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Transgenesis In Animal Agriculture: Addressing Animal Health And Welfare Concerns, Michael Greger 2014 The Humane Society of the United States

Transgenesis In Animal Agriculture: Addressing Animal Health And Welfare Concerns, Michael Greger

Michael Greger, M.D.

The US Food and Drug Administration’s final Guidance for Industry on the regulation of transgenesis in animal agriculture has paved the way for the commercialization of genetically engineered (GE) farm animals. The production-related diseases associated with extant breeding technologies are reviewed, as well as the predictable welfare consequences of continued emphasis on prolificacy at the potential expense of physical fitness. Areas in which biotechnology could be used to improve the welfare of animals while maintaining profitability are explored along with regulatory schema to improve agency integration in GE animal oversight.


Transgenesis In Animal Agriculture And Zoonotic Disease Resistance, Michael Greger 2014 The Humane Society of the United States

Transgenesis In Animal Agriculture And Zoonotic Disease Resistance, Michael Greger

Michael Greger, M.D.

In 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released guidelines for the commercialization of genetically engineered (GE) farm animals. Numerous applications for approval of transgenic species are currently pending. Anthropocentric concerns raised to date have tended to neglect the impact of the physiological trade-off between production efficiency and immune function. Given animal agriculture's track record of prioritizing productivity - even at the expense of animal health - the incorporation of biotechnological tools to further stress production towards biological limits may continue to undermine immunocompetence. Regulatory schemata to avert adverse public health outcomes are discussed. Given the rising incidence of zoonotic ...


Trait Selection And Welfare Of Genetically Engineered Animals In Agriculture, Michael Greger 2014 The Humane Society of the United States

Trait Selection And Welfare Of Genetically Engineered Animals In Agriculture, Michael Greger

Michael Greger, M.D.

The release of the Final Guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration on the commercialization of genetically engineered animals has sparked renewed discussion over the ethical, consumer, and regulatory implications of transgenesis in animal agriculture. Animal welfare critiques have focused on unexpected phenotypic effects in animals used in transgenic research, rather than on the health and welfare implications of the intended productivity enhancement. Unless breeding goals are redefined to reflect social concerns, the occurrence and magnitude of undesirable side effects may increase and consumer confidence in the nascent technology may be undermined.


Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn 2014 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn

Karen H. Rothenberg

Some products marketed as drugs should be excused from Phase I trials, but safety and efficacy claims for dietary supplements should be more tightly regulated.


Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn 2014 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn

Virginia Rowthorn

Some products marketed as drugs should be excused from Phase I trials, but safety and efficacy claims for dietary supplements should be more tightly regulated.


Debaryomyces Hansenii: A Foodborne Yeast That Produces Anti-Candida Killer Toxin, Nabaraj Banjara 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Debaryomyces Hansenii: A Foodborne Yeast That Produces Anti-Candida Killer Toxin, Nabaraj Banjara

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Candida yeasts are commensal members of the gastrointestinal, mucosal, oral and vaginal microbiota. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis can be found as a part of the normal human commensal flora, especially in all sections of the gastrointestinal tract. However, when the host defense system and microbiota are disturbed, Candida can become pathogenic and cause severe infection or candidiasis. Antifungal drugs used to treat candidiasis have been shown to result in treatment failures due to drug toxicity and/or development of resistance during long term antifungal therapy and, in recent years, the incidence of Candida infections has increased dramatically due to ...


Microenzymatic Evaluation Of Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Β-Glucan For High-Throughput Phenotyping, Mark A. Newell, Hyun Jung Kim, Franco G. Asoro, Adrienne M. Lauter, Pamela J. White, M. Paul Scott, Jean-Luc Jannink 2014 The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation

Microenzymatic Evaluation Of Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Β-Glucan For High-Throughput Phenotyping, Mark A. Newell, Hyun Jung Kim, Franco G. Asoro, Adrienne M. Lauter, Pamela J. White, M. Paul Scott, Jean-Luc Jannink

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Oats (Avena sativa L.) have received significant attention for their positive and consistent health benefits when consumed as a whole grain food, attributed in part to mixed-linkage (1-3,1-4)-β-d-glucan (referred to as β-glucan). Unfortunately, the standard enzymatic method of measurement for oat β-glucan is costly and does not provide the high-throughput capability needed for plant breeding in which thousands of samples are measured over a short period of time. The objective of this research was to test a microenzymatic approach for high-throughput phenotyping of oat β-glucan. Fifty North American elite lines were chosen to span the range of possible ...


Enzymatic Extraction Of High-Value Ingredients From Food Waste, Amit Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-ghannam 2014 Dublin Institute of Technology

Enzymatic Extraction Of High-Value Ingredients From Food Waste, Amit Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Conference papers

Food waste presents significant concerns with respect to economical, environmental and food security issues. Roughly, one-third of global food production equivalent to 1.3 billion tonnes per annum is wasted. EPA estimates that over 1 million tonnes of food waste is produced annually in Ireland. Common applications of food waste has been either direct disposal in landfill or as an animal feeds. In addition to the regulatory pressure of disposing food waste, there are significant opportunities for recovering a range of valuable compounds from food waste that could find valuable applications in the functional food and pharmaceutical sectors.

Numerous methods ...


Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn 2014 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn

Diane Hoffmann

Some products marketed as drugs should be excused from Phase I trials, but safety and efficacy claims for dietary supplements should be more tightly regulated.


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda 2014 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Microstructure And Antimicrobial Functionality Of Nano-Enhanced Protein-Based Biopolymers, Dattatreya M. Kadam, Chao Wang, Sheng Wang, David A. Grewell, Buddhi P. Lamsal, Chenxu Yu 2014 Iowa State University

Microstructure And Antimicrobial Functionality Of Nano-Enhanced Protein-Based Biopolymers, Dattatreya M. Kadam, Chao Wang, Sheng Wang, David A. Grewell, Buddhi P. Lamsal, Chenxu Yu

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Whey protein isolates (WPI) and corn zein protein (CZP) films, embedded with porous silica-coated titanium nano-enhancers (TiO2@@SiO2), were prepared and exhibited enhanced antimicrobial functionality. Protein solutions at 5% WPI and 13.5% CZP were amended with 1.5% w/w of TiO2@@SiO2 nano-enhancers and subjected to sonication at 0, 16, 80, and 160 µm amplitude prior to casting into films. The effects of sonication on nano-enhancer distribution and the structure and morphology of the resulting films were elucidated by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The surface structure of the films was altered by the presence of nano-enhancers. The nano-enhanced ...


Determination Of Master Compliance Curve For Extruded Semolina Pasta, Laura E. Emery, Martin Okos 2013 Purdue University

Determination Of Master Compliance Curve For Extruded Semolina Pasta, Laura E. Emery, Martin Okos

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The dependence of the rate of relaxation of semolina pasta on moisture content and temperature and how it affects shrinkage during drying has not yet been determined. The purpose of this research was to develop an equation that relates moisture content and temperature in order to obtain a master curve for creep of the product. When found, this equation could help to optimize the drying process and increase the quality of the final pasta product. Semolina flour mixed with water and propionic acid to create a 35% wet basis product was extruded on a C.W. Brabender 2523 to obtain ...


Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn 2013 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn

Faculty Scholarship

Some products marketed as drugs should be excused from Phase I trials, but safety and efficacy claims for dietary supplements should be more tightly regulated.


Uncovering The Molecular Link Between Mir156.Spl15 And Carotenoid Accumulation In Arabidopsis, Davood Emami Meybodi 2013 The University of Western Ontario

Uncovering The Molecular Link Between Mir156.Spl15 And Carotenoid Accumulation In Arabidopsis, Davood Emami Meybodi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenases (CCDs) are an enzyme family that cleaves specific double bonds in carotenoids. MicroR156 in Arabidopsis regulates a network of genes by repressing 10 SPL genes, among which, SPL15 was found to regulate shoot branching and carotenoid accumulation. The expression of CCD1, CCD4, CCD7, CCD8, NCED2, NCED3, NCED5, NCED6, NCED9 and SPL15 was evaluated in siliques at 10 days post anthesis and in 10-day-old roots in Arabidopsis wild type, sk156 (miR156 overexpression mutant), RS105 (miR156 overexpression line), spl15 (SPL15 knockout mutant) and two 35S:SPL15 lines. Results showed that most of CCD/NCED genes were affected ...


Soup Consumption Is Associated With A Reduced Risk Of Overweight And Obesity But Not Metabolic Syndrome In Us Adults: Nhanes 2003-2006, Yong Zhu, James H. Hollis 2013 University of Iowa

Soup Consumption Is Associated With A Reduced Risk Of Overweight And Obesity But Not Metabolic Syndrome In Us Adults: Nhanes 2003-2006, Yong Zhu, James H. Hollis

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

A limited number of studies have found that soup consumption is related to a lower risk of overweight and obesity in Asian and European populations, however, these studies do not provide a consistent picture regarding the association between soup consumption and markers of metabolic syndrome. To date, no study examining the relationship between soup and body weight or metabolic syndrome have been conducted in the US population. The present study used a sample of 4158 adults aged 19–64 who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2003 and 2006. The frequency of soup consumption was determined ...


Kinetic Studies For The Preparation Of Probiotic Cabbage Juice: Impact On Phytochemicals And Bioactivity, Amit Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-ghannam 2013 Dublin Institute of Technology

Kinetic Studies For The Preparation Of Probiotic Cabbage Juice: Impact On Phytochemicals And Bioactivity, Amit Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

A kinetic study for the production of probiotic cabbage juice was carried out under controlled pH and dissolved oxygen using several strains of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Furthermore, effect of probiotic fermentation on polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity was investigated. Results showed significant growth in Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus corresponding to 9.19, 9.47 and 10.6 log CFU/ml after 24 h of fermentation, which is satisfying criteria for a food product to be characterized as probiotic. Lactic acid (LA) was the major end product of the fermented cabbage juice attaining the concentrations of 6 ...


Mutational Analysis Of Sse1 (Hsp110) Suggests An Integral Role For This Chaperone In Yeast Prion Propagation In Vivo, Ciara Moran, Gemma Kinsella, Zai-Rong Zhang, Sarah Perrett, Gary Jones 2013 National University of Ireland, Maynooth

Mutational Analysis Of Sse1 (Hsp110) Suggests An Integral Role For This Chaperone In Yeast Prion Propagation In Vivo, Ciara Moran, Gemma Kinsella, Zai-Rong Zhang, Sarah Perrett, Gary Jones

Articles

ABSTRACT The yeast Hsp110 chaperone Sse1 is a conserved protein that is a noncanonical member of the Hsp70 protein superfamily. Sse1 influences the cellular response to heat stress and has also been implicated in playing a role in the propagation of prions in yeast. Sse1 can seemingly exert its effects in vivo through direct or indirect actions by influencing the nucleotide exchange activity of canonical cytosolic Hsp70s. Using a genetic screen based on the inability to propagate the yeast [PSI+] prion, we have identified 13 new Sse1 mutants that are predicted to alter chaperone function through a variety of different ...


An Evaluation Of The Nontarget Effects Of Transgenic Bacillus Thuringiensis Maize On Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi In The Soil Ecosystem, Tanya Elizabeth Amy Cheeke 2013 Portland State University

An Evaluation Of The Nontarget Effects Of Transgenic Bacillus Thuringiensis Maize On Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi In The Soil Ecosystem, Tanya Elizabeth Amy Cheeke

Dissertations and Theses

My dissertation research examined the effect of the cultivation of insect-resistant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize on the soil environment with a goal of understanding how to obtain a balance between technological advancement and maintenance of a healthy soil ecosystem. Although Bt plants may help to reduce pesticide use, conferring benefits to farm workers and the environment, there are still unresolved questions about how the cultivation of Bt plants affects soil organisms. For this dissertation project, I used 14 different genotypes of Bt maize and non-Bt maize (Zea mays) to investigate the effects of transgenic Bt plants on the colonization ability ...


Field Evaluation Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonization In Bacillus Thuringiensis Toxin-Expressing (Bt) And Non-Bt Maize, Tanya E. Cheeke, Mitchell B. Cruzan, Todd N. Rosenstiel 2013 Portland State University

Field Evaluation Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonization In Bacillus Thuringiensis Toxin-Expressing (Bt) And Non-Bt Maize, Tanya E. Cheeke, Mitchell B. Cruzan, Todd N. Rosenstiel

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The cultivation of genetically engineered Bacillus thuringiensis toxin-expressing (Bt) maize continues to increase worldwide, yet the effects of Bt crops on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soil are poorly understood. In this field experiment, we investigated the impact of seven different genotypes of Bt maize and five corresponding non-Bt parental cultivars on AMF and evaluated plant growth responses at three different physiological time points. Plants were harvested 60 days (active growth), 90 days (tasseling and starting to produce ears), and 130 days (maturity) after sowing, and data on plant growth responses and percent AMF colonization of roots at each harvest ...


Current State Of Food Security: Research, Education And Outreach In Burkina Universities, Mamoudou H. DICKO Prof. 2013 Laboratoire BAEBIB, UFR-SVT, University of Ouagadougou

Current State Of Food Security: Research, Education And Outreach In Burkina Universities, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof.

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

Burkina Faso is a Sahelian West African country. Current population is about 16 millions and 43.9 % live below the poverty line. Burkina Faso is classified as both a least developed country and a low-income, food-deficit country. The nutritional quality is poor (1830 against 2000 Kcal/person/day). Food insecurity affects 50 % of households, and is increasing in the urban areas. However, Burkina Faso is one of the country that respect the 2003 Maputo’s declaration’s call to invest at least 10 percent of the budget in agriculture, in order to increase agricultural production and attain food self-sufficiency. Several ...


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