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Effect Of Prostaglandin E2 On Mechanical Stresses Applied By Mc3t3-E1 Osteoblast-Like Cells On A Soft Hydrogel Substrate, Abhijit Deb Roy 2011 University of Connecticut

Effect Of Prostaglandin E2 On Mechanical Stresses Applied By Mc3t3-E1 Osteoblast-Like Cells On A Soft Hydrogel Substrate, Abhijit Deb Roy

Master's Theses

Osteoblasts are sensitive to mechanical stimuli and release Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) when exposed to a fluid shear stress. The exact mechanism by which these cells sense mechanical stress is not well established. A study of the stresses applied by the osteoblasts, under the influence of PGE2, on a hydrogel provided information regarding intercellular-communication via changes in the substrate surface pattern.

A digital image correlation program was developed using the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm to analyze images and compare the deformations between pairs of images. Comparisons of images before and after the addition of PE2 to the media showed differences in the …


A Time-And-Space Parallelized Algorithm For The Cable Equation, Chuan Li 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Time-And-Space Parallelized Algorithm For The Cable Equation, Chuan Li

Doctoral Dissertations

Electrical propagation in excitable tissue, such as nerve fibers and heart muscle, is described by a nonlinear diffusion-reaction parabolic partial differential equation for the transmembrane voltage $V(x,t)$, known as the cable equation. This equation involves a highly nonlinear source term, representing the total ionic current across the membrane, governed by a Hodgkin-Huxley type ionic model, and requires the solution of a system of ordinary differential equations. Thus, the model consists of a PDE (in 1-, 2- or 3-dimensions) coupled to a system of ODEs, and it is very expensive to solve, especially in 2 and 3 dimensions.

In order to …


Determining A Method For Rendering Low Cost Cdse(Zns) Core(Shell) Quantum Dots Aqueous Soluble Via Amphiphilic Polymer Wrapping, Patrick McBride 2011 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Determining A Method For Rendering Low Cost Cdse(Zns) Core(Shell) Quantum Dots Aqueous Soluble Via Amphiphilic Polymer Wrapping, Patrick Mcbride

Materials Engineering

Herein is described the procedure of two amphiphilic polymer wrapping techniques that may be employed for obtaining aqueous soluble quantum dots (QDs) for use in biological fluorescent imaging applications. The advent of QDs has led to new nanoscale fluorescent materials that exhibit unparalleled quantum yields (QYs), high resistance to photobleaching, tunable emissions, and
absorption over a large optical range. However, the QD synthesis employed here at Cal Poly to obtain bright, photostable CdSe(ZnS) core(shell) QDs involves the use of organic solvents and surfactants, leading to hydrophobic QDs. Since all of biology relies on aqueous solubility, this hydrophobicity creates a major …


Adaptation And Stochasticity Of Natural Complex Systems, Roy David Dar 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Adaptation And Stochasticity Of Natural Complex Systems, Roy David Dar

Doctoral Dissertations

The methods that fueled the microscale revolution (top-down design/fabrication, combined with application of forces large enough to overpower stochasticity) constitute an approach that will not scale down to nanoscale systems. In contrast, in nanotechnology, we strive to embrace nature’s quite different paradigms to create functional systems, such as self-assembly to create structures, exploiting stochasticity, rather than overwhelming it, in order to create deterministic, yet highly adaptable, behavior. Nature’s approach, through billions of years of evolutionary development, has achieved self-assembling, self-duplicating, self-healing, adaptive systems. Compared to microprocessors, nature’s approach has achieved eight orders of magnitude higher memory density and three orders …


Protein-Lipid Interactions: Influence Of Anchoring Groups And Buried Arginine On The Properties Of Membrane-Spanning Peptides, Vitaly V. Vostrikov 2011 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Protein-Lipid Interactions: Influence Of Anchoring Groups And Buried Arginine On The Properties Of Membrane-Spanning Peptides, Vitaly V. Vostrikov

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Designed transmembrane peptides were employed for investigations of protein-lipid interactions by means of oriented solid-state deuterium NMR spectroscopy using isotope-enriched alanine residues. Using the model GWALP23 sequence (GGALW(LA)6LWLAGA) as a host peptide having single interfacial tryptophan anchor residues, the effects of different guest mutations were explored. Replacements of glycine residues 2 and 22 to positively charged lysine or arginine on both termini had little influence on the peptide average orientation. Conversely, glycine to tryptophan substitutions had profound effects, manifested in the increased dynamics and altered tilt direction of the peptide. While the charged residues at the peptide termini did not …


Functional Studies Of Human Cellular Detoxification Enzymes, Melanie Neely Willis 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Functional Studies Of Human Cellular Detoxification Enzymes, Melanie Neely Willis

Department of Biochemistry: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Cellular detoxification allows for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and prevention of abnormal cell growth by clearing harmful xenobiotics and endobiotics. After oxygenation by phase I enzymes, phase II enzymes such as glucuronosyltransferases and glutathione-s-transferases conjugate a small molecule to the compound, marking it for subsequent export. Many up-stream enzymes are also essential to cellular detoxification by supplying the small compounds for conjugation. These up-stream enzymes include UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, which synthesizes UDP-glucuronate, and glutamate cysteine ligase, which catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of glutathione.
UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) is an important enzyme in human development and in …


Construction And Use Of A Direct Calorimeter To Estimate Energy Expenditure In Hibernators, Mark S. Burger, Frank van Breukelen 2011 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Construction And Use Of A Direct Calorimeter To Estimate Energy Expenditure In Hibernators, Mark S. Burger, Frank Van Breukelen

Festival of Communities: UG Symposium (Posters)

Metabolic rates have traditionally been estimated through indirect calorimetry (gas exchange or respirometry) due to its ease and availability. Oxygen consumption neglects the contributions of anaerobic metabolism, while direct calorimetry (heat production) estimates both anaerobic and aerobic metabolism. Walsberg and Hoffman (2005) report anaerobic metabolism may be more important to small rodents than was previously thought. During the non-steady state of mammalian hibernation, we hypothesize that anaerobic processes may play an even greater role in fueling metabolism. To address this question, we constructed a very sensitive calorimeter that utilizes the Seebeck effect from a thermoelectric element (Peltier device). We describe …


Bioinformatics, Thermodynamics And Kinetics Analysis Of An All Alpha Helical Protein With A Gree-Key Topology, Hai Li 2011 Old Dominion University

Bioinformatics, Thermodynamics And Kinetics Analysis Of An All Alpha Helical Protein With A Gree-Key Topology, Hai Li

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

Computational and experimental studies focusing on the role of conserved residues for folding and stability is an active and promising area of research. To further expand our understanding we present the results of a bioinformatics analysis of the death domain superfamily. The death domain superfamily fold consists of six α-helices arranged in a Greek-key topology, which is shared by the all β-sheet immunoglobulin and mixed α/β-plait superfamilies. Our sequence and structural studies have identified a group of conserved hydrophobic residues and corresponding long-range interactions, which we propose are important in the formation and stabilization of the hydrophobic core and native …


Pharmacological Chaperoning In Fabry Disease, Jerome Rogich 2011 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Pharmacological Chaperoning In Fabry Disease, Jerome Rogich

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Fabry Disease is an X-­‐linked lysosomal storage disorder characterized by a variety of symptoms including hypohydrosis, seizures, cardiac abnormalities, skin lesions, and chronic pain. These symptoms stem from a lack of functional endogenous α-­‐ Galactosidase A (α-­GAL), which leads to an accrual of its natural substrate. The severity of the disease symptoms can be directly correlated with the amount of residual enzyme activity. It has been shown that an imino sugar, 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin (DGJ), can increase enzymatic activity and clear excess substrate. This pH-­‐dependent chaperoning phenomenon is believed to arise from the presence of aspartic acid 170 in the active site. …


Artificial And Natural Nucleic Acid Self Assembling Systems, Marcus Wood 2011 Wayne State University

Artificial And Natural Nucleic Acid Self Assembling Systems, Marcus Wood

Wayne State University Dissertations

Nucleic acids are good candidates for nanomachine construction. They participate in all the processes of life, and so can function as structural building blocks and dynamic catalysts. However, to use nucleic acids as nanomachines, a better understanding of their material properties, how to design structures using them, and their dynamics is needed. We have tried to address these issues, in a small way, with nucleic acid force field development, an attempt at nanostructural design and synthesis using DNA, and a study of the RNA/protein regulatory dynamics of the tryptophan regulatory attenuation protein.


Mechanical Forces And Tumor Cells: Insight Into The Biophysical Aspects Of Cancer Progression, Indrajyoti Indra 2011 Wayne State University

Mechanical Forces And Tumor Cells: Insight Into The Biophysical Aspects Of Cancer Progression, Indrajyoti Indra

Wayne State University Dissertations

Mechanical forces play an important role in the regulation of cellular behavior and physiological processes including adhesion, migration, proliferation, tissue repair, embryogenesis and development. In addition, a number of diseases including cancer, have been linked to changes in cellular and extracellular mechanical properties. However, whether a correlation exists between the progression of cancer towards metastasis and mechanical factors has not been clearly defined. Additionally, how a cell responds to changes in extracellular mechanical cues as it gains metastatic abilities is poorly understood. To address these questions, we have utilized a panel of murine breast cancer cell lines with progressive metastatic. …


Characterization Of Splicing Mechanisms By Single-Molecule Fluorescence, Krishanthi Sanjeewani Karunatilaka 2011 Wayne State University

Characterization Of Splicing Mechanisms By Single-Molecule Fluorescence, Krishanthi Sanjeewani Karunatilaka

Wayne State University Dissertations

Group II introns rank amongst the largest self-splicing ribozymes found in bacteria and organellar genomes of various eukaryotes. Despite the diversity in primary sequences, group II introns posses highly conserved secondary structures consisting of six domains (D1-D6). To perform its function, the large multidomain group II intron RNA must adopt the correctly folded structure. As a result, in vitro splicing of these introns requires high ionic strength and elevated temperatures. In vivo, this process is mainly assisted by protein cofactors. However, the exact mechanism of protein-mediated splicing of group II intron RNA is still not known.

In order to …


Laser-Assisted Single-Molecule Refolding, Rui Zhao 2011 Wayne State University

Laser-Assisted Single-Molecule Refolding, Rui Zhao

Wayne State University Dissertations

Non-coding RNAs must fold into precise secondary and tertiary structures in order to perform the biological functions. Due to the flexibility of RNA, the RNA folding energy landscape can be rugged and full of local minimum (kinetic trap). To provide a means to study kinetically trapped RNAs, we have developed a new technique combining single-molecule FRET detection with laser induced temperature jump. We have calibrated the magnitude of the temperature jump with 1˚C accuracy using gold micro-size sensor. The accuracy of temperature calibration was confirmed by close agreement between single-molecule and bulk DNA duplex melting experiments.

HIV 1 DIS RNAs …


Exciton Broadening In Polyaniline Chains During Ion Induced Hydrophobic Collapse And Aggregation, Louis R. Nemzer, Arthur Epstein 2011 Nova Southeastern University

Exciton Broadening In Polyaniline Chains During Ion Induced Hydrophobic Collapse And Aggregation, Louis R. Nemzer, Arthur Epstein

Louis R Nemzer

The ion-induced reprecipitation of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline from an aqueous-organic binary solution is a facile method for obtaining polymer nanoparticles and microscale clusters. The hydrophobic collapse and aggregation that accompanies the addition of various cosolutes induces changes in the peak wavelength and linewidth of the main exciton absorption. In particular, we find that the addition of ionic cosoutes leads to a redshifting and broadening of this spectroscopic feature, with divalent coions exhibiting an additional hypsochromic reversal at high concentrations. The denaturant urea, in contrast, causes a blueshift and line-narrowing at all concentrations. Using a quantitative Lorentz fit, …


Inhibition Of Calcium Oxalate Calculi By Ndga - A Spectroscopic Study, Preethi Dacha 2011 University of Texas at El Paso

Inhibition Of Calcium Oxalate Calculi By Ndga - A Spectroscopic Study, Preethi Dacha

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Formation of calculi in urinary tract leads to kidney stones. This process is known as Urolithiasis. Some of the causes of urolithiasis are metabolic disorders, genetic factors, and anatomic abnormalities in the urinary system. Nowadays, urolithiasis is very common disease in population of all over the world. The present study strives to understand calcium oxalate calculi formation as well as its inhibition by using Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), which is a chemical extract of the Larrea Tridentata bush, a plant that is traditionally employed in the El paso region as a natural treatment for kidney stones and bladder diseases. Thus, in …


Physical Models Of Amyloid Fibril Assembly, Shannon Elizabeth Hill 2011 University of South Florida

Physical Models Of Amyloid Fibril Assembly, Shannon Elizabeth Hill

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Formation of large fibers and plaques by amyloid proteins is recognized as the molecular hallmark of an increasing number of human disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and even type II diabetes. The broader objective of my research is to unravel the basic mechanisms that initiate and regulate fibril formation by amyloidogenic proteins. This objective is significant because even basic aspects of how fibril formation proceeds from a soluble, monomeric protein to an insoluble amyloid fibril remain much debated. Furthermore, there is increasingly strong evidence suggesting that intermediates of the aggregation process, with properties distinct from those of mature fibrils, …


Probing Molecules In Confined Space, Carissa Marie Vetromile 2011 University of South Florida

Probing Molecules In Confined Space, Carissa Marie Vetromile

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite the plethora of information regarding cellular crowding and its importance on modulating protein function the effects of confinement on biological molecules are often overlooked when investigating their physiological function. Recently however, the encapsulation of biomolecules in solid state matrices (NafionTM, sol-gels, zirconium phosphate,etc.) has increased in importance as a method for examining protein conformation and dynamics in confined space as well as novel applications in biotechnology. Biotechnological applications include, but are not limited to, bioremediation, biosensors, biocatalysts, etc. In order to better utilize solid state materials as substrates for biological molecules an understanding of the effects of encapsulation on …


A Cell Electrofusion Microfluidic Device Integrated With 3d Thin-Film Microelectrode Arrays, Ning Hu, Jun Yang, Shizhi Qian, Sang W. Joo, Xiaolin Zheng 2011 Old Dominion University

A Cell Electrofusion Microfluidic Device Integrated With 3d Thin-Film Microelectrode Arrays, Ning Hu, Jun Yang, Shizhi Qian, Sang W. Joo, Xiaolin Zheng

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

A microfluidic device integrated with 3D thin film microelectrode arrays wrapped around serpentine-shaped microchannel walls has been designed, fabricated and tested for cell electrofusion. Each microelectrode array has 1015 discrete microelectrodes patterned on each side wall, and the adjacent microelectrodes are separated by coplanar dielectric channel wall. The device was tested to electrofuse K562 cells under a relatively low voltage. Under an AC electric field applied between the pair of the microelectrode arrays, cells are paired at the edge of each discrete microelectrode due to the induced positive dielectrophoresis. Subsequently, electric pulse signals are sequentially applied between the microelectrode arrays …


A Study Of Complex Systems: From Magnetic To Biological, Douglas Carroll Lovelady 2011 University of South Florida

A Study Of Complex Systems: From Magnetic To Biological, Douglas Carroll Lovelady

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This work is a study of complex many-body systems with non-trivial interactions. Many such systems can be described with models that are much simpler than the real thing but which can still give good insight into the behavior of realistic systems. We take a look at two such systems. The first part looks at a model that elucidates the variety of magnetic phases observed in rare-earth heterostructures at low temperatures: the six-state clock model. We use an ANNNI-like model Hamiltonian that has a three dimensional parameter space and yields two-dimensional multiphase regions in this space. A low-temperature expansion of the …


Mechanisms Of Decreased Cholesterol Absorption Mediated By Phytosterols In The Intestinal Lumen, Andrew W. Brown 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mechanisms Of Decreased Cholesterol Absorption Mediated By Phytosterols In The Intestinal Lumen, Andrew W. Brown

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Phytosterols and their fatty acyl esters have been known for decades to lower LDL cholesterol, making them powerful nutraceuticals in lowering cardiovascular disease risk. The mechanisms by which phytosterols lower cholesterol, though, have been incompletely characterized. Three studies were executed to examine three aspects of cholesterol and phytosterol interactions in the intestinal lumen. In the first study, the ability of pancreatic cholesterol esterase to hydrolyze phytosterol esters was examined. Pancreatic cholesterol esterase hydrolyzed phytosterol esters, but the rate of hydrolysis proved sensitive to the structures of both the sterol and ester components. In the second study, cholesterol micellarization was challenged …


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