Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Immunoprophylaxis and Therapy Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

18 Full-Text Articles 68 Authors 2,007 Downloads 7 Institutions

All Articles in Immunoprophylaxis and Therapy

Faceted Search

18 full-text articles. Page 1 of 1.

Detection Of Cd8+ T Cell Responses In Individuals With Long-Term Type 1 Diabetes And Generation Of Human Cd8+ T Cell Lines Specific To Islet-Associated Autoantigens, Jenny Aurielle B. Babon, David M. Harlan, Sally C. Kent 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Detection Of Cd8+ T Cell Responses In Individuals With Long-Term Type 1 Diabetes And Generation Of Human Cd8+ T Cell Lines Specific To Islet-Associated Autoantigens, Jenny Aurielle B. Babon, David M. Harlan, Sally C. Kent

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the activation of lymphocytes against insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreas. In humans, CD8+ T cells are predominantly found in sites of insulitis and are considered to be one of the main drivers of β-cell destruction, thus indicating the need to analyze the frequency and function of these autoreactive CD8+ T cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from individuals with long-term T1D were stained ex vivo for T cell surface markers and HLA-A2 pentamers containing known islet-associated epitopes to determine if there are autoreactive CD8+ T cells circulating in the periphery ...


Use Of Cholera Toxin B As A Vaccine Adjuvant Activates Antigen Presenting Cells And Stimulates Production Of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines, Heather C. Romlein 2014 Seton Hall University

Use Of Cholera Toxin B As A Vaccine Adjuvant Activates Antigen Presenting Cells And Stimulates Production Of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines, Heather C. Romlein

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Francisella tularensis is an intracellular pathogen that has been classified as a category “A” bioterrorism agent by the Centers For Disease Control. To date, there is no approved vaccine to provide protection against this pathogen. Previous in vivo studies with mice have shown that a mucosally targeted vaccine preparation of inactivated F. tularensis (iFt) adjuvanted with Cholera toxin “B” (CTB), successfully granted full protection against a less virulent strain (FT LVS) of the bacterium and provided partial protection against a more virulent strain (SchuS4). However, the mechanisms of this protection are not fully understood. In this present study, an in ...


Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer 2014 University of Connecticut

Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer

University Scholar Projects

Somatic mutations may drive tumorigenesis or lead to new, immunogenic epitopes (neoantigens). The immune system is thought to represses neoplastic growths through the recognition of neoantigens presented only by tumor cells. To study mutations as well as the immune response to mutation-generated antigens, we have created a conditional knockin mouse line with a gene encoding, 5’ to 3’, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), ovalbumin (which is processed to the immunologically recognizable peptide, SIINFEKL), and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), or, YFP-ovalbumin-CFP. A frame shift mutation has been created at the 5’ end of the ovalbumin gene, hence YFP should always be expressed ...


Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer 2014 University of Connecticut

Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer

Honors Scholar Theses

Somatic mutations may drive tumorigenesis or lead to new, immunogenic epitopes (neoantigens). The immune system is thought to represses neoplastic growths through the recognition of neoantigens presented only by tumor cells. To study mutations as well as the immune response to mutation-generated antigens, we have created a conditional knockin mouse line with a gene encoding, 5’ to 3’, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), ovalbumin (which is processed to the immunologically recognizable peptide, SIINFEKL), and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), or, YFP-ovalbumin-CFP. A frame shift mutation has been created at the 5’ end of the ovalbumin gene, hence YFP should always be expressed ...


Serum Cytokine Profiles Associated With Specific Adjuvants Used In A Dna Prime-Protein Boost Vaccination Strategy, Rachel Buglione-Corbett, Kimberly Lea Pouliot, Robyn Lynn Marty-Roix, Kim West, Shixia Wang, Egil Lien, Shan Lu 2013 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Serum Cytokine Profiles Associated With Specific Adjuvants Used In A Dna Prime-Protein Boost Vaccination Strategy, Rachel Buglione-Corbett, Kimberly Lea Pouliot, Robyn Lynn Marty-Roix, Kim West, Shixia Wang, Egil Lien, Shan Lu

Open Access Articles

In recent years, heterologous prime-boost vaccines have been demonstrated to be an effective strategy for generating protective immunity, consisting of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against a variety of pathogens including HIV-1. Previous reports of preclinical and clinical studies have shown the enhanced immunogenicity of viral vector or DNA vaccination followed by heterologous protein boost, compared to using either prime or boost components alone. With such approaches, the selection of an adjuvant for inclusion in the protein boost component is expected to impact the immunogenicity and safety of a vaccine. In this study, we examined in a mouse model ...


Modulating Influenza And Heparin Binding Viruses’ Pathogenesis With Extrinsic Receptor Decoy Liposomes: A Dissertation, Gabriel L. Hendricks 2013 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Modulating Influenza And Heparin Binding Viruses’ Pathogenesis With Extrinsic Receptor Decoy Liposomes: A Dissertation, Gabriel L. Hendricks

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Influenza is a severe disease in humans and animals, causing upwards of 40,000 deaths every year in America alone. Influenza A virus (IAV) also causes periodic pandemics every 10 to 50 years, killing millions of people. Despite this, very few effective therapies are available. All strains of IAV are prone to developing resistance to antibodies due to the high mutation rate in the viral genome. Because of this mutation rate, a yearly vaccine must be generated before every flu season, and efficacy varies year to year. IAV has also mutated to escape several of the clinically-approved small molecule inhibitors ...


Identification Of A Human Monoclonal Antibody To Replace Equine Diphtheria Anti-Toxin For The Treatment Of Diphtheria, Leila M. Sevigny, Brian J. Booth, Kirk J. Rowley, Brett A. Leav, Peter S. Cheslock, Kerry A. Garrity, Susan Sloan, Gregory J. Babcock, William D. Thomas, Mark Klempner, Yang Wang 2013 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Identification Of A Human Monoclonal Antibody To Replace Equine Diphtheria Anti-Toxin For The Treatment Of Diphtheria, Leila M. Sevigny, Brian J. Booth, Kirk J. Rowley, Brett A. Leav, Peter S. Cheslock, Kerry A. Garrity, Susan Sloan, Gregory J. Babcock, William D. Thomas, Mark Klempner, Yang Wang

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Diphtheria anti-toxin (DAT) has been used to treat Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection for over one hundred years. While the global incidence of diphtheria has declined in the 20th century, the disease remains endemic in many parts of the world and significant outbreaks still occur. Diphtheria anti-toxin is an equine polyclonal antibody with considerable side effects that is in critically short supply globally. A safer, more readily available alternative to DAT would be desirable. In the current study, we cloned human monoclonal antibodies (HuMabs) directly from antibody secreting cells of human volunteers immunized with Td vaccine. We isolated a diverse panel of ...


Novel Imaging-Based Techniques Reveal A Role For Pd-1/Pd-L1 In Tumor Immune Surveillance In The Lung, Todd Bartkowiak 2013 Texas Medical Center Library

Novel Imaging-Based Techniques Reveal A Role For Pd-1/Pd-L1 In Tumor Immune Surveillance In The Lung, Todd Bartkowiak

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The binding of immune inhibitory receptor Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) on T cells to its ligand PD-L1 has been implicated as a major contributor to tumor induced immune suppression. Clinical trials of PD-L1 blockade have proven effective in unleashing therapeutic anti-tumor immune responses in a subset of patients with advanced melanoma, yet current response rates are low for reasons that remain unclear. Hypothesizing that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway regulates T cell surveillance within the tumor microenvironment, we employed intravital microscopy to investigate the in vivo impact of PD-L1 blocking antibody upon tumor-associated immune cell migration. However, current analytical methods of ...


Adjuvant-Specific Serum Cytokine Profiles In The Context Of A Dna Prime-Protein Boost Hiv-1 Vaccine: A Dissertation, Rachel Buglione-Corbett 2013 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Adjuvant-Specific Serum Cytokine Profiles In The Context Of A Dna Prime-Protein Boost Hiv-1 Vaccine: A Dissertation, Rachel Buglione-Corbett

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

In recent years, heterologous prime-boost vaccination constructs have emerged as a promising strategy to generate broad and protective immunity against a variety of pathogens. The utility of DNA vaccination in priming the immune system, in particular, has improved the immunogenicity of vaccines against difficult pathogens such as HIV-1. In addition, many vaccine formulations include an adjuvant to augment immune responses. However, the mechanisms and profiles of many adjuvants remain largely unknown, particularly in the context of such combination immunization approaches.

My thesis research studied the effects of several adjuvants, QS-21, aluminum hydroxide, MPL, and ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant in the context of ...


Identification Of Human Monoclonal Antibodies Specific For Human Sod1 Recognizing Distinct Epitopes And Forms Of Sod1, Teresa J. Broering, Hongyan Wang, Naomi K. Boatright, Yang Wang, Katherine Baptista, Gilda Shayan, Kerry A. Garrity, Can Kayatekin, Daryl A. Bosco, C. Robert Matthews, Donna M. Ambrosino, Zuoshang Xu, Gregory J. Babcock 2013 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Identification Of Human Monoclonal Antibodies Specific For Human Sod1 Recognizing Distinct Epitopes And Forms Of Sod1, Teresa J. Broering, Hongyan Wang, Naomi K. Boatright, Yang Wang, Katherine Baptista, Gilda Shayan, Kerry A. Garrity, Can Kayatekin, Daryl A. Bosco, C. Robert Matthews, Donna M. Ambrosino, Zuoshang Xu, Gregory J. Babcock

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Mutations in the gene encoding human SOD1 (hSOD1) can cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) yet the mechanism by which mutant SOD1 can induce ALS is not fully understood. There is currently no cure for ALS or treatment that significantly reduces symptoms or progression. To develop tools to understand the protein conformations present in mutant SOD1-induced ALS and as possible immunotherapy, we isolated and characterized eleven unique human monoclonal antibodies specific for hSOD1. Among these, five recognized distinct linear epitopes on hSOD1 that were not available in the properly-folded protein but were available on forms of protein with some degree of ...


The Missing Heritability In T1d And Potential New Targets For Prevention, Brian G. Pierce, Ryan Eberwine, Janelle A. Noble, Michael Habib, Hennady P. Shulha, Zhiping Weng, Elizabeth P. Blankenhorn, John P. Mordes 2013 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Missing Heritability In T1d And Potential New Targets For Prevention, Brian G. Pierce, Ryan Eberwine, Janelle A. Noble, Michael Habib, Hennady P. Shulha, Zhiping Weng, Elizabeth P. Blankenhorn, John P. Mordes

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-mediated disease. It is strongly associated with susceptibility haplotypes within the major histocompatibility complex, but this association accounts for an estimated 50% of susceptibility. Other studies have identified as many as 50 additional susceptibility loci, but the effect of most is very modest (odds ratio (OR) 5) and that deletion of V beta 13+ T cells prevents diabetes. A role for the TCR is also suspected in NOD mice, but TCR regions have not been associated with human T1D. To investigate this disparity, we tested the hypothesis in silico that previous studies of ...


Determination Of The Active Components Of Elderberry Extracts On Immune Function And Tumor Cell Growth, Sahar Rizvi 2012 Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne

Determination Of The Active Components Of Elderberry Extracts On Immune Function And Tumor Cell Growth, Sahar Rizvi

Master's Theses

Present cancer treatments cause the cessation of the body’s own natural defenses, resulting in the susceptibility of patients to other illnesses, namely infection, during therapy. Contemporary research must focus on developing treatments to preserve or even augment the body’s natural defenses by pursuing naturally-derived elements devoid of such adverse effects. Seeking more natural treatments, Sambucus Nigra (elderberry) proves to be an important source of known immune stimulators including anthocyanins, catechins, and tannins, as wells as several known antioxidants and tumor suppressive agents in the form of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins.

Our primary goal was to separate the distinctive components ...


Immunological Mechanisms Of Extracorporeal Photopheresis In Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma And Graft Versus Host Disease, Lisa Shiue 2012 Texas Medical Center Library

Immunological Mechanisms Of Extracorporeal Photopheresis In Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma And Graft Versus Host Disease, Lisa Shiue

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

IMMUNOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF EXTRACORPOREAL PHOTOPHERESIS IN CUTANEOUS T CELL LYMPHOMA AND GRAFT VERSUS HOST DISEASE

Publication No.___________

Lisa Harn-Ging Shiue, B.S.

Supervisory Professor: Madeleine Duvic, M.D.

Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is an effective, low-risk immunomodulating therapy for leukemic cutaneous T cell lymphoma (L-CTCL) and graft versus host disease (GVHD), but whether the mechanism(s) of action in these two diseases is (are) identical or different is unclear. To determine the effects of ECP in vivo, we studied regulatory T cells (T-regs), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and dendritic cells (DCs) by immunofluorescence flow cytometry in 18 L-CTCL and 11 ...


Role Of Surface Antigens Of Mycobacterium Spp. In Diagnosis, Ashutosh Wadhwa 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Role Of Surface Antigens Of Mycobacterium Spp. In Diagnosis, Ashutosh Wadhwa

Doctoral Dissertations

Mycobacterial species are ubiquitous in nature and a worldwide concern for human and animal health. The major mycobacterial infections in animals are Johne’s disease (JD) and bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Controlling these infections is difficult due to the lack of highly sensitive and sensitive diagnostic test. Currently available diagnostic tests have to be carried out in laboratory settings with well experienced and trained examiners. My goal is to develop a sensitive on-site (in-field) device for diagnosis of Johne’s disease and bovine tuberculosis. The specific aims of this thesis were (1) to review currently-used or recently developed diagnostic tests for ...


Vaccine Protection Against Simian Immunodeficiency Virus In Monkeys Using Recombinant Gamma-2 Herpesvirus, John P. Bilello, Julieta M. Manrique, Young C. Shin, William Lauer, Wenjun Li, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Keith G. Mansfield, R. Paul Johnson, Ronald C. Desrosiers 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Vaccine Protection Against Simian Immunodeficiency Virus In Monkeys Using Recombinant Gamma-2 Herpesvirus, John P. Bilello, Julieta M. Manrique, Young C. Shin, William Lauer, Wenjun Li, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Keith G. Mansfield, R. Paul Johnson, Ronald C. Desrosiers

Preventive and Behavioral Medicine Publications and Presentations

Recombinant strains of replication-competent rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) were constructed in which strong promoter/enhancer elements were used to drive expression of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Env or Gag or a Rev-Tat-Nef fusion protein. Cultured rhesus monkey fibroblasts infected with each recombinant strain were shown to express the expected protein. Three RRV-negative and two RRV-positive rhesus monkeys were inoculated intravenously with a mixture of these three recombinant RRVs. Expression of SIV Gag was readily detected in lymph node biopsy specimens taken at 3 weeks postimmunization. Impressive anti-SIV cellular immune responses were elicited on the basis of major histocompatibility complex (MHC ...


Investigating Mechanisms Of Cancer Vaccine-Induced Tumor Immunity And Autoimmunity, Dannie Bernard 2011 McMaster University

Investigating Mechanisms Of Cancer Vaccine-Induced Tumor Immunity And Autoimmunity, Dannie Bernard

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

INTRODUCTION: Pre-clinical and clinical data strongly support the feasibility of employing immunotherapy as a strategy to treat cancer.

METHODS: Using the B16F10 murine melanoma model, we have been investigating mechanisms of T cell-mediated antitumor immunity following immunization with dopachrome tautomerase (DCT), a melanoma-associated antigen.

RESULTS: In Chapter 2, we uncovered an interesting dichotomy whereby DCT-specific CD4+ T cell-mediated tumor protection and autoimmunity are dependent on IL-4/STAT-6 and IFN-g/STAT-4, respectively. Our data also revealed that this phenomenon is extrinsic of CD4+ T cell polarization.

To gain further insight into the targets recognized by CD4+ T cells, we conducted in ...


Envelope-Modified Single-Cycle Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Selectively Enhances Antibody Responses And Partially Protects Against Repeated, Low-Dose Vaginal Challenge, Michael D. Alpert, Andrew R. Rahmberg, William Neidermyer, Sharon K. Ng, Angela Carville, Jeremy V. Camp, Robert L. Wilson, Michael Piatak Jr., Keith G. Mansfield, Wenjun Li, Christopher J. Miller, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Pamela A. Kozlowski, David T. Evans 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Envelope-Modified Single-Cycle Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Selectively Enhances Antibody Responses And Partially Protects Against Repeated, Low-Dose Vaginal Challenge, Michael D. Alpert, Andrew R. Rahmberg, William Neidermyer, Sharon K. Ng, Angela Carville, Jeremy V. Camp, Robert L. Wilson, Michael Piatak Jr., Keith G. Mansfield, Wenjun Li, Christopher J. Miller, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Pamela A. Kozlowski, David T. Evans

Preventive and Behavioral Medicine Publications and Presentations

Immunization of rhesus macaques with strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that are limited to a single cycle of infection elicits T-cell responses to multiple viral gene products and antibodies capable of neutralizing lab-adapted SIV, but not neutralization-resistant primary isolates of SIV. In an effort to improve upon the antibody responses, we immunized rhesus macaques with three strains of single-cycle SIV (scSIV) that express envelope glycoproteins modified to lack structural features thought to interfere with the development of neutralizing antibodies. These envelope-modified strains of scSIV lacked either five potential N-linked glycosylation sites in gp120, three potential N-linked glycosylation sites in ...


Efficacy And Mechanism Of Â-Defensin2 Fused Antigen Protein Vaccines, Hyun J. Park 2010 Texas Medical Center Library

Efficacy And Mechanism Of Â-Defensin2 Fused Antigen Protein Vaccines, Hyun J. Park

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Vaccines which use the strategy of fusing adjuvant murine â-defensin2 (mBD2) to an antigen in order to elicit stronger anti-antigen immune responses are referred to as murine â-defensin2 (mBD2) vaccines. Previous studies have validated the potential of mBD2 vaccines, thus in this study we focus on increasing vaccine efficacy as well as mechanism elucidation. Initially, we demonstrate superior IFN-ã release levels by antigen specific effector T cells when antigen is crosspresented by dendritic cells (DC) which absorbed mBD2 vaccine (mBD2 fused antigen protein) over antigen alone. We move unto an in vivo model and note significant increases in the expansion ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress