Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Immunopathology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

256 Full-Text Articles 833 Authors 30,983 Downloads 40 Institutions

All Articles in Immunopathology

Faceted Search

256 full-text articles. Page 1 of 11.

Sodium Pyruvate Alters The Immune Response To Influenza A Virus Infection In Macrophages, Hazzar Abysalamah 2018 Missouri State University

Sodium Pyruvate Alters The Immune Response To Influenza A Virus Infection In Macrophages, Hazzar Abysalamah

MSU Graduate Theses

ABSTRACT

Pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis. It can either be transported into the mitochondria for use in the TCA cycle or be used to regenerate NAD+ during fermentation or aerobic glycolysis (also called the Warburg Effect). I recently discovered that addition of sodium pyruvate to the culture medium during infection of macrophages with influenza A virus affects the production of cytokines involved in immune signaling. While infection of macrophages with influenza A virus resulted in high levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) in the absence of sodium pyruvate, the addition of sodium pyruvate significantly impaired cytokine production ...


Pre-Diagnosis Plasma Immune Markers And Risk Of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma In Two Prospective Cohort Studies, Mara M. Epstein, Bernard Rosner, Elizabeth C. Breen, Julie L. Batista, Edward L. Giovannucci, Larry Magpantay, Jon C. Aster, Scott J. Rodig, Kimberly A. Bertrand, Francine Laden, Otoniel Martinez-Maza, Brenda M. Birmann 2018 University of Massachusetts

Pre-Diagnosis Plasma Immune Markers And Risk Of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma In Two Prospective Cohort Studies, Mara M. Epstein, Bernard Rosner, Elizabeth C. Breen, Julie L. Batista, Edward L. Giovannucci, Larry Magpantay, Jon C. Aster, Scott J. Rodig, Kimberly A. Bertrand, Francine Laden, Otoniel Martinez-Maza, Brenda M. Birmann

Open Access Articles

Inflammation and B-cell hyperactivation have been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma development. This prospective analysis aimed to further elucidate pre-diagnosis plasma immune marker profiles associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk. We identified 598 incident lymphoma cases and 601 matched controls in Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study participants with archived pre-diagnosis plasma samples and measured 13 immune marker levels with multiplexed immunoassays. Using multivariable logistic regression we calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals per standard deviation unit increase in biomarker concentration for risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and major histologic subtype, stratifying additional models by years ( < 5, 5 to < 10, > /=10) after blood draw ...


Fas Ligand Promotes An Inducible Tlr-Dependent Model Of Cutaneous Lupus-Like Inflammation, Purvi Mande, Bahar Zirak, Wei-Che Ko, Keyon Taravati, Karen L. Bride, Tia Bumpus Brodeur, April C. Deng, Karen A. Dresser, Zhaozhao Jiang, Rachel Ettinger, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Michael D. Rosenblum, John E. Harris, Ann Marshak-Rothstein 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Fas Ligand Promotes An Inducible Tlr-Dependent Model Of Cutaneous Lupus-Like Inflammation, Purvi Mande, Bahar Zirak, Wei-Che Ko, Keyon Taravati, Karen L. Bride, Tia Bumpus Brodeur, April C. Deng, Karen A. Dresser, Zhaozhao Jiang, Rachel Ettinger, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Michael D. Rosenblum, John E. Harris, Ann Marshak-Rothstein

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Toll-like receptors TLR7 and TLR9 are both implicated in the activation of autoreactive B cells and other cell types associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. However, Tlr9-/- autoimmune-prone strains paradoxically develop more severe disease. We have now leveraged the negative regulatory role of TLR9 to develop an inducible rapid-onset murine model of systemic autoimmunity that depends on T cell detection of a membrane-bound OVA fusion protein expressed by MHC class II+ cells, expression of TLR7, expression of the type I IFN receptor, and loss of expression of TLR9. These mice are distinguished by a high frequency of OVA-specific Tbet ...


Conservation And Divergence In Modules Of The Transcriptional Programs Of The Human And Mouse Immune Systems, Tal Shay, Vladimir Jojic, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Harvard Medical School, Stanford University, ImmGen Consortium, Kavitha Narayan, Katelyn E. Sylvia, Joonso Kang 2018 Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard

Conservation And Divergence In Modules Of The Transcriptional Programs Of The Human And Mouse Immune Systems, Tal Shay, Vladimir Jojic, Broad Institute Of Mit And Harvard, Harvard Medical School, Stanford University, Immgen Consortium, Kavitha Narayan, Katelyn E. Sylvia, Joonso Kang

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Studies in mouse have shed important light on human hematopoietic differentiation and disease. However, substantial differences between the two species often limit the translation of findings from mouse to human. Here, we compare modules of co-expressed genes in human and mouse immune cells based on compendia of genome-wide profiles. We show that the overall modular organization of the transcriptional program is conserved. We highlight modules of co-expressed genes in one species that dissolve or split in the other species. Many of the associated regulatory mechanisms - as reflected by computationally inferred trans regulators, or enriched cis-regulatory elements - are conserved between the ...


Enhanced Production Of Pro-Il-1Βeta Contributes To Immunopathology During The Coinfection Of Influenza A Virus And Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Angeline E. Rodriguez 2018 Missouri State University

Enhanced Production Of Pro-Il-1Βeta Contributes To Immunopathology During The Coinfection Of Influenza A Virus And Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Angeline E. Rodriguez

MSU Graduate Theses

Viral bacterial coinfections are known to cause severe pneumonia, especially in the elderly and in pediatric patients. Antibiotics like β-Lactams kill the bacteria but fail to improve symptoms suggesting a faulty immune system may play an important role in the disease. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is an important immune signaling cytokine responsible for inflammation. It exists as an inactive precursor that can be activated by caspase-1 containing inflammasomes (multi-protein complex). Influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) activate the inflammasome through the NOD-like receptor protein NLRP3 and/or AIM2. Previous reports in mice indicate that IL-1β levels are dramatically elevated ...


Herpes Zoster Patient Education: A Coloring Book Approach, Sophia Charuhas 2018 Liberty University

Herpes Zoster Patient Education: A Coloring Book Approach, Sophia Charuhas

Senior Honors Theses

Shingles, the disease caused by the herpes zoster virus, is a widespread and widely misunderstood illness in the United States. It is preventable, but many at-risk patients do not know what measures they may take to prevent it. Clear communication from physician to patient is crucial for patient understanding of diseases. Many patient education materials on herpes zoster currently available are often unused. It is therefore beneficial to public health to disseminate new mediums of medical communication, and one way of accomplishing this is through adult coloring books. The pathophysiology of herpes zoster virus is here explored and the idea ...


A Novel Sialylation Site On Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide Links Heptose Ii Lactose Expression With Pathogenicity, Sanjay Ram, Sunita Gulati, Lisa A. Lewis, Srinjoy Chakraborti, Bo Zheng, Rosane B. de Oliveira, George W. Reed, Andrew D. Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St. Michael, Jacek Stupak, Xiao-Hong Su, Sudeshna Saha, Corinna S. Landig, Ajit Varki, Peter A. Rice 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Novel Sialylation Site On Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide Links Heptose Ii Lactose Expression With Pathogenicity, Sanjay Ram, Sunita Gulati, Lisa A. Lewis, Srinjoy Chakraborti, Bo Zheng, Rosane B. De Oliveira, George W. Reed, Andrew D. Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St. Michael, Jacek Stupak, Xiao-Hong Su, Sudeshna Saha, Corinna S. Landig, Ajit Varki, Peter A. Rice

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Sialylation of lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) extending from heptose I (HepI) of gonococcal lipooligosaccharide (LOS) contributes to pathogenesis. Previously, gonococcal LOS sialyltransterase (Lst) was shown to sialylate LOS in Triton X-100 extracts of strain 15253, which expresses lactose from both HepI and HepII, the minimal structure required for mAb 2C7 binding. Ongoing work has shown that growth of 15253 in cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac)-containing media enables binding to CD33/Siglec-3, a cell surface receptor that binds sialic acid, suggesting that lactose termini on LOS of intact gonococci can be sialylated. Neu5Ac was detected on LOSs of strains 15253 and a MS11 ...


Pathogen Recognition By Cd4 Effectors Drives Key Effector And Most Memory Cell Generation Against Respiratory Virus, Priyadharshini Devarajan, Michael C. Jones, Olivia Kugler-Umana, Allen M. Vong, Jingya Xia, Susan L. Swain 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Pathogen Recognition By Cd4 Effectors Drives Key Effector And Most Memory Cell Generation Against Respiratory Virus, Priyadharshini Devarajan, Michael C. Jones, Olivia Kugler-Umana, Allen M. Vong, Jingya Xia, Susan L. Swain

Open Access Articles

Although much is known about the mechanisms by which pathogen recognition drives the initiation of T cell responses, including those to respiratory viruses, the role of pathogen recognition in fate decisions of T cells once they have become effectors remains poorly defined. Here, we review our recent studies that suggest that the generation of CD4 T cell memory is determined by recognition of virus at an effector "checkpoint." We propose this is also true of more highly differentiated tissue-restricted effector cells, including cytotoxic "ThCTL" in the site of infection and TFH in secondary lymphoid organs. We point out that ThCTL ...


P16-Ki67-Hmb45 Immunohistochemical Profiling May Help Discriminate Between Spitzoid Melanoma And Atypical Spitz Nevi, Robert E. Garola, Vivekanand Singh 2018 Children's Mercy Hospital

P16-Ki67-Hmb45 Immunohistochemical Profiling May Help Discriminate Between Spitzoid Melanoma And Atypical Spitz Nevi, Robert E. Garola, Vivekanand Singh

Posters

Background

When Spitz nevi have increased vertical thickness (>1.5 MM), show ulceration and deep seated mitosis, the differential diagnostic considerations of atypical Spitz nevus (ASN) or a Spitzoid melanoma (SM) enter into consideration. While expert consultation from a dermatopathologist is most often sought to resolve the differential diagnosis, it could be expensive and time consuming. Recently, the use of molecular genetic testing has also been advocated in the work group up of atypical melanocytic proliferations. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry is a more routinely used technique in most pathology centers may be more simple to apply. A single immunohistochemical marker ...


Evaluation Of A Method To Measure Hhv-6b Infection In Vitro Based On Cell Size, Aniuska Becerra, Tessa Santoro, Lawrence J. Stern 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Evaluation Of A Method To Measure Hhv-6b Infection In Vitro Based On Cell Size, Aniuska Becerra, Tessa Santoro, Lawrence J. Stern

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) infection of cell cultures can be measured by different methods, including immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, or quantification of virus DNA by qPCR. These methods are reliable and sensitive but require long processing times and can be costly. Another method used in the field relies on the identification of enlarged cells in the culture; this method requires little sample processing and is relatively fast. However, visual inspection of cell cultures can be subjective and it can be difficult to establish clear criteria to decide if a cell is enlarged. To overcome these issues, we ...


Effects Of Gm-Csf On Dendritic Cells And Regulatory T Cells In Parkinson’S Disease Patients And Models Of Parkinson’S Disease, Charles Schutt 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Effects Of Gm-Csf On Dendritic Cells And Regulatory T Cells In Parkinson’S Disease Patients And Models Of Parkinson’S Disease, Charles Schutt

Theses & Dissertations

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder. Pathologically, loss of nigrostriatal neurons and dopamine released by these neurons are responsible for PD motor symptoms. During PD, activation of resident microglia and infiltrating lymphocytes leads to progressive neuroinflammation and reduction in the number and function of regulatory immune cells. Neuroinflammation contributes to progressive neurodegeneration and declining motor function. Reducing neuroinflammation is the target for novel PD therapeutics. Our goal is to increase the number and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in PD patients to decrease neuroinflammation and reduce PD symptoms. One potential therapy is granulocyte-macrophage colony ...


Severity Of Acute Infectious Mononucleosis Correlates With Cross-Reactive Influenza Cd8 T-Cell Receptor Repertoires, Nuray Aslan, Levi B. Watkin, Anna Gil, Rabinarayan Mishra, Fransenio G. Clark, Raymond M. Welsh, Dario Ghersi, Katherine Luzuriaga, Liisa K. Selin 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Severity Of Acute Infectious Mononucleosis Correlates With Cross-Reactive Influenza Cd8 T-Cell Receptor Repertoires, Nuray Aslan, Levi B. Watkin, Anna Gil, Rabinarayan Mishra, Fransenio G. Clark, Raymond M. Welsh, Dario Ghersi, Katherine Luzuriaga, Liisa K. Selin

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Fifty years after the discovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), it remains unclear how primary infection with this virus leads to massive CD8 T-cell expansion and acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) in young adults. AIM can vary greatly in severity, from a mild transient influenza-like illness to a prolonged severe syndrome. We questioned whether expansion of a unique HLA-A2.01-restricted, cross-reactive CD8 T-cell response between influenza virus A-M158 (IAV-M1) and EBV BMLF1280 (EBV-BM) could modulate the immune response to EBV and play a role in determining the severity of AIM in 32 college students. Only ex vivo total IAV-M1 and IAV-M1+EBV-BM ...


Interpreting T-Cell Cross-Reactivity Through Structure: Implications For Tcr-Based Cancer Immunotherapy, Dinler A. Antunes, Mauricio M. Rigo, Martiela V. Freitas, Marcus F. A. Mendes, Marialva Sinigaglia, Gregory Lizee, Lydia E. Kavraki, Liisa K. Selin, Markus Cornberg, Gustavo F. Vieira 2017 Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

Interpreting T-Cell Cross-Reactivity Through Structure: Implications For Tcr-Based Cancer Immunotherapy, Dinler A. Antunes, Mauricio M. Rigo, Martiela V. Freitas, Marcus F. A. Mendes, Marialva Sinigaglia, Gregory Lizee, Lydia E. Kavraki, Liisa K. Selin, Markus Cornberg, Gustavo F. Vieira

Open Access Articles

Immunotherapy has become one of the most promising avenues for cancer treatment, making use of the patient's own immune system to eliminate cancer cells. Clinical trials with T-cell-based immunotherapies have shown dramatic tumor regressions, being effective in multiple cancer types and for many different patients. Unfortunately, this progress was tempered by reports of serious (even fatal) side effects. Such therapies rely on the use of cytotoxic T-cell lymphocytes, an essential part of the adaptive immune system. Cytotoxic T-cells are regularly involved in surveillance and are capable of both eliminating diseased cells and generating protective immunological memory. The specificity of ...


Transient Expression Of Zbtb32 In Anti-Viral Cd8+ T Cells Limits The Magnitude Of The Effector Response And The Generation Of Memory, HyunMu Shin, Varun N. Kapoor, Gwanghun Kim, Peng Li, Hang-Rae Kim, M. Suresh, Susan M. Kaech, E. John Wherry, Liisa K. Selin, Warren J. Leonard, Raymond M. Welsh, Leslie J. Berg 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Transient Expression Of Zbtb32 In Anti-Viral Cd8+ T Cells Limits The Magnitude Of The Effector Response And The Generation Of Memory, Hyunmu Shin, Varun N. Kapoor, Gwanghun Kim, Peng Li, Hang-Rae Kim, M. Suresh, Susan M. Kaech, E. John Wherry, Liisa K. Selin, Warren J. Leonard, Raymond M. Welsh, Leslie J. Berg

Open Access Articles

Virus infections induce CD8+ T cell responses comprised of a large population of terminal effector cells and a smaller subset of long-lived memory cells. The transcription factors regulating the relative expansion versus the long-term survival potential of anti-viral CD8+ T cells are not completely understood. We identified ZBTB32 as a transcription factor that is transiently expressed in effector CD8+ T cells. After acute virus infection, CD8+ T cells deficient in ZBTB32 showed enhanced virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses, and generated increased numbers of virus-specific memory cells; in contrast, persistent expression of ZBTB32 suppressed memory cell formation. The dysregulation of CD8 ...


The Antiviral Rna Interference Response Provides Resistance To Lethal Arbovirus Infection And Vertical Transmission In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Don B. Gammon, Takao Ishidate, Lichao Li, Weifeng Gu, Neal S. Silverman, Craig C. Mello 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Antiviral Rna Interference Response Provides Resistance To Lethal Arbovirus Infection And Vertical Transmission In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Don B. Gammon, Takao Ishidate, Lichao Li, Weifeng Gu, Neal S. Silverman, Craig C. Mello

Neal Silverman

The recent discovery of the positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) Orsay virus (OV) as a natural pathogen of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has stimulated interest in exploring virus-nematode interactions. However, OV infection is restricted to a small number of intestinal cells, even in nematodes defective in their antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) response, and is neither lethal nor vertically transmitted. Using a fluorescent reporter strain of the negative-sense ssRNA vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), we show that microinjection of VSV particles leads to a dose-dependent, muscle tissue-tropic, lethal infection in C. elegans. Furthermore, we find nematodes deficient for components of the antiviral RNAi ...


Central Role Of Il-23 And Il-17 Producing Eosinophils As Immunomodulatory Effector Cells In Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis And Allergic Asthma, Evelyn V. Santos Guerra, Chrono K. Lee, Charles A. Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R. Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M. Levitz 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Central Role Of Il-23 And Il-17 Producing Eosinophils As Immunomodulatory Effector Cells In Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis And Allergic Asthma, Evelyn V. Santos Guerra, Chrono K. Lee, Charles A. Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R. Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M. Levitz

Christian Mueller

Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive pulmonary disease in immunocompromised hosts and allergic asthma in atopic individuals. We studied the contribution of lung eosinophils to these fungal diseases. By in vivo intracellular cytokine staining and confocal microscopy, we observed that eosinophils act as local sources of IL-23 and IL-17. Remarkably, mice lacking eosinophils had a >95% reduction in the percentage of lung IL-23p19+ cells as well as markedly reduced IL-23 heterodimer in lung lavage fluid. Eosinophils killed A. fumigatus conidia in vivo. Eosinopenic mice had higher mortality rates, decreased recruitment of inflammatory monocytes, and decreased expansion of lung macrophages after challenge with ...


Systems Immunology Of Diabetes-Tuberculosis Comorbidity Reveals Signatures Of Disease Complications, Cesar A. Prada-Medina, Kiyoshi F. Fukutani, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Leonardo Gil-Santana, Subash Babu, Flavio Lichtenstein, Kim West, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A. Menon, Vijay Viswanathan, Bruno B. Andrade, Helder I. Nakaya, Hardy Kornfeld 2017 University of São Paulo, Brazil

Systems Immunology Of Diabetes-Tuberculosis Comorbidity Reveals Signatures Of Disease Complications, Cesar A. Prada-Medina, Kiyoshi F. Fukutani, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Leonardo Gil-Santana, Subash Babu, Flavio Lichtenstein, Kim West, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A. Menon, Vijay Viswanathan, Bruno B. Andrade, Helder I. Nakaya, Hardy Kornfeld

Open Access Articles

Comorbid diabetes mellitus (DM) increases tuberculosis (TB) risk and adverse outcomes but the pathological interactions between DM and TB remain incompletely understood. We performed an integrative analysis of whole blood gene expression and plasma analytes, comparing South Indian TB patients with and without DM to diabetic and non-diabetic controls without TB. Luminex assay of plasma cytokines and growth factors delineated a distinct biosignature in comorbid TBDM in this cohort. Transcriptional profiling revealed elements in common with published TB signatures from cohorts that excluded DM. Neutrophil count correlated with the molecular degree of perturbation, especially in TBDM patients. Body mass index ...


Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, Christina Cotte 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, Christina Cotte

University Scholar Projects

Sickle cell disease (SCD) has been shown to be associated with decreased baseline immunity and thus increased susceptibility to infection. I sought to discern possible causes of this by looking into the correlations between SCD and hematopoiesis, the immune system and the neuroendocrine system, and ultimately by conducting experiments surrounding the impaired immune system of SCD. These experiments focused on the potential causes and effects of the diminution of B-1a cells in the SCD spleen. Adoptive transfers, infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and histologic imaging were conducted to establish if the diminution of the B-1a cells in the SCD spleen is ...


A Comparative Analysis Of The West African Hemorrhagic Fevers Caused By The Lassa And Ebola Viruses, Emiene E. Amali-Adekwu 2017 Southeastern University - Lakeland

A Comparative Analysis Of The West African Hemorrhagic Fevers Caused By The Lassa And Ebola Viruses, Emiene E. Amali-Adekwu

Selected Honors Theses

Lassa fever (LF) and Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF) are viral diseases endemic to West Africa.The etiological agent of Lassa fever is an enveloped virus from the Arenaviridae family and was first discovered in 1969 when two missionary nurses died of a mysterious illness in the town of Lassa in Borno state, Nigeria.1 This virus is animal-borne (zoonotic) and is carried by the animal vector Mastomys natalensis (multimammate rat). The Ebola virus is also zoonotic originating from fruit bats belonging to the Pteropodidae family.2 The first reported case of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) was a principal who was ...


The Antiviral Rna Interference Response Provides Resistance To Lethal Arbovirus Infection And Vertical Transmission In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Don B. Gammon, Takao Ishidate, Lichao Li, Weifeng Gu, Neal S. Silverman, Craig C. Mello 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Antiviral Rna Interference Response Provides Resistance To Lethal Arbovirus Infection And Vertical Transmission In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Don B. Gammon, Takao Ishidate, Lichao Li, Weifeng Gu, Neal S. Silverman, Craig C. Mello

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The recent discovery of the positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) Orsay virus (OV) as a natural pathogen of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has stimulated interest in exploring virus-nematode interactions. However, OV infection is restricted to a small number of intestinal cells, even in nematodes defective in their antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) response, and is neither lethal nor vertically transmitted. Using a fluorescent reporter strain of the negative-sense ssRNA vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), we show that microinjection of VSV particles leads to a dose-dependent, muscle tissue-tropic, lethal infection in C. elegans. Furthermore, we find nematodes deficient for components of the antiviral RNAi ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress