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Articles 31 - 60 of 353

Full-Text Articles in Other Political Science

Turnout Differences Among Registered Voters, Lillard Richardson, Grant Neeley Nov 2015

Turnout Differences Among Registered Voters, Lillard Richardson, Grant Neeley

Grant W. Neeley

Much of what we know about turnout in American elections is based on national surveys of voters participating in presidential elections. Much less is known about voter participation in other types of elections. Using verified turnout and registration data, we surveyed registered voters to determine the demographic and attitudinal differences between two groups of voters: those who participated only in presidential elections and others who participated in midterm congressional, state, and local elections as well as presidential elections. We find that age, education, gender, social connectedness, personal contact with local public officials, and satisfaction with government services are significant factors ...


Mandatory Seat Belt Laws In The States: A Study Of Fatal And Severe Occupant Injuries, David Houston, Lillard Richardson, Grant Neeley Nov 2015

Mandatory Seat Belt Laws In The States: A Study Of Fatal And Severe Occupant Injuries, David Houston, Lillard Richardson, Grant Neeley

Grant W. Neeley

This study examines the impact of mandatory seat belt laws on fatal and incapacitating injury rates in the states. Annual data for all 50 states for the period 1975-1991 are used. Pooled time series analysis is employed. The general conclusion that emerges from this analysis is that seat belt laws significantly impact state fatal injury rates. Primary enforcement and all-seat coverage provisions appear to be particularly effective in reducing fatality rates.


Public Interest Group Entrepreneurship And Theories Of Group Mobilization, Anthony Nownes, Grant Neeley Nov 2015

Public Interest Group Entrepreneurship And Theories Of Group Mobilization, Anthony Nownes, Grant Neeley

Grant W. Neeley

The bulk of the literature on group mobilization focuses on why individuals join groups and virtually ignores the group leader (entrepreneur). Thus, we argue that there is a gap in the literature on group development: while entrepreneurs are critical in the process of group mobilization, little is known about what they do and why and how they do it. Studies of group mobilization continue to focus on group supporters — the patrons and members who provide groups with the resources they need. We take a different approach. We examine the process of group mobilization from the perspective of the entrepreneur. Utilizing ...


Gender, Human Security And The United Nations: Security Language As A Political Framework For Women, Natalie Florea Hudson Nov 2015

Gender, Human Security And The United Nations: Security Language As A Political Framework For Women, Natalie Florea Hudson

Natalie Florea Hudson

This book examines the relationship between women, gender and the international security agenda, exploring the meaning of security in terms of discourse and practice, as well as the larger goals and strategies of the global women's movement. Today, many complex global problems are being located within the security logic. From the environment to HIV/AIDS, state and non-state actors have made a practice out of securitizing issues that are not conventionally seen as such. As most prominently demonstrated by the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2001), activists for women's rights have increasingly framed women's rights and gender ...


Policy Brief: Unscr 1325: The Challenges Of Framing Women’S Rights As A Security Matter, Natalie Florea Hudson Nov 2015

Policy Brief: Unscr 1325: The Challenges Of Framing Women’S Rights As A Security Matter, Natalie Florea Hudson

Natalie Florea Hudson

While UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 has certainly increased awareness among international actors about women’s and gender issues in armed conflict, opened new spaces for dialogue and partnerships from global to local levels, and even created opportunities for new resources for women’s rights, successes remain limited and notably inconsistent. To understand some of these shortcomings and think creatively about how to move the women, peace and security agenda forward, it is essential to understand the conceptual assumptions underscoring UNSCR 1325.


Why Urbanists Need Religion, Joshua D. Ambrosius Oct 2015

Why Urbanists Need Religion, Joshua D. Ambrosius

Joshua D. Ambrosius

This essay summarizes a conference paper presented at the October 2008 Society for the Scientific Study of Religion meeting in Louisville, Kentucky. The paper was reviewed by several leading scholars.


Ethics In Public Management, H. George Frederickson, Richard K. Ghere Oct 2015

Ethics In Public Management, H. George Frederickson, Richard K. Ghere

Richard K. Ghere

This volume follows two earlier projects undertaken by Frederickson (1993) and Frederickson and Ghere (2005) to present collections of theoretical essays and empirical analyses on administrative ethics. Three years before the publication of the first volume —Frederickson's Ethics and Public Administration — the National Commission on the Public Service released Leadership for America (also known as the Volcker Commission Report) that attested to "the quiet crisis" in government whereby "too many of the best of the nation's senior executives are ready to leave government, and not enough of its most talented young people are willing to join. This erosion ...


Ngo Leadership And Human Rights, Richard K. Ghere Oct 2015

Ngo Leadership And Human Rights, Richard K. Ghere

Richard K. Ghere

This book provides preliminary understanding of what the term NGO means; explains how "human rights" affect NGO missions; and focuses on the meaning of "leadership" in NGOs in comparison to private sector and government agency leadership. It also encourages readers with vocational aspirations in human rights work to think strategically in preparing for their professional futures.


Religion, Politics, And Polity Replication: Religious Differences In Preferences For Institutional Design, Joshua D. Ambrosius Oct 2015

Religion, Politics, And Polity Replication: Religious Differences In Preferences For Institutional Design, Joshua D. Ambrosius

Joshua D. Ambrosius

This article presents a theory of polity replication in which religious congregants prefer institutions in other realms of society, including the state, to be structured like their church. Polities, or systems of church governance and administration, generally take one of three forms: episcopal (hierarchical/centralized), presbyterian (collegial/regional), or congregational (autonomous/decentralized). When asked to cast a vote to shape institutions in a centralizing or decentralizing manner, voters are influenced by organizational values shaped by their respective religious traditions‘ polity structures. Past social scientific scholarship has neglected to explicitly connect religious affiliation, defined by polity, with members‘ stances on institutional ...


Network Legitimacy And Accountability In A Developmental Perspective, Richard K. Ghere Oct 2015

Network Legitimacy And Accountability In A Developmental Perspective, Richard K. Ghere

Richard K. Ghere

Public networks typically function beyond the lines of the hierarchical authorities that hold bureaucracies accountable, as is shown here in the case of a business-dominant network that exhibited ethically questionable behaviors at the expense of its community credibility. Public networks can build external legitimacy by engaging in critical organization learning processes, much the way some nongovernmental organizations respond to a diversity of stakeholders.


Thin Vs. Thick Morality: Ethics And Gender In International Development Programs, Richard Ghere Oct 2015

Thin Vs. Thick Morality: Ethics And Gender In International Development Programs, Richard Ghere

Richard K. Ghere

This study examines the ethical dimensions of gender-focused international development initiatives undertaken by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and similar agencies. Specifically, it presents three case studies that depict how specific development initiatives in, respectively, India, Tanzania, and Senegal address gender disparities and power relationships. These case studies support the general conclusion that ethically committed development NGOs find difficulty in encouraging women (and men) to reverse oppressive power status-quos in messy contexts.


All Americans Not Equal: Mistrust And Discrimination Against Naturalized Citizens In The U.S., Alev Dudek Aug 2015

All Americans Not Equal: Mistrust And Discrimination Against Naturalized Citizens In The U.S., Alev Dudek

Alev Dudek

Approximately 13 percent of the U.S. population — nearly 40 million — is foreign-born, of which about 6 percent are naturalized U.S. citizens. Given the positive image associated with immigrants — the “nation of immigrants” or “the melting pot” — one would assume that all Americans in the U.S.A., natural born or naturalized, have equal worth as citizens. This, however, is not necessarily the case. Despite U.S. citizenship, naturalized Americans are seen less than equal to natural born Americans. They are often confused with “foreign nationals.” Moreover, their cultural belonging, allegiance, English-language skills, as well as other qualifications, are ...


Why Orientalism Still Matters: Reading ‘Casual Forgetting’ And ‘Active Remembering’ As Neoliberal Forms Of Contestation In International Politics, Shiera S. Malik Jun 2015

Why Orientalism Still Matters: Reading ‘Casual Forgetting’ And ‘Active Remembering’ As Neoliberal Forms Of Contestation In International Politics, Shiera S. Malik

Shiera S el-Malik

 In 2007, the British Journal of Politics and International Relations (BJPIR) devoted an issue to gendering International Relations. It opens with Cynthia Enloe addressing the ‘politics of casual forgetting’. I investigate this notion of casual forgetting using a framework informed by postcolonial and feminist scholarship. Working with ideas drawn from critiques of Orientalism and neoliberalism, I examine knowledge practices that center binaries as forms of objectivity that disembed phenomena from context, and as forms of over-simplification that flatten the appearance of complexity. Together, these practices have a depoliticizing effect; they obscure contestation, situate hierarchy as natural, and separate analysis from ...


Public Actors In Private Markets: Toward A Developmental Finance State, Robert Hockett, Saule Omarova Jun 2015

Public Actors In Private Markets: Toward A Developmental Finance State, Robert Hockett, Saule Omarova

Saule T. Omarova

The recent financial crisis brought into sharp relief fundamental questions about the social function and purpose of the financial system, including its relation to the “real” economy. This Article argues that, to answer these questions, we must recapture a distinctively American view of the proper relations among state, financial market, and development. This programmatic vision – captured in what we call a “developmental finance state” – is based on three key propositions: (1) that economic and social development is not an “end-state” but a continuing national policy priority; (2) that the modalities of finance are the most potent means of fueling continuous ...


Cuba: Behind The Embargo (2nd Edition), Jason R. Old Jun 2015

Cuba: Behind The Embargo (2nd Edition), Jason R. Old

Jason R. Old

Most people who live in the United States have heard the media and the U.S. Government demonize Cuba, its leaders, and its system. However, have you ever wanted to know what Cuba is really like? If the U.S. media and government have been guilty of fabricating other misconceptions and covering up covert operations in order to deceive the American public, could it be possible that Cuba is another such case? Why would the U.S. continue disseminating Cold War rhetoric about a tiny island nation like Cuba? Who is benefiting from perpetuating a decades-old economic embargo against a ...


Politics Or Metaphysics? On Attributing Psychological Properties To Animals, Kristin Andrews Apr 2015

Politics Or Metaphysics? On Attributing Psychological Properties To Animals, Kristin Andrews

Kristin Andrews, Ph.D.

Following recent arguments that there is no logical problem with attributing mental or agential states to animals, I address the epistemological problem of how to go about making accurate attributions. I suggest that there is a two-part general method for determining whether a psychological property can be accurately attributed to a member of another species: folk expert opinion and functionality. This method is based on well-known assessments used to attribute mental states to humans who are unable to self-ascribe due to an early stage of development or impairment, and can be used to describe social and emotional development as well ...


Government On The Silver Screen: Contemporary American Cinema’S Depiction Of Attractive, Capable Bureaucrats, Incompetent Cops, And Brave Soldiers, Michelle Pautz, Megan Warnement Apr 2015

Government On The Silver Screen: Contemporary American Cinema’S Depiction Of Attractive, Capable Bureaucrats, Incompetent Cops, And Brave Soldiers, Michelle Pautz, Megan Warnement

Michelle Pautz

Movies continue to be the most accessible art form to Americans and that reach allows films to have a tremendous effect on moviegoers. With more than a billion movie tickets sold annually in the United States, the ability of movies to influence the perceptions of moviegoers is pronounced. Frequently, the government is part of those depictions. Although film is routinely studied in a host of disciplines, a focus on the portrayal of government generally and government officials more specifically, remains elusive. Instead of using a case-study approach, we examine recent, popular films to investigate how government is portrayed generally and ...


Sarbanes-Oxley And The Relentless Pursuit Of Government Accountability: The Perils Of 21st Century Reform, Michelle Pautz, C. Washington Apr 2015

Sarbanes-Oxley And The Relentless Pursuit Of Government Accountability: The Perils Of 21st Century Reform, Michelle Pautz, C. Washington

Michelle Pautz

In the wake of the corporate financial scandals of the late 1990s, Congress responded by passing the Sarbanes‐Oxley Act of 2002 to improve accountability of both the private sector and of government. Although discussions of accountability and Sarbanes‐Oxley are pertinent to both the public and private sectors, the authors focus on the attempts of the act to encourage government accountability through the creation of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board. In a broader context, the passage of Sarbanes‐Oxley fits within public administration’s constant emphasis of reform—particularly those reforms under the rubric of New Public Management ...


The Regulatory Interactions Of Front-Line Environmental Regulators, Michelle Pautz, Sara Rinfret Apr 2015

The Regulatory Interactions Of Front-Line Environmental Regulators, Michelle Pautz, Sara Rinfret

Michelle Pautz

Faced with declining budgets, widespread enforcement problems, and an increasingly complex array of environmental challenges, regulators across the world are searching for new strategies to facilitate compliance with environmental laws. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has spearheaded these efforts with the introduction of its “Next Generation Compliance” initiative, through which the agency hopes to leverage information and technology to streamline enforcement procedures and strengthen compliance with federal environmental laws. Cynthia Giles, the Assistant Administrator for the EPA’s Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA) has outlined five key elements of this initiative – rules with compliance built in ...


Remembering The Regulators Themselves: Melding Administrative Procedures And Regulatory Theory, Michelle Pautz Apr 2015

Remembering The Regulators Themselves: Melding Administrative Procedures And Regulatory Theory, Michelle Pautz

Michelle Pautz

Review of Steven P. Croley, Regulation and Public Interests: The Possibility of Good Regulatory Government (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008).


Trust Between Regulators And The Regulated: A Case Study Of Environmental Inspectors And Facility Personnel In Virginia, Michelle Pautz Apr 2015

Trust Between Regulators And The Regulated: A Case Study Of Environmental Inspectors And Facility Personnel In Virginia, Michelle Pautz

Michelle Pautz

The relationships between environmental inspectors and the facility personnel at regulated firms are often presumed to be adversarial, and this assumption affects the design and implementation of environmental regulations. However, closer examination of these relationships challenges this fundamental assumption of adversarial relations in environmental policy. Interviews with 44 inspectors and regulated officials throughout Virginia found that the interactions between these two categories of actors are positive. Over 90 percent of the interviewees were positive about their interactions with one another, and inspectors and regulated officials alike indicate that they trust the other. These findings are compelling because they contest common ...


Attitudes And Perspectives Of Front-Line Workers In Environmental Policy: A Case Study Of Ohio Epa And Wisconsin Dnr, Sara Rinfret, Michelle Pautz Apr 2015

Attitudes And Perspectives Of Front-Line Workers In Environmental Policy: A Case Study Of Ohio Epa And Wisconsin Dnr, Sara Rinfret, Michelle Pautz

Michelle Pautz

This research is an effort to focus on frontline regulators with the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. An online survey was conducted of frontline regulators in these agencies to explore their knowledge, attitudes, and perspectives on policy implementation. More specifically, we endeavor to answer how frontline workers implement environmental policy. To analyze these data, we use two categorizations of factors (knowledge and attitudes, and contextual factors) offered by May and Winter (2009) to examine what influences the decision making of frontline regulators in their regulatory interactions. We find that despite common presumptions of adversarialism in ...


Reconsidering Accountability For Environmental Inspectors: Trading 'Compliance By Computer' For Relationship Building, Michelle C. Pautz Apr 2015

Reconsidering Accountability For Environmental Inspectors: Trading 'Compliance By Computer' For Relationship Building, Michelle C. Pautz

Michelle Pautz

Demands for government accountability extend into all the aspects of government service and the environmental realm is no different. Environmental inspectors — the front-line workers in environmental protection agencies — are among the many civil servants who face demands for accountability. Unfortunately, although accountability is desirable normatively speaking, in practice it is not so simple. Accountability for environmental inspectors frequently involves measures such as the number of inspections completed, the efficiency of data entry in agency databases, and the turnaround time on inspection reports. Such measures leave environmental inspectors, who ideally want — and practically need — to be in the field, stuck in ...


'Argo' And 'Zero Dark Thirty': Film, Government, And Audiences, Michelle Pautz Apr 2015

'Argo' And 'Zero Dark Thirty': Film, Government, And Audiences, Michelle Pautz

Michelle Pautz

With the prevalence and accessibility of film today, we must wonder how film affects its audience. In particular, how does film influence an audience’s perceptions of the government? Regardless of the content, research demonstrates that film has the power to shape perceptions of its moviegoers on a range of subjects. In this study, two recent films,Argo and Zero Dark Thirty, were chosen as case studies to explore how Hollywood portrays the intelligence community in film and shapes opinions about the government more broadly. This research found that about 25% of viewers of the two films changed their opinion ...


The Decline In Average Weekly Cinema Attendance, 1930-2000, Michelle C. Pautz Apr 2015

The Decline In Average Weekly Cinema Attendance, 1930-2000, Michelle C. Pautz

Michelle Pautz

Since the beginnings of the motion picture industry, with the one small Edison studio in New Jersey in the early 1900s, America has fallen in love with films. One could argue and debate the reasons, employing everything from sociology to psychology to economics; but one thing is certain: This love affair has changed over the years. This change is perhaps most evident in the decline in the percentage of the United States population that goes to the cinema weekly. One interesting aspect of cinema attendance is that during the Great Depression, which swept the United States in the 1930s, a ...


Environmental Regulation, Michelle C. Pautz Apr 2015

Environmental Regulation, Michelle C. Pautz

Michelle Pautz

The terms environment and regulation are commonplace in political and policy debates about the natural environment, the role of science, and the behavior of government. Indeed, these terms reference a very contentious area of public policy and are emblematic of the growing tensions between science and politics. This chapter overviews the definition, types, and history of environmental regulation before turning to the intersection of science and politics in environmental policy and considering current and future challenges for this aspect of governmental activity.


Making Sense Of The Front Lines: Environmental Inspectors In Ohio And Wisconsin, Michelle Pautz, Sara Rinfret Apr 2015

Making Sense Of The Front Lines: Environmental Inspectors In Ohio And Wisconsin, Michelle Pautz, Sara Rinfret

Michelle Pautz

Although about 90% of environmental policy is delegated to the states for implementation, the individuals responsible for implementing a majority of that policy are largely understudied. Existing acknowledgment of these regulators typically extends only to the regulatory enforcement strategy their agency employs. Missing in these conversations is a focused study on the regulators themselves and their perceptions of the regulated community that they interact with daily. Understanding these perceptions will provide insights into how regulators approach their interactions and how they ensure regulatory compliance. This paper uses an exploratory case study approach to focus on front-line regulators with the Ohio ...


Front-Line Regulators And Their Approach To Environmental Regulation In Southwest Ohio, Michelle Pautz Apr 2015

Front-Line Regulators And Their Approach To Environmental Regulation In Southwest Ohio, Michelle Pautz

Michelle Pautz

Regulatory approaches and strategies are frequently the subject of study in various literatures, but that examination focuses on practices rather than looking more deeply at the nature of regulatory interactions. Also missing is a more thorough look at what it is front-line regulators—in this case, environmental inspectors and site coordinators—desire in their interactions and how they perceive their regulatory counterparts. Interviews with regulators in Southwest Ohio reveal that 82 percent of them think the regulated community intends to comply with regulations. Additionally, 71 percent of regulators say that their interactions are positive with the regulated community with three-quarters ...


U.S. Environmental Policy In Action: Practice And Implementation, Sara Rinfret, Michelle Pautz Apr 2015

U.S. Environmental Policy In Action: Practice And Implementation, Sara Rinfret, Michelle Pautz

Michelle Pautz

This volume provides a comprehensive look at the creation, implementation, and evaluation of environmental policy, which is of particular importance in an era of congressional gridlock. With a focus grounded in the front lines of environmental policy, readers are afforded examples of how environmental policy works through case studies and voices sections, thereby enriching the text's practical approach to understanding contemporary American environmental policy.


Understanding State Rulemaking Processes: Developing Fracking Rules In Colorado, New York, And Ohio, Sara Rinfret, Jeffrey Cook, Michelle Pautz Apr 2015

Understanding State Rulemaking Processes: Developing Fracking Rules In Colorado, New York, And Ohio, Sara Rinfret, Jeffrey Cook, Michelle Pautz

Michelle Pautz

Rulemaking is an integral component of environmental policy at both the federal and state level; however, rulemaking at the state level is understudied. With this research, we begin to fill that gap by focusing on rulemaking regarding the issue of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) in three states: Colorado, New York, and Ohio. This policy issue is well suited to begin exploring state-level rulemaking processes because the federal government has left fracking regulation to the states. Through semistructured interviews with a range of actors in the rulemaking process across these states, we establish a foundation from which future research in this area ...