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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Level Of Satisfaction Among Food Pantry Clients, Staff/Volunteers, And Directors And Its Association With Client Choice In Food Pantry Layouts, Myranda Dunmire Jan 2019

Level Of Satisfaction Among Food Pantry Clients, Staff/Volunteers, And Directors And Its Association With Client Choice In Food Pantry Layouts, Myranda Dunmire

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Objectives: Food insecurity is an issue in rural communities, particularly among food pantry clients. Food pantries may not provide clients with the opportunity to choose their own foods (client choice), and instead may just give a set amount and type of foods. Client choice is important in regards to client health status as well as perceptions of autonomy and quality of life. Although client choice can be promoted in food pantries, it may be difficult to grasp the process of food pantry transitioning and how well changes such as these may be perceived by clients or food pantry personnel. We ...


Voices For Food: Methodologies For Implementing A Multi-State Community-Based Intervention In Rural, High Poverty Communities., Suzanne Stluka, Lindsay Moore, Heather A Eicher-Miller, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Becky Henne, Donna Mehrle, Daniel Remley, Lacey Mccormack Aug 2018

Voices For Food: Methodologies For Implementing A Multi-State Community-Based Intervention In Rural, High Poverty Communities., Suzanne Stluka, Lindsay Moore, Heather A Eicher-Miller, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Becky Henne, Donna Mehrle, Daniel Remley, Lacey Mccormack

Health and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Rural communities experience unique barriers to food access when compared to urban areas and food security is a public health issue in rural, high poverty communities. A multi-leveled socio-ecological intervention to develop food policy councils (FPCs), and improve food security in rural communities was created. Methods to carry out such an intervention were developed and are described.
METHODS: A longitudinal, matched treatment and comparison study was conducted in 24 rural, high poverty counties in South Dakota, Indiana, Missouri, Michigan, Nebraska and Ohio. Counties were assigned to a treatment (n = 12) or comparison (n = 12) group. Intervention activities focus on ...


Daily Dietary Intake Patterns Improve After Visiting A Food Pantry Among Food-Insecure Rural Midwestern Adults., Breanne N Wright, Regan L Bailey, Bruce A Craig, Richard D Mattes, Lacey Mccormack, Suzanne Stluka, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Becky Henne, Donna Mehrle, Dan Remley, Heather A Eicher-Miller May 2018

Daily Dietary Intake Patterns Improve After Visiting A Food Pantry Among Food-Insecure Rural Midwestern Adults., Breanne N Wright, Regan L Bailey, Bruce A Craig, Richard D Mattes, Lacey Mccormack, Suzanne Stluka, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Becky Henne, Donna Mehrle, Dan Remley, Heather A Eicher-Miller

Health and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Emergency food pantries provide food at no cost to low-resource populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate single-day dietary intake patterns before and after visiting a food pantry among food-secure and food-insecure pantry clients. This observational cohort study comprised a paired, before-and-after design with a pantry visit as the intervention. Participants (n = 455) completed a demographic and food security assessment, and two 24-h dietary recalls. Adult food security was measured using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Dietary intake patterns were assessed using Automated Self-Administered 24-h Recall data and classified by Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) scores ...


Quality Of Life Associated With Physical Activity But Not Sedentary Time In Youth, K. Kattelmann, E. Hofer, C. Merfeld, J. Meendering, M. Olfert, J. White, S. Colby, R. Meade, L. Franzen-Castle, T. Aquirre, D. Matthews, A. White May 2018

Quality Of Life Associated With Physical Activity But Not Sedentary Time In Youth, K. Kattelmann, E. Hofer, C. Merfeld, J. Meendering, M. Olfert, J. White, S. Colby, R. Meade, L. Franzen-Castle, T. Aquirre, D. Matthews, A. White

Health and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Purpose: It has been reported that youth who engaged in more screen time had lower quality of life scores compared to those that were more physically active. Furthermore, increased sedentary behavior increases health risks particularly the risk for obesity. A cross-sectional analysis was completed to examine the relationship between healthrelated quality-of-life (HRQOL) and accelerometer-measured sedentary time (ST) and physical activity (PA) in 9-10-yearold youth who were recruited for the family-based, childhood obesity intervention, iCook 4-H. It was hypothesized that objectively measured ST would be negatively correlated and PA would be positively correlated with HRQOL.
Methods: A subset of participants (n ...


Dairy Digest 2018: Home Is Where The Cows Are, South Dakota State University Dairy Club Apr 2018

Dairy Digest 2018: Home Is Where The Cows Are, South Dakota State University Dairy Club

Dairy Digest

This is the 2018 Dairy Digest published annually by the South Dakota State University Dairy Club. The Digest contains information and news about the activities and members of the SDSU Dairy Club for the academic year 2017 - 2018.


The Healthfulness Of Entrées And Students' Purchases In A University Campus Dining Environment, Krista Leischner, Lacey Arneson Mccormack, Brian C. Britt, Greg Heiberger, Kendra Kattelmann 6884045 Mar 2018

The Healthfulness Of Entrées And Students' Purchases In A University Campus Dining Environment, Krista Leischner, Lacey Arneson Mccormack, Brian C. Britt, Greg Heiberger, Kendra Kattelmann 6884045

Health and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

The purpose of this study is to determine the availability of "more healthful" (MH) versus "less healthful" (LH) entrée items in the campus dining and if students' purchases are reflective of what is offered. This is an observational study in which purchases of the available entrée items in the campus dining at South Dakota State University in one academic year were collected and categorized as either MH or LH according to the American Heart Association guidelines. Chi-square tests were used to determine the differences between the proportion of purchased MH and LH versus those available. Odds ratio estimates with 95 ...


The Journal Of Undergraduate Research: 2017 Mar 2018

The Journal Of Undergraduate Research: 2017

The Journal of Undergraduate Research

This is the complete issue of the South Dakota State University Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume 15.


Quantifying Undisturbed (Native) Lands In Northwestern South Dakota: 2013, Pete Bauman, Benjamin Carlson, Tanner Butler, Brad Richardson Jan 2018

Quantifying Undisturbed (Native) Lands In Northwestern South Dakota: 2013, Pete Bauman, Benjamin Carlson, Tanner Butler, Brad Richardson

Quantifying Undisturbed (Native) Lands in Northwestern South Dakota: 2013

We employed simple GIS methods primarily utilizing the South Dakota Farm Service Agency’s Common Land Unit (CLU) data layers from 2013 and the 2012 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) county mosaic aerial imagery to evaluate 7,347,812 acres of land in northwestern South Dakota. The analysis area includes: Harding, Perkins, and Butte counties along with portions of Lawrence and Meade counties outside of the Black Hills Core Highlands and Plateau Ecoregions.

We utilized the FSA CLU data layer queried to show current and former cropland to identify and remove any areas with ...


Immunization By Radiotherapy: Enhancing An Immune-Mediated Abscopal Effect, Amy Steffen Jan 2018

Immunization By Radiotherapy: Enhancing An Immune-Mediated Abscopal Effect, Amy Steffen

Biology and Microbiology Graduate Students Plan B Research Projects

Radiotherapy aims to destroy tumors by inducing DNA damage in their cells at the local irradiation site. Its immune-mediated systemic effects, called abscopal effect, has shown to enhance anti-tumor immunity when combined with immune therapies and thus, have gained attention by researchers and clinicians to investigate. Below is a summary of the fundamentals of cancer and the immune system’s response to it, as well as the changes in the phenotype and microenvironment of tumor cells after exposure to radiation. Impacts of the abscopal effect and the induction of effective antitumor immunity with various immune therapy strategies will be outlined ...


Increasing The Clinical Efficacy Of Radiotherapeutics For Solid Tumors By Inhibition Of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a, Austin Levi Walz Jan 2018

Increasing The Clinical Efficacy Of Radiotherapeutics For Solid Tumors By Inhibition Of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a, Austin Levi Walz

Biology and Microbiology Graduate Students Plan B Research Projects

Radiotherapy is commonly used in a variety of tumor types and is effective in control of long term progression and may be curative under certain circumstances. Radiotherapeutics have been shown to be the single most effective therapeutic for cancer and only account for 5% of the total cost. However, treatment of cells with radiation causes the tumor microenvironment to undergo changes and leads to cycles of hypoxia inside the tumor which allows for the cell to undergo angiogenesis, metastasize and may lead to repopulation of the tumor. Current systemic chemotherapeutics typically have an additive toxicity due to the unintended targeting ...


A Biological Review Of Mental Illness: An Overview Of Genetics And Pathophysiology Of Schizophrenia, Major Depression, And Addiction, Christopher R. Angerhofer Jan 2018

A Biological Review Of Mental Illness: An Overview Of Genetics And Pathophysiology Of Schizophrenia, Major Depression, And Addiction, Christopher R. Angerhofer

Biology and Microbiology Graduate Students Plan B Research Projects

Novel approaches in understanding mental illness present solutions to current issues in treatment and diagnosis. With advancements in genetics and neurology, the etiology and pathophysiology of mental illness is slowly unwrapping. In discovering biomarkers for depression, addiction, and schizophrenia, the precision for preventing, diagnosing, and treating these disorders increases. The aim of this paper is to review current research for addiction, major depression, and schizophrenia in genetics and physiology, while also clarifying the need for reclassifying mental illness as diseases with a pathophysiological basis, not syndromal, idiopathic disorders. Mental illness is dynamic in that it encompasses both environmental and biological ...


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulaton: In-Depth Review Of Methods, Efficacy And Future Applications, Matthew Carpenter Jan 2018

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulaton: In-Depth Review Of Methods, Efficacy And Future Applications, Matthew Carpenter

Biology and Microbiology Graduate Students Plan B Research Projects

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been regarded as a novel technique of neuromodulation with applications that span from the treatment of depression or depression related symptoms to the mapping of cerebral regions. This review takes an in depth look into the different forms of magnetic stimulation including repetitive TMS, theta-burst stimulation, and navigated TMS. The efficacy of these different forms of stimulation is addressed as well as comparisons made to current standards being used. Potential clinically relevant future applications of TMS are also discussed from the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder to improving motor function after stroke. The purpose of ...


A Review Of Multiple Sclerosis Treatments: Interferon Beta, Glatiramer Acetate, Fingolimod, And Natalizumab, Ryan Golden Jan 2018

A Review Of Multiple Sclerosis Treatments: Interferon Beta, Glatiramer Acetate, Fingolimod, And Natalizumab, Ryan Golden

Biology and Microbiology Graduate Students Plan B Research Projects

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s own immune system works to demyelinate the myelin sheaths in the central nervous system. The beginning of the review will concentrate on the history of MS while also describing how MS, the disease, differs from that of normal immune responses. The review then shifts to the four different stages of MS and how to differentiate between the stages, since the treatment options are often dependent on the stage of MS that the patient is in. The main focus of this review is to take an in depth look ...


Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries And Cte: A Review Highlighting The Connection Between The Two, Leandre Kennedy Jan 2018

Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries And Cte: A Review Highlighting The Connection Between The Two, Leandre Kennedy

Biology and Microbiology Graduate Students Plan B Research Projects

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a traumatic brain injury based disease that is garnering a lot of attention in the United States. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an extensive review of the information available about the condition. Recently there has been a limited amount of published information and treatment opportunities are rare since the only way of diagnosing has come post mortem. Various literary reviews and experiments were analyzed for appropriate information regarding CTE’s pathology and treatments and only peer reviewed published works were allowed in this paper. This resulted in promising information about the disease ...


Jackrabbit Dairy And Food Review, Vikram V. Mistry Jan 2018

Jackrabbit Dairy And Food Review, Vikram V. Mistry

The Jackrabbit Dairy & Food Review

This is the Winter 2017- 2018 Jackrabbit Dairy and Food Review.
It contains the following articles and information: Message from the Department Head, 2017 Graduates, New Faculty and Visitors, information on the Dairy Club and Food Science Club, Judging Activities, Student Accomplishments, Professional Activities of Faculty and Staff, Distinguished Alumni, Dairy Facilities, a list of Scholarships and Dairy and Food Science Students, information on Departmental Outreach and Research Highlights.


Comparison Of Three Assembly Strategies For A Heterozygous Grapevine Genome Assembly, Sagar Patel, Erliang Zeng, Zhixiu Lu, Xiaozhu Jin, Padmapriya Swaminathan, Anne Fennell Jan 2018

Comparison Of Three Assembly Strategies For A Heterozygous Grapevine Genome Assembly, Sagar Patel, Erliang Zeng, Zhixiu Lu, Xiaozhu Jin, Padmapriya Swaminathan, Anne Fennell

Comparison of Three Assembly Strategies for a Heterozygous Grapevine Genome Assembly

Each folder includes the following files.

  1. Assembly.fa: Genome assembly in scaffolds.
  2. Blast2GO_results.b2g: The full annotation of coding sequences.
  3. Coding_sequences.fa: The predicted coding sequences from masked assembly.
  4. Gene_models.gff: Gene predictions from masked assembly.
  5. Masked_assembly.fa: The masked genome assembly.
  6. Protein.fa: The predicted protein sequences.

PLAT*_GC contains chromosomal assembly and annotation as "pseudo_chromosomal_assembly" folder.

SnpEff folder contains results from SnpEff as SnpEff_summary, genes affected are described as vini_snp.txt.genes and vini_snpeff is output from SnpEff.


Assessment And Development Of Cold Temperature Germination Tolerance In Oat And Hard Red Spring Wheat, Jacob Baustian Jan 2018

Assessment And Development Of Cold Temperature Germination Tolerance In Oat And Hard Red Spring Wheat, Jacob Baustian

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Oat (Avena Sativa) and hard red spring wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) are both spring planted cereal crops that yield best when planted early in the spring. These crops would benefit from improvements in cold temperature germination tolerance (CTGT) by allowing them faster and more uniform germination and emergence early in the spring. This study aimed to (i) evaluate germination in oat genotypes over a range of sub-optimal temperatures and (ii) establish a methodology for selection of hard red spring wheat for CTGT. Seed samples of ten different oat genotypes were evaluated for CTGT in a germination chamber at the ...


Insecticidal Seed And In-Furrow Treatment Recommendations For Soybean And Sunflower, Brady Hauswedell Jan 2018

Insecticidal Seed And In-Furrow Treatment Recommendations For Soybean And Sunflower, Brady Hauswedell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Throughout the 2016 and 2017 growing season, field research experiments were replicated across South Dakota. Many times seed treatments are used prophylactic, which is neither good for the producers or the environment. Producers will be able to reduce production costs, if they only use a seed treatment when necessary. The purpose of the first experiment was to determine the effects of seed treatments in combination with planting date and seeding rate on soybean yield. To determine the effects, two years of field data from four eastern South Dakota locations were compared. Within each year and location we compared two planting ...


Soybean Aphid Biotype 4 Resistance In Soja And Soybean Plant Introductions, Sophia R. Conzemius Jan 2018

Soybean Aphid Biotype 4 Resistance In Soja And Soybean Plant Introductions, Sophia R. Conzemius

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a major pest to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. Host plant resistance is a management tactic that uses naturally occurring soybean plant defenses to limit soybean aphid pest damage. Virulent soybean aphid biotypes are able to successfully colonize on certain aphid resistant soybean. Soybean aphid biotype 4 is most virulent, overcoming all commercially available soybean aphid resistant soybeans (Rag1, Rag2, and Rag1+Rag2). Additional sources of resistance to avirulent biotypes have been identified in soja and soybean plant introductions (PIs). This study examined those resistant soja and soybean for resistance to the newly found ...


Quantifying The Short-Term Impacts Of Cover Crops And Grazing On Soil Health Under An Integrated Crop-Livestock System In South Dakota, Vishal Seth Jan 2018

Quantifying The Short-Term Impacts Of Cover Crops And Grazing On Soil Health Under An Integrated Crop-Livestock System In South Dakota, Vishal Seth

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cover crops and grazing under Integrated Crop-Livestock System (ICLS) can impact the rhizosphere nutrient cycling and may have potential to increase the long-term sustainability and economic profitability of agricultural production system. In South Dakota, crop production practices and livestock husbandry are both common which provide the opportunity for ICLS to be successful in this region. However, little is known about the impacts of the cover crops and grazing under ICLS on soil properties in this region. The present study was conducted at South Dakota State University Research Farm (44°20'34.8"N, 96°48'14.8"W), Brookings, SD ...


Palmer Amaranth In South Dakota: Growth, Herbicidal Control, And Soybean Yield Loss, Brian Van De Stroet Jan 2018

Palmer Amaranth In South Dakota: Growth, Herbicidal Control, And Soybean Yield Loss, Brian Van De Stroet

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Palmer amaranth is a growing concern in the United States. Previously thought to only be able to occupy the southern United States, this plant can now be found throughout the northern states as well. Infestations of Palmer amaranth can now be found in South Dakota and is raising many concerns. Palmer amaranth is characterized by large growth and can be highly competitive with many important crops. Soybean is an important crop in South Dakota, as well as the rest of the world, and has not escaped the detrimental aspects of an infestation of Palmer amaranth. The objectives of this study ...


Land Use Change Sustainability And Carbon Turnover Rate In The Northern Great Plains Soil, Deepak Raj Joshi Jan 2018

Land Use Change Sustainability And Carbon Turnover Rate In The Northern Great Plains Soil, Deepak Raj Joshi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sustainable land management involves the management of land, water, biodiversity and other resources that meet human requirements while maintaining ecosystem services. In the northern Great Plains (NGP), the combined impacts of landuse and climate variability have placed many soils at the tipping point of sustainability. The objectives of this study were to: 1) calculate land-use changes from 2006 to 2012 and from 2012 to 2014 in South Dakota and Nebraska; 2) assess if land use changes had impacted on soil sustainability; 3) calculate variation in total carbon budget and turnover due to seasonal climate variability, biomass quality and soil properties ...


Influence Of Production System On Animal Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, Environmental Impacts, Production Economics, And Consumer Preference For Beef, Megan Jean Webb Jan 2018

Influence Of Production System On Animal Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, Environmental Impacts, Production Economics, And Consumer Preference For Beef, Megan Jean Webb

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The overall objective of this study was to determine if the level of growth promotant technology used among production systems influence animal and carcass performance, meat quality, production economics, the environmental impact, and determine consumer preferences and perception. Angus 􀀁 Simmental steer calves (n =120) were stratified by birth date, birth weight, and dam age in a completely randomized design and assigned to one of four treatments: 1) no antibiotics (NA, receiving no technology); 2) non-hormone treated (NHTC, fed monensin and tylosin); 3) implant (IMPL, administered a series of three implants), and 4) implant plus fed a beta-agonist (IMBA, administered the ...


Impacts On Salmonid Rearing Performance With Use Of Dietary Bioprocessed Plant-Based Protein And Water Velocity, Jill Voorhees Jan 2018

Impacts On Salmonid Rearing Performance With Use Of Dietary Bioprocessed Plant-Based Protein And Water Velocity, Jill Voorhees

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The inclusion of bioprocessed soybean (Glycine max) meal was evaluated in five experiments using either Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) or Brown Trout (Salmo trutta). In the first experiment, adult Erwin x Arlee strain Rainbow Trout were fed diets formulated so that bioprocessed soybean meal (BSM) replaced 0, 60, or 80% of the dietary fishmeal. There were no significant differences in gain, percent gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate, intestinal morphology, relative fin lengths, or organosomatic indices. In the second experiment, juvenile Plymouth strain Brown Trout were fed diets formulated so that BSM replaced 0, 60, 80, or 100% of ...


A Comprehensive Analysis Of Aromatic-Proton Mediated Hydrogen Bonds, Mona S. Alshamrani Jan 2018

A Comprehensive Analysis Of Aromatic-Proton Mediated Hydrogen Bonds, Mona S. Alshamrani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hydrogen bonds play critical role in folding, structure and recognition of biological macromolecules (e.g., proteins, RNA, DNA). In addition to classical hydrogen bonds (e.g., ─OH---O=, ─OH---O─, ─NH---O─ etc.), structural analysis of protein and nucleic acids, almost a decade ago, showed that hydrogen bonds (e.g., CH---O) with hydrogen atoms on aliphatic carbon atoms (hereafter, aliphatic-protons) also play very important role in the structure and function of biomolecules. Even though, protons of aromatic ring systems (hereafter, aromatic-protons) are more polar than the aliphatic-protons, systematic analysis of hydrogen bonds of aromatic-protons have not been carried out. Therefore, I carried out ...


