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21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix 2018 University of North Georgia

21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

CIGARETTE SMOKE EXPOSURE UPREGULATION OF PGE₂ EXPRESSION IN THE BLADDER

Jessica Nix, Jane McHowat, Shannon Kispert

Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death and disease in the United States. Despite known risks, 42.1 million Americans continue to smoke, making research into tobacco-related pathologies relevant and necessary. We previously discovered that cigarette smoke exposure leads to tumor progression in the breast via platelet activating factor (PAF) and other phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) metabolic pathways. These results led us to examine the PLA2 metabolite, prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂). We observed the expression of PGE₂ in mouse bladder and human heart ...


Microrna-96 Promotes Schistosomiasis Hepatic Fibrosis In Mice By Suppressing Smad7, Xufeng Luo, Dongmei Zhang, Jun Xie, Qin Su, Xing He, Ruipu Bai, Guangping Gao, Weiqing Pan 2018 Second Military Medical University

Microrna-96 Promotes Schistosomiasis Hepatic Fibrosis In Mice By Suppressing Smad7, Xufeng Luo, Dongmei Zhang, Jun Xie, Qin Su, Xing He, Ruipu Bai, Guangping Gao, Weiqing Pan

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Infection with Schistosoma causes aberrant expression of host microRNAs (miRNAs), and normalizing the levels of dysregulated miRNAs can attenuate pathology. Here, we show that the host miRNA, miR-96, is markedly upregulated during the progression of hepatic schistosomiasis. We demonstrate that elevation of miR-96 induces hepatic fibrosis in infected mice by suppressing the expression of its target gene, Smad7. We show that infection with Schistosoma induces the expression of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), which in turn upregulates the expression of miR-96 through SMAD2/3-DROSHA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-96 with recombinant adeno-associated virus 8 (rAAV8)-mediated delivery of Tough ...


Tolerating The Unwelcome Guest; How The Host Withstands Persistent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Andrew J. Olive, Christopher M. Sassetti 2018 Michigan State University

Tolerating The Unwelcome Guest; How The Host Withstands Persistent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Andrew J. Olive, Christopher M. Sassetti

Open Access Articles

Our understanding of the host response to infections has historically focused on "resistance" mechanisms that directly control pathogen replication. However, both pathogen effectors and antimicrobial immune pathways have the capacity to damage host tissue, and the ability to tolerate these insults can also be critical for host survival. These "tolerance" mechanisms may be equally as important as resistance to prevent disease in the context of a persistent infection, such as tuberculosis, when resistance mechanisms are ineffective and the pathogen persists in the tissue for long periods. Host tolerance encompasses a wide range of strategies, many of which involve regulation of ...


Il-16/Mir-125a Axis Controls Neutrophil Recruitment In Pristane-Induced Lung Inflammation, Siobhan Smith, Hardy Kornfeld, Caroline A. Jefferies 2018 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Il-16/Mir-125a Axis Controls Neutrophil Recruitment In Pristane-Induced Lung Inflammation, Siobhan Smith, Hardy Kornfeld, Caroline A. Jefferies

Open Access Articles

Severe lung inflammation and alveolar hemorrhage can be life-threatening in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients if not treated early and aggressively. Neutrophil influx is the driver key of this pathology, but little is known regarding the molecular events regulating this recruitment. Here, we uncover a role for IL-16/mir-125a in this pathology and show not only that IL-16 is a target for miR-125a but that reduced miR-125a expression in SLE patients associates with lung involvement. Furthermore, in the pristane model of acute "SLE-like" lung inflammation and alveolar hemorrhage, we observed reduced pulmonary miR-125a and enhanced IL-16 expression. Neutrophil infiltration was ...


Peptide Antigen Concentration Modulates Digital Nfat1 Activation In Primary Mouse Naive Cd8(+) T Cells As Measured By Flow Cytometry Of Isolated Cell Nuclei, Michael P. Gallagher, James M. Conley, Leslie J. Berg 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Peptide Antigen Concentration Modulates Digital Nfat1 Activation In Primary Mouse Naive Cd8(+) T Cells As Measured By Flow Cytometry Of Isolated Cell Nuclei, Michael P. Gallagher, James M. Conley, Leslie J. Berg

Open Access Articles

Circulating naive T cells exist in a quiescent state. After TCR contact with the cognate peptide presented by APCs in secondary lymphoid structures, T cells undergo a period of rapid transcriptional changes that set the stage for fate-determining effector or memory programming. We describe a novel method to analyze TCR signaling pathway activation in nuclei isolated from primary mouse naive T cells after stimulation with natural peptide Ags. We prelabeled cells with cell tracking dye to easily distinguish CD8(+) T cell nuclei from APC nuclei by conventional flow cytometry. Using this approach, we observed clear digital activation of NFAT1 transcription ...


Sodium Pyruvate Alters The Immune Response To Influenza A Virus Infection In Macrophages, Hazzar Abysalamah 2018 Missouri State University

Sodium Pyruvate Alters The Immune Response To Influenza A Virus Infection In Macrophages, Hazzar Abysalamah

MSU Graduate Theses

ABSTRACT

Pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis. It can either be transported into the mitochondria for use in the TCA cycle or be used to regenerate NAD+ during fermentation or aerobic glycolysis (also called the Warburg Effect). I recently discovered that addition of sodium pyruvate to the culture medium during infection of macrophages with influenza A virus affects the production of cytokines involved in immune signaling. While infection of macrophages with influenza A virus resulted in high levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) in the absence of sodium pyruvate, the addition of sodium pyruvate significantly impaired cytokine production ...


Investigation Of Hnf-1b As A Diagnostic Biomarker For Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Michelle X. Yang, Ryan F. Coates, Abiy Ambaye, Juli-Anne Gardner, Richard Zubarick, Yuan Gao, Joan Skelly, James G. Liu, Mari Mino-Kenudson 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Investigation Of Hnf-1b As A Diagnostic Biomarker For Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Michelle X. Yang, Ryan F. Coates, Abiy Ambaye, Juli-Anne Gardner, Richard Zubarick, Yuan Gao, Joan Skelly, James G. Liu, Mari Mino-Kenudson

Open Access Articles

Background: Diagnosing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in the setting of metastasis with an unknown primary remains very challenging due to the lack of specific biomarkers. HNF-1B has been characterized as an important transcription factor for pancreatic development and was reported as a biomarker for clear cell subtype of PDAC.

Methods: To investigate the diagnostic role of HNF-1B for PDAC, we used tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to characterize HNF-1B expression in a large cohort of carcinomas, including 127 primary PDACs, 47 biliary adenocarcinomas, 17 metastatic PDACs, and 231 non-pancreaticobiliary carcinomas.

Results: HNF-1B was expressed in 107 of 127 (84 ...


Quantitative Profiling Of The Lymph Node Clearance Capacity, Cristina C. Clement, Wei Wang, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Marco Cortese, Kirk C. Hansen, Aniuska Becerra, Sangeetha Thangaswamy, Irina Nizamutdinova, Jee-Young Moon, Lawrence J. Stern, Anatoliy A. Gashev, David Zawieja, Laura Santambrogio 2018 Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Quantitative Profiling Of The Lymph Node Clearance Capacity, Cristina C. Clement, Wei Wang, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Marco Cortese, Kirk C. Hansen, Aniuska Becerra, Sangeetha Thangaswamy, Irina Nizamutdinova, Jee-Young Moon, Lawrence J. Stern, Anatoliy A. Gashev, David Zawieja, Laura Santambrogio

Open Access Articles

Transport of tissue-derived lymphatic fluid and clearance by draining lymph nodes are pivotal for maintenance of fluid homeostasis in the body and for immune-surveillance of the self- and non-self-proteomes. Yet a quantitative analysis of nodal filtration of the tissue-derived proteome present in lymphatic fluid has not been reported. Here we quantified the efficiency of nodal clearance of the composite proteomic load using label-free and isotope-labeling proteomic analysis of pre-nodal and post-nodal samples collected by direct cannulation. These results were extended by quantitation of the filtration efficiency of fluorophore-labeled proteins, bacteria, and beads infused at physiological flow rates into pre-nodal lymphatic ...


Methods For High-Dimensonal Analysis Of Cells Dissociated From Cyropreserved Synovial Tissue, Laura T. Donlin, Ellen M. Gravallese, Jennifer H. Anolik 2018 Weill Cornell Medical College

Methods For High-Dimensonal Analysis Of Cells Dissociated From Cyropreserved Synovial Tissue, Laura T. Donlin, Ellen M. Gravallese, Jennifer H. Anolik

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Detailed molecular analyses of cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium hold promise in identifying cellular phenotypes that drive tissue pathology and joint damage. The Accelerating Medicines Partnership RA/SLE Network aims to deconstruct autoimmune pathology by examining cells within target tissues through multiple high-dimensional assays. Robust standardized protocols need to be developed before cellular phenotypes at a single cell level can be effectively compared across patient samples.

METHODS: Multiple clinical sites collected cryopreserved synovial tissue fragments from arthroplasty and synovial biopsy in a 10% DMSO solution. Mechanical and enzymatic dissociation parameters were optimized for viable cell extraction and surface ...


Pre-Diagnosis Plasma Immune Markers And Risk Of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma In Two Prospective Cohort Studies, Mara M. Epstein, Bernard Rosner, Elizabeth C. Breen, Julie L. Batista, Edward L. Giovannucci, Larry Magpantay, Jon C. Aster, Scott J. Rodig, Kimberly A. Bertrand, Francine Laden, Otoniel Martinez-Maza, Brenda M. Birmann 2018 University of Massachusetts

Pre-Diagnosis Plasma Immune Markers And Risk Of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma In Two Prospective Cohort Studies, Mara M. Epstein, Bernard Rosner, Elizabeth C. Breen, Julie L. Batista, Edward L. Giovannucci, Larry Magpantay, Jon C. Aster, Scott J. Rodig, Kimberly A. Bertrand, Francine Laden, Otoniel Martinez-Maza, Brenda M. Birmann

Open Access Articles

Inflammation and B-cell hyperactivation have been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma development. This prospective analysis aimed to further elucidate pre-diagnosis plasma immune marker profiles associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk. We identified 598 incident lymphoma cases and 601 matched controls in Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study participants with archived pre-diagnosis plasma samples and measured 13 immune marker levels with multiplexed immunoassays. Using multivariable logistic regression we calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals per standard deviation unit increase in biomarker concentration for risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and major histologic subtype, stratifying additional models by years ( < 5, 5 to < 10, > /=10) after blood draw ...


Fas Ligand Promotes An Inducible Tlr-Dependent Model Of Cutaneous Lupus-Like Inflammation, Purvi Mande, Bahar Zirak, Wei-Che Ko, Keyon Taravati, Karen L. Bride, Tia Bumpus Brodeur, April C. Deng, Karen A. Dresser, Zhaozhao Jiang, Rachel Ettinger, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Michael D. Rosenblum, John E. Harris, Ann Marshak-Rothstein 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Fas Ligand Promotes An Inducible Tlr-Dependent Model Of Cutaneous Lupus-Like Inflammation, Purvi Mande, Bahar Zirak, Wei-Che Ko, Keyon Taravati, Karen L. Bride, Tia Bumpus Brodeur, April C. Deng, Karen A. Dresser, Zhaozhao Jiang, Rachel Ettinger, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Michael D. Rosenblum, John E. Harris, Ann Marshak-Rothstein

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Toll-like receptors TLR7 and TLR9 are both implicated in the activation of autoreactive B cells and other cell types associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. However, Tlr9-/- autoimmune-prone strains paradoxically develop more severe disease. We have now leveraged the negative regulatory role of TLR9 to develop an inducible rapid-onset murine model of systemic autoimmunity that depends on T cell detection of a membrane-bound OVA fusion protein expressed by MHC class II+ cells, expression of TLR7, expression of the type I IFN receptor, and loss of expression of TLR9. These mice are distinguished by a high frequency of OVA-specific Tbet ...


Conservation And Divergence In Modules Of The Transcriptional Programs Of The Human And Mouse Immune Systems, Tal Shay, Vladimir Jojic, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Harvard Medical School, Stanford University, ImmGen Consortium, Kavitha Narayan, Katelyn E. Sylvia, Joonso Kang 2018 Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard

Conservation And Divergence In Modules Of The Transcriptional Programs Of The Human And Mouse Immune Systems, Tal Shay, Vladimir Jojic, Broad Institute Of Mit And Harvard, Harvard Medical School, Stanford University, Immgen Consortium, Kavitha Narayan, Katelyn E. Sylvia, Joonso Kang

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Studies in mouse have shed important light on human hematopoietic differentiation and disease. However, substantial differences between the two species often limit the translation of findings from mouse to human. Here, we compare modules of co-expressed genes in human and mouse immune cells based on compendia of genome-wide profiles. We show that the overall modular organization of the transcriptional program is conserved. We highlight modules of co-expressed genes in one species that dissolve or split in the other species. Many of the associated regulatory mechanisms - as reflected by computationally inferred trans regulators, or enriched cis-regulatory elements - are conserved between the ...


Enhanced Production Of Pro-Il-1Βeta Contributes To Immunopathology During The Coinfection Of Influenza A Virus And Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Angeline E. Rodriguez 2018 Missouri State University

Enhanced Production Of Pro-Il-1Βeta Contributes To Immunopathology During The Coinfection Of Influenza A Virus And Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Angeline E. Rodriguez

MSU Graduate Theses

Viral bacterial coinfections are known to cause severe pneumonia, especially in the elderly and in pediatric patients. Antibiotics like β-Lactams kill the bacteria but fail to improve symptoms suggesting a faulty immune system may play an important role in the disease. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is an important immune signaling cytokine responsible for inflammation. It exists as an inactive precursor that can be activated by caspase-1 containing inflammasomes (multi-protein complex). Influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) activate the inflammasome through the NOD-like receptor protein NLRP3 and/or AIM2. Previous reports in mice indicate that IL-1β levels are dramatically elevated ...


Herpes Zoster Patient Education: A Coloring Book Approach, Sophia Charuhas 2018 Liberty University

Herpes Zoster Patient Education: A Coloring Book Approach, Sophia Charuhas

Senior Honors Theses

Shingles, the disease caused by the herpes zoster virus, is a widespread and widely misunderstood illness in the United States. It is preventable, but many at-risk patients do not know what measures they may take to prevent it. Clear communication from physician to patient is crucial for patient understanding of diseases. Many patient education materials on herpes zoster currently available are often unused. It is therefore beneficial to public health to disseminate new mediums of medical communication, and one way of accomplishing this is through adult coloring books. The pathophysiology of herpes zoster virus is here explored and the idea ...


A Novel Sialylation Site On Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide Links Heptose Ii Lactose Expression With Pathogenicity, Sanjay Ram, Sunita Gulati, Lisa A. Lewis, Srinjoy Chakraborti, Bo Zheng, Rosane B. de Oliveira, George W. Reed, Andrew D. Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St. Michael, Jacek Stupak, Xiao-Hong Su, Sudeshna Saha, Corinna S. Landig, Ajit Varki, Peter A. Rice 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Novel Sialylation Site On Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide Links Heptose Ii Lactose Expression With Pathogenicity, Sanjay Ram, Sunita Gulati, Lisa A. Lewis, Srinjoy Chakraborti, Bo Zheng, Rosane B. De Oliveira, George W. Reed, Andrew D. Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St. Michael, Jacek Stupak, Xiao-Hong Su, Sudeshna Saha, Corinna S. Landig, Ajit Varki, Peter A. Rice

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Sialylation of lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) extending from heptose I (HepI) of gonococcal lipooligosaccharide (LOS) contributes to pathogenesis. Previously, gonococcal LOS sialyltransterase (Lst) was shown to sialylate LOS in Triton X-100 extracts of strain 15253, which expresses lactose from both HepI and HepII, the minimal structure required for mAb 2C7 binding. Ongoing work has shown that growth of 15253 in cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac)-containing media enables binding to CD33/Siglec-3, a cell surface receptor that binds sialic acid, suggesting that lactose termini on LOS of intact gonococci can be sialylated. Neu5Ac was detected on LOSs of strains 15253 and a MS11 ...


Pathogen Recognition By Cd4 Effectors Drives Key Effector And Most Memory Cell Generation Against Respiratory Virus, Priyadharshini Devarajan, Michael C. Jones, Olivia Kugler-Umana, Allen M. Vong, Jingya Xia, Susan L. Swain 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Pathogen Recognition By Cd4 Effectors Drives Key Effector And Most Memory Cell Generation Against Respiratory Virus, Priyadharshini Devarajan, Michael C. Jones, Olivia Kugler-Umana, Allen M. Vong, Jingya Xia, Susan L. Swain

Open Access Articles

Although much is known about the mechanisms by which pathogen recognition drives the initiation of T cell responses, including those to respiratory viruses, the role of pathogen recognition in fate decisions of T cells once they have become effectors remains poorly defined. Here, we review our recent studies that suggest that the generation of CD4 T cell memory is determined by recognition of virus at an effector "checkpoint." We propose this is also true of more highly differentiated tissue-restricted effector cells, including cytotoxic "ThCTL" in the site of infection and TFH in secondary lymphoid organs. We point out that ThCTL ...


P16-Ki67-Hmb45 Immunohistochemical Profiling May Help Discriminate Between Spitzoid Melanoma And Atypical Spitz Nevi, Robert E. Garola, Vivekanand Singh 2018 Children's Mercy Hospital

P16-Ki67-Hmb45 Immunohistochemical Profiling May Help Discriminate Between Spitzoid Melanoma And Atypical Spitz Nevi, Robert E. Garola, Vivekanand Singh

Posters

Background

When Spitz nevi have increased vertical thickness (>1.5 MM), show ulceration and deep seated mitosis, the differential diagnostic considerations of atypical Spitz nevus (ASN) or a Spitzoid melanoma (SM) enter into consideration. While expert consultation from a dermatopathologist is most often sought to resolve the differential diagnosis, it could be expensive and time consuming. Recently, the use of molecular genetic testing has also been advocated in the work group up of atypical melanocytic proliferations. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry is a more routinely used technique in most pathology centers may be more simple to apply. A single immunohistochemical marker ...


Evaluation Of A Method To Measure Hhv-6b Infection In Vitro Based On Cell Size, Aniuska Becerra, Tessa Santoro, Lawrence J. Stern 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Evaluation Of A Method To Measure Hhv-6b Infection In Vitro Based On Cell Size, Aniuska Becerra, Tessa Santoro, Lawrence J. Stern

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) infection of cell cultures can be measured by different methods, including immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, or quantification of virus DNA by qPCR. These methods are reliable and sensitive but require long processing times and can be costly. Another method used in the field relies on the identification of enlarged cells in the culture; this method requires little sample processing and is relatively fast. However, visual inspection of cell cultures can be subjective and it can be difficult to establish clear criteria to decide if a cell is enlarged. To overcome these issues, we ...


Effects Of Gm-Csf On Dendritic Cells And Regulatory T Cells In Parkinson’S Disease Patients And Models Of Parkinson’S Disease, Charles Schutt 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Effects Of Gm-Csf On Dendritic Cells And Regulatory T Cells In Parkinson’S Disease Patients And Models Of Parkinson’S Disease, Charles Schutt

Theses & Dissertations

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder. Pathologically, loss of nigrostriatal neurons and dopamine released by these neurons are responsible for PD motor symptoms. During PD, activation of resident microglia and infiltrating lymphocytes leads to progressive neuroinflammation and reduction in the number and function of regulatory immune cells. Neuroinflammation contributes to progressive neurodegeneration and declining motor function. Reducing neuroinflammation is the target for novel PD therapeutics. Our goal is to increase the number and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in PD patients to decrease neuroinflammation and reduce PD symptoms. One potential therapy is granulocyte-macrophage colony ...


Severity Of Acute Infectious Mononucleosis Correlates With Cross-Reactive Influenza Cd8 T-Cell Receptor Repertoires, Nuray Aslan, Levi B. Watkin, Anna Gil, Rabinarayan Mishra, Fransenio G. Clark, Raymond M. Welsh, Dario Ghersi, Katherine Luzuriaga, Liisa K. Selin 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Severity Of Acute Infectious Mononucleosis Correlates With Cross-Reactive Influenza Cd8 T-Cell Receptor Repertoires, Nuray Aslan, Levi B. Watkin, Anna Gil, Rabinarayan Mishra, Fransenio G. Clark, Raymond M. Welsh, Dario Ghersi, Katherine Luzuriaga, Liisa K. Selin

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Fifty years after the discovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), it remains unclear how primary infection with this virus leads to massive CD8 T-cell expansion and acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) in young adults. AIM can vary greatly in severity, from a mild transient influenza-like illness to a prolonged severe syndrome. We questioned whether expansion of a unique HLA-A2.01-restricted, cross-reactive CD8 T-cell response between influenza virus A-M158 (IAV-M1) and EBV BMLF1280 (EBV-BM) could modulate the immune response to EBV and play a role in determining the severity of AIM in 32 college students. Only ex vivo total IAV-M1 and IAV-M1+EBV-BM ...


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