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2012

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Institution
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Articles 1 - 30 of 53

Full-Text Articles in Other Political Science

Oil Exploitation As A Factor Of Violent Conflict Between Sudan And South Sudan, Anne Hamilton Dec 2012

Oil Exploitation As A Factor Of Violent Conflict Between Sudan And South Sudan, Anne Hamilton

Anne Hamilton

Sudan was in a state of civil war for most of the years following independence in 1956, apart from a temporary respite between 1972 and 1983. After hostilities resumed, the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) captured Leer from the government in March 1986, and the town became a stronghold of the rebel commander Riek Machar, who had been born there. In August 1991 Riek Machar broke away from John Garang's mainstream branch of the SPLM/A. Machar's breakaway faction was called the SPLM/A-Nasir faction from 1991 to 1993, and then the South Sudan Independence ...


Diseñando Colisiones De Satélites En La Guerra Cibernética Encubierta, Jan Kallberg Dec 2012

Diseñando Colisiones De Satélites En La Guerra Cibernética Encubierta, Jan Kallberg

Jan Kallberg

La guerra concentrada en la red depende de la red de información global para capacidades de combate conjuntas.3 La capa fundamental crea la capacidad de combate global como la columna vertebral espacial de la red de información donde los haberes espaciales son el elemento decisivo. EE.UU. depende de las capacidades espaciales para su éxito y la seguridad nacional de EE.UU. se basa hoy en día en un número limitado de satélites muy utilizados. Estos satélites son cruciales para la disuasión estratégica, la vigilancia, la recopilación de inteligencia y las comunicaciones militares. Si la disuasión estratégica falla, los ...


Wie Verändert Das Internet Die Demokratie?, Ralf Lindner Dec 2012

Wie Verändert Das Internet Die Demokratie?, Ralf Lindner

Ralf Lindner

Obwohl seit dem Aufstieg des Internets zum Massenmedium in den 1990er Jahren Ernüchterung über die Demokratisierungswirkung der neuen Medien eingetreten ist, werden regelmäßig weitreichende Erwartungen über der politische Transformationspotenzial des Internets formuliert. So wird häufig postuliert, dass das Internet demokratische Politik über kurz oder lang fundamental verändern werde, indem universeller Informationszugang ermöglicht, etablierte Machtstrukturen unterminiert und politische Partizipation gesteigert werde. Der Beitrag erörtert zunächst die Hintergründe für populäre Fehlschlüsse, die die Debatte um elektronische Demokratie begleiten. Auf der Grundlage einer kritischen Reflexion mit den ideologisch-normativ imprägnierten Erwartungen an das Internet werden theoretisch wie empirisch robustere Überlegungen zum Beitrag der neuen ...


The Return Of Dr. Strangelove: How Austerity Makes Us Stop Worrying And Love The Bomb…And Cyber War, Jan Kallberg, Adam Lowther Nov 2012

The Return Of Dr. Strangelove: How Austerity Makes Us Stop Worrying And Love The Bomb…And Cyber War, Jan Kallberg, Adam Lowther

Jan Kallberg

With sequestration looming—generating significant cuts to defense spending—the United States may find itself increasingly relying on nuclear and cyber deterrence as an affordable way to guarantee national sovereignty and prevent major conflict. While earlier defense planning and acquisitions were based on economic conditions that no longer exist, Congress’ options to balance the budget by cutting defense spending are politically palatable because far fewer American are “defense voters” than “social welfare voters,” according to a number of recent public opinion surveys.


Manager-In-Chief: Applying Public Management Theory To Examine White House Chief Of Staff Performance, David B. Cohen, Justin S. Vaughn, José D. Villalobos Nov 2012

Manager-In-Chief: Applying Public Management Theory To Examine White House Chief Of Staff Performance, David B. Cohen, Justin S. Vaughn, José D. Villalobos

José D. Villalobos

In an effort to examine the causal determinants of performance dynamics for the administrative presidency, we apply empirical public management theory to White House administration to explain managerial performance. Utilizing original survey data that measures the perceptions of former officials from the Reagan, George H.W. Bush, and Clinton administrations, we conduct quantitative analyses to determine the extent to which a chief of staff’s background, relationship with the president, and internal as well as external management approaches shape overall perceptions of White House administrative efforts. We find that managerial dimensions matter considerably when explaining the dynamics of White House ...


“No Cops, No Journos, No Anthropologists:” Fieldwork Challenges In Occupied Barcelona, Justin Ak Helepololei Nov 2012

“No Cops, No Journos, No Anthropologists:” Fieldwork Challenges In Occupied Barcelona, Justin Ak Helepololei

Justin AK Helepololei

No abstract provided.


Gay Parenthood And The Revolution Of The Modern Family: An Examination Of The Unique Barriers Confronting Gay Adoptive Parents, Nicholas Arntsen Nov 2012

Gay Parenthood And The Revolution Of The Modern Family: An Examination Of The Unique Barriers Confronting Gay Adoptive Parents, Nicholas Arntsen

Nicholas Benedict Arntsen

Abstract: In recent decades, the structure of the American family has been revolutionized to incorporate families of diverse and unconventional compositions. Gay and lesbian couples have undoubtedly played a crucial role in this revolution by establishing families through the tool of adoption. Eleven adoptive parents from the state of Connecticut were interviewed to better conceptualize the unique barriers gay couples encounter in the process adoption. Both the scholarly research and the interview data illustrate that although gay couples face enormous legal barriers, the majority of their hardship comes through social interactions. As a result, the cultural myths and legal restrictions ...


Crimen Organizado Y Delitos Electorales, Raúl Manuel Flores Rodriguez Nov 2012

Crimen Organizado Y Delitos Electorales, Raúl Manuel Flores Rodriguez

Raúl Flores Rodriguez

Alguna vez nos hemos preguntado ¿en qué medida afecta la presencia de grupos criminales una elección?, existen muchas teorías que tratan de explicar el comportamiento electoral en estos escenarios tan descompuestos, sin duda hay quienes advierte que en México no pasa eso, pero es cuestión solo de reflexionar como ciudadanos y mirar un poco más al fondo del asunto, hay municipios que se deciden por sólo 10 votos de diferencia, alguna vez se han preguntado por qué hay significativos cambios en votaciones en algunos municipios de México, cooptado por el narcotráfico.


Beyond The Plaza: Barcelona’S Okupa Squatters At Work In The Wake Of La Crisis, Justin Helepololei Nov 2012

Beyond The Plaza: Barcelona’S Okupa Squatters At Work In The Wake Of La Crisis, Justin Helepololei

Justin AK Helepololei

As ongoing, financial crisis has kept millions in precarity - and over 40% of Spain's youth unemployed - mass mobilizations of the country's indignados have continued to fill the country's streets and plazas. Nearly one year after the original 15M demonstrations, city-wide occupations have triggered a profusion of more localized and issue-based assemblies. Beyond the plazas, squatter-activists of Barcelona's decades-old “okupa movement” have helped to facilitate the continuation of these dialogues by offering space within dozens of pre-existing squats and even opening new sites to host such interactions. Leveraging decades of experience and skill in re-appropriating spaces, squatters ...


Governance In Nigerian Universities: The Position Of The University Internal Auditor, Professor Ben C Osisioma Nov 2012

Governance In Nigerian Universities: The Position Of The University Internal Auditor, Professor Ben C Osisioma

Prof Ben Chuka Osisioma

The University system is committed to the principles of good governance which ensure that the Institution is ‚fit for its purpose‛ as an organization put in place for teaching, research and consultancy and professional services to the community. The principles demand a response to the challenge of operational dexterity, technical ingenuity, strategic relevance, African persona and political deftness as part of the task of modernization of the governance of higher education. The task of the Internal Auditor is five-fold – to provide transparency and act as an advisory body to senior management, to identify underperforming areas and opportunities for improvement and ...


Attenti Al Gorilla, Sajjad Khaksari Nov 2012

Attenti Al Gorilla, Sajjad Khaksari

SAJJAD KHAKSARI

Attenti al Gorilla; G8; Violenza della polizia Italia; La libertà;


Sitting With Oprah, Dancing With Ellen: Presidents, Daytime Television, And Soft News, José D. Villalobos Oct 2012

Sitting With Oprah, Dancing With Ellen: Presidents, Daytime Television, And Soft News, José D. Villalobos

José D. Villalobos

On July 29, 2010, President Barack Obama took to the air on "The View" to talk politics, policy, and family. Pundits billed the visit as the first time a sitting U.S. president appeared in a daytime television program. The telecast drew about 6.7 million viewers, the highest rating ever for the show, and garnered the largest number of women viewers in 17 months. However, whether and to what extent Obama succeeded in getting his message out and endearing himself to female voters remains an open question that merits further scholarly inquiry. In this chapter, I put Obama’s ...


Analysis - Toward A New American Military., Adam Lowther, Jan Kallberg Oct 2012

Analysis - Toward A New American Military., Adam Lowther, Jan Kallberg

Jan Kallberg

In releasing the United States Department of Defense’s (DoD) Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership: Priorities for 21st Century Defense and Defense Budget Priorities and Choices in January 2012, President Barack Obama and Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta offered a rationale for the administration’s reductions in defense spending. By stating that the shift in strategic direction is an effort to “put our fiscal house in order” and a response to the 2011 Budget Control Act, which requires DoD to reduce spending by $487 billion between fiscal years 2012 and 2021, the United States’ NATO partners in Europe were given ...


Migration And Disaster-Induced Displacement: European Policy, Practice, And Perspective, Michael D. Cooper Oct 2012

Migration And Disaster-Induced Displacement: European Policy, Practice, And Perspective, Michael D. Cooper

Michael D. Cooper, Esq.

Over the last decade, a series of devastating natural disasters have killed hundreds of thousands of people, displaced millions, and decimated the built environment across wide regions, shocking the public imagination and garnering unprecedented financial support for humanitarian relief efforts. Some suggest that disaster migration must be supported by the international community, first as an adaption strategy in response to climate-change, and second, as a matter of international protection. This study surveys the current state of law as it relates to persons displaced by natural disaster, with a specific focus on the 27 member states of the European Union plus ...


Politics Or Policy? How Rhetoric Matters To Presidential Leadership Of Congress, José Villalobos, Justin Vaughn, Julia Azari Aug 2012

Politics Or Policy? How Rhetoric Matters To Presidential Leadership Of Congress, José Villalobos, Justin Vaughn, Julia Azari

José D. Villalobos

In this study, we examine the linkage between presidential policy proposal messages and legislative success. Employing a dataset on presidential legislative proposals that covers the years 1949-2010, we find that politics matters less than policy. Purely political messages that reference the electoral logic of mandates or appeal to a sense of bipartisanship appear to have no impact on presidential legislative success, nor does policy signaling, though highlighting the role of agency-based policy experts in crafting legislation does. From these results, we conclude that although the way presidents communicate their messages to Congress represents an important component of presidential-legislative relations, it ...


The Policy Czar Debate, Justin S. Vaughn, José D. Villalobos Aug 2012

The Policy Czar Debate, Justin S. Vaughn, José D. Villalobos

José D. Villalobos

Presidential policy czars have been an important and powerful component of President Barack Obama’s approach to management and leadership in the first part of his time in office. By using czars, the President has been able to demonstrate the importance of policy issues, both to his own agenda and to the broader political system. In this chapter, we find that performance outcomes for these czars have been a mixed bag, with as many stories of success to report as tales of frustration and failure. As such, we posit that the cost of czars, in political and organizational terms, has ...


Nonpunctuated And Sweeping Policy Change: Bhutan Tobacco Policy Making From 1991 To 2009, Michael S. Givel Aug 2012

Nonpunctuated And Sweeping Policy Change: Bhutan Tobacco Policy Making From 1991 To 2009, Michael S. Givel

Michael S. Givel

This paper examines policy outputs associated with the 2004 Bhutan antitobacco law, including 2009 amendments, to determine if the law is congruent with punctuated equilibrium or social policy realism theories of policy change. There was no direct and sudden tobacco policy output change in Bhutan due to a shock to the policy system contrary to what punctuated equilibrium theory would predict. Rather, policy change was sweeping but nonpunctuated. This paper reconfirms prior findings of social policy realism theory that various and complex policy output patterns occur due to a mixture of contingent and complex factors. Under social policy realism, a ...


The Return Of Dr. Strangelove, Jan Kallberg, Adam Lowther Aug 2012

The Return Of Dr. Strangelove, Jan Kallberg, Adam Lowther

Jan Kallberg

With the prospect of sequestration looming, the United States may find itself increasingly rely ing on nuclear and cy ber deterrence as an affordable means of guaranteeing national sovereignty and preventing major conflict between the U.S. and potential adversaries in the Asia-Pacific. While earlier defense planning and acquisition were based on economic conditions that no longer ex ist, Congress’s options to balance the budget by cutting defense spending are politically palatable because far fewer American are “defense v oters” relative to “social welfare voters,” according to a number of recent public opinion surveys. The simple fact is China ...


El Precedente En El Tribunal Constitucional: ¿Doctrina Judicial O Compromiso Con Votos Particulares?, Sergio Verdugo Sverdugor@Udd.Cl, Nicolás Galli Aug 2012

El Precedente En El Tribunal Constitucional: ¿Doctrina Judicial O Compromiso Con Votos Particulares?, Sergio Verdugo Sverdugor@Udd.Cl, Nicolás Galli

Sergio Verdugo R.

Se propone una metodología para evaluar la predictibilidad de las sentencias del Tribunal Constitucional considerando la coherencia experimentada en los votos individuales de sus ministros. Tomando algunos casos considerados especialmente relevantes por especialistas consultados, y observando que los ministros disidentes no suelen modificar sus posiciones para seguir las posiciones de la mayoría en casos futuros, se concluye que la mantención de las doctrinas del Tribunal Constitucional dependerá en gran medida de la composición del mismo, y no solamente de lo que se haya expresado en sentencias precedentes.


Common Criteria Meets Realpolitik Trust, Alliances, And Potential Betrayal, Jan Kallberg Jul 2012

Common Criteria Meets Realpolitik Trust, Alliances, And Potential Betrayal, Jan Kallberg

Jan Kallberg

Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation has the ambition to be a global standard for IT-security certification. The issued certifications are mutually recognized between the signatories of the Common Criteria Recognition Arrangement. The key element in any form of mutual relationships is trust. A question raised in this paper is how far trust can be maintained in Common Criteria when additional signatories enter with conflicting geopolitical interests to earlier signatories. Other issues raised are control over production, the lack of permanent organization in the Common Criteria, which leads to concerns of being able to oversee the actual compliance. As ...


La Crisis De Las Utopías En Archipiélago., Daniel Añorve Jul 2012

La Crisis De Las Utopías En Archipiélago., Daniel Añorve

Daniel Añorve

No abstract provided.


Radiography To The Chilean Human Rights Institution: Between Law And Politics, Sergio Verdugo Sverdugor@Udd.Cl, José Francisco Garía Jul 2012

Radiography To The Chilean Human Rights Institution: Between Law And Politics, Sergio Verdugo Sverdugor@Udd.Cl, José Francisco Garía

Sergio Verdugo R.

The article examines the fundamental recommendations for the national human rights institutions (NHRI) to function with proper autonomy against the state and, also, against NGOs that try to capture the commission´s agenda. The authors analyse the institutional design of the Chilean Human Rights Institution (INDH) and evaluates the profile and the nomination process of its membership. The paper provides evidence that demonstrates that the INDH´s research agenda is associated with a partial political view. Then, the authors suggest certain changes to strengthen the independence of the INDH.


La Automatización Del Voto. Entre El Miedo Y La Pasión: Un Análisis De Cuatro Casos Europeos, (Autor) Letizia Caporusso, (Traductor) Fernando Barrientos Del Monte Jun 2012

La Automatización Del Voto. Entre El Miedo Y La Pasión: Un Análisis De Cuatro Casos Europeos, (Autor) Letizia Caporusso, (Traductor) Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

En este artículo se presenta el análisis de cuatro casos empíricos sobre el despliegue de las tecnologías de votación electrónica, resaltando sus diferentes contextos y resultados. El caso de Irlanda, donde el proceso de implementación “desde arriba” activó un debate en la opinión pública que llevo a que se cancelara. Gran Bretana es el caso donde se experimentaron diversas soluciones tecnologicas, incluso en procesos electorales con valor legal, pero se renuncio a su uso en amplia escala. En Holanda, donde ya existía el uso de máquinas electrónicas de votación se enfrentaron a diversos elementos de discusión de grupos de presión ...


Towards Cyber Operations The New Role Of Academic Cyber Security Research And Education, Jan Kallberg, Bhavani Thuraisingham Jun 2012

Towards Cyber Operations The New Role Of Academic Cyber Security Research And Education, Jan Kallberg, Bhavani Thuraisingham

Jan Kallberg

Abstract – The shift towards cyber operations represents a shift not only for the defense establishments worldwide but also cyber security research and education. Traditionally cyber security research and education has been founded on information assurance, expressed in underlying subfields such as forensics, network security, and penetration testing. Cyber security research and education is connected to the homeland security agencies and defense through funding, mutual interest in the outcome of the research, and the potential job market for graduates. The future of cyber security is both defensive information assurance measures and active defense driven information operations that jointly and coordinately are ...


Dynamics Of The Current Crisis, Howard Sherman, Mike Meeropol Apr 2012

Dynamics Of The Current Crisis, Howard Sherman, Mike Meeropol

HOWARD J SHERMAN

Sometimes, it is useful to take a step back and remind ourselves why recessions occur and why recoveries usually follow shortly thereafter. Having done that, we can try to understand the causes of far more serious recessions and what must be done to recover. The authors point out how such severe recessions, including the Great Recession of 2007 to 2009, differ profoundly from most others


Externality, Contact Periphery & Incorporation, Jon D. Carlson Apr 2012

Externality, Contact Periphery & Incorporation, Jon D. Carlson

Jon D. Carlson

No abstract provided.


Organised Labor And Health Reform, Laurence Weil Apr 2012

Organised Labor And Health Reform, Laurence Weil

Laurence Weil

By the summer of 1993, the AFL-CIO had endorsed in principle President-elect Bill Clinton's "managed competition" approach to comprehensive health reform, and committed itself to a multi-million dollar effort on behalf of the Administration's proposal. By February 1994, labor's promised commitment had grown to $10 million, although it had thus far spent only about $500 thousand (2,3). In the end the labor movement anted up between $5 and $10 million (about two-thirds in direct expenditures, the rest in in-kind contributions), an effort that proved wholly inadequate in the face of the mammoth sums of money and ...


Citizen Satisfaction Survey Data: A Mode Comparison Of The Derived Importance–Performance Approach, Mitchel Herian, Alan Tomkins Mar 2012

Citizen Satisfaction Survey Data: A Mode Comparison Of The Derived Importance–Performance Approach, Mitchel Herian, Alan Tomkins

Alan J Tomkins

The purpose of this article is to provide evidence regarding the comparability of results provided by two survey methods—a random phone survey and a nonrandom online survey—using the derived importance–performance approach to examine service satisfaction data at the local level. Specifically, we measure whether nonprobability opt-in online survey results produce results that are convergent or divergent to random phone survey results. The findings show that the phone and online survey techniques yield divergent results when simple univariate statistical techniques are employed but produce similar results when the data are analyzed using the more advanced derived importance approach ...


James A. Garfield: 20th President Of The United States, José D. Villalobos Feb 2012

James A. Garfield: 20th President Of The United States, José D. Villalobos

José D. Villalobos

President James A. Garfield served for only 200 days before an assassin’s bullets ended his unlikely rise to power. Garfield was the last “log cabin” president and a life-long Republican, both in the tradition of his predecessor, Ulysses Grant. In his lifetime, he served honorably as educator, general, and politician. His surprising nomination for president in 1880 earned him the nickname of the “Dark Horse” candidate, and his victory in the general election sealed his place in history as a U.S. president. His rise to power and tragic death highlight an important episode of the Gilded Age. Although ...


Designer Satellite Collisions From Covert Cyber War, Jan Kallberg Feb 2012

Designer Satellite Collisions From Covert Cyber War, Jan Kallberg

Jan Kallberg

Outer space has enjoyed two decades of fairly peaceful development since the Cold War, but once again it is becoming more competitive and contested, with increased militarization. Therefore, it is important the United States maintain its space superiority to ensure it has the capabilities required by modern warfare for successful operations. Today is different from earlier periods of space development,1 because there is not a blatantly overt arms race in space,2 but instead a covert challenge to US interests in maintaining superiority, resilience, and capability. A finite number of states consider themselves geopolitical actors; however, as long as ...