inhalation or direct inoculation and include endemic fungi in addition to opportunistic or emerging species. Systemic or locally aggressive fungal infections are particularly likely and may be life-threatening in ...


Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, Philion L. Hoff, Denise Zinniel, Raúl G. Barletta 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, Philion L. Hoff, Denise Zinniel, Raúl G. Barletta

UCARE Research Products

Amino acids are the building blocks of life. If DNA is the blueprint, amino acids are the lumber that proteins are built with. Proteins are built with left-handed, L- forms of amino acids. Bacteria have an essential cell wall component that happens to be an exception: peptidoglycan. Bacteria have enzymes called racemases that convert L- amino acid forms into right-handed, D- forms. Amino acids participate in many reactions with keto acids. Transaminases allow conversion between amino acids by transfer of an amino group.

Previous reports claimed there is no D-ala transaminase activity in mycobacteria and thus alr and murI genes ...


High Diversity Of Trypanosoma Cruzi Discrete Typing Units Circulating In Triatoma In Western Mexico, Uyen T. Nguyen 2016 Central Washington University

High Diversity Of Trypanosoma Cruzi Discrete Typing Units Circulating In Triatoma In Western Mexico, Uyen T. Nguyen

All Master's Theses

Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to domestic and sylvatic mammals via the feces of hematophagous hemiptera of the subfamily Triatominae (Reduviidae). Trypanosoma cruzi is found only in the Americas and displays remarkable genetic diversity. Seven discrete typing units (DTUs) are currently recognized (TcI–TcVI and TcBat). In Jalisco, Mexico, where Chagas disease has a high prevalence rate, TcI has historically been the only DTU reported. This study focused on the molecular identification of T. cruzi DTUs circulating in Triatoma near the Estación de Biología Chamela, on the southwest coast of Jalisco, Mexico ...


Next-Generation Sequencing Of A Multi-Drug Resistance Plasmid Captured From Stream Sediment, Kevin G. Libuit 2016 James Madison University

Next-Generation Sequencing Of A Multi-Drug Resistance Plasmid Captured From Stream Sediment, Kevin G. Libuit

Masters Theses

Plasmids in agriculturally-impacted bodies of water may play a significant role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Previously, Erika Gehr, as part of her M.S. thesis work in our laboratory, captured environmental plasmids without cultivation of host bacteria from stream sediment into Escherichia coli. Individual plasmids were capable of conferring resistance to a surprising array of antibiotics including aminoglycosides and extended-spectrum β-lactams. In this study, we developed a method to sequence multi-drug resistance plasmids using both Oxford Nanopore MinION and Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine sequencers. Plasmid pEG1-1 was sequenced on both platforms and a hybrid assembly utilizing data ...


The Impact Of Urbanization On Mosquito-Borne Viruses, Nikhita Puthuveetil 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Impact Of Urbanization On Mosquito-Borne Viruses, Nikhita Puthuveetil

Undergraduate Research Posters

Mosquito-borne diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile are rapidly emerging across the globe. Their emergence is often aided by the growth of their vector population, or the organisms that transmit the virus to the host. Urbanization and land use often destroys the habitat of the virus and its vector. However, the virus and its vector often survive despite the changes to its environment. The goal of this paper is to find out exactly how urbanization and changes in land use affect mosquito-borne viruses and how these viruses survive despite the destruction of their habitats. To understand how ...


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