Measuring The Influence Of Bedding On Soil Nitrogen Losses And Corn Crop Nitrogen Characteristics For Fall Applied Solid Beef Cattle Manure In Eastern South Dakota, Mukesh Mehata Jan 2018

Measuring The Influence Of Bedding On Soil Nitrogen Losses And Corn Crop Nitrogen Characteristics For Fall Applied Solid Beef Cattle Manure In Eastern South Dakota, Mukesh Mehata

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Nitrogen (N) is a major component of chlorophyll which plays a key role in the photosynthesis process in crops. The N is one of the highest demanded nutrients by all plants for their growth and reproduction. Manure or inorganic fertilizer is often applied to fulfill the crops’ N demand. However, the applied N sources have the potential of N losses in different forms from the soil volume in many ways such as ammonia (NH3) volatilization, aerial nitrous oxide (N2O) loss, nitrate (NO3 --N) leaching, and runoff and/or erosion. Soil fertility, crop yield, water quality, and ...


Characterization Of Anthocyanins In Aronia, Theodore Mohr Jan 2018

Characterization Of Anthocyanins In Aronia, Theodore Mohr

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Anthocyanins function as antioxidants and offer numerous other health benefits, such as anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammation protection, and may aid in the prevention of degenerative diseases. Aronia berries, uniquely high in anthocyanins, have a great potential in improving human wellness. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a rapid and reproducible analytical method for estimating the anthocyanin amount in Aronia berries; and (2) to determine the effect of growing conditions on anthocyanin concentration. A standard curve method was established based on anthocyanin absorbance in the visible range. The results reveal that the developed protocol could yield rapid and reproducible ...


Pilot Study: Knowledge And Attitudes Regarding Sport-Related Concussion In A Rural Interscholastic Sport Sample, Austin Westland Jan 2018

Pilot Study: Knowledge And Attitudes Regarding Sport-Related Concussion In A Rural Interscholastic Sport Sample, Austin Westland

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Context: Evidence supports education initiatives to improve knowledge of sport-related concussion (SRC) in active children and adolescents, as well as improve attitudes towards reporting concussion events to a supervising adult with the ultimate goal of early diagnosis and management. Most evidence focuses on urban and suburban children’s SRC knowledge and attitudes; however, little is known regarding knowledge and attitudes of children participating in sport in rural environments. Understanding current knowledge and attitudes of rural children can inform future education and health behavior strategies that encourage early reporting. Objective: Two objectives guided this study. First, obtain and analyze pilot data ...


Trunk Stability And Postural Stability In People With Multiple Sclerosis, Derek Tolbert Jan 2018

Trunk Stability And Postural Stability In People With Multiple Sclerosis, Derek Tolbert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Multiple Sclerosis is a neurological disease which affects an estimated 2.5million people worldwide. People with Multiple Sclerosis often experience high rates of falls, which have been associated with age, disability, and increased postural sway. Additionally, people with Multiple Sclerosis often exhibit muscular weakness and poor responses to perturbations. PURPOSE: To determine if trunk stability and postural control are altered among PwMS and if trunk muscle activity is correlated with postural stability. METHODS: Ten participants with a physician's diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (9 female, 1 male) were included in this study. Ten healthy controls were matched for age, height ...


Evaluation Of Microbially-Converted Soybean Meal As An Alternative To Fishmeal In Weaned Pig Diets, Sue Sinn Jan 2018

Evaluation Of Microbially-Converted Soybean Meal As An Alternative To Fishmeal In Weaned Pig Diets, Sue Sinn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Digestibility values determined in growing pigs may not apply to nursery pigs; thus, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in MCSBM and fishmeal (FM) were determined using 30 ± 1.6 kg BW ileal-cannulated barrows (n = 6) and 9.8 ± 1.2 kg BW barrows (n = 37; serial slaughter). Experimental diets included MCSBM, FM, and nitrogen-free where FM and MCSBM were included as the sole protein source. The SID of AA was 3-5% lower in MCSBM than FM when fed to 30 kg pigs. The SID of Arg and Met was greater (P < 0.05) in MCSBM than FM when fed to 10 kg pigs. The SID of AA was 12-20% lower in FM when fed to 10 versus 30 kg pigs but only 3-9% lower in MCSBM. A total of 336 barrows and gilts were weaned at 21 d of age (initial BW 6.1 ± 0.8 kg) and used in a performance trial. Pens of pigs were assigned to one of 6 experimental diets (8 pens/diet in two blocks). Treatment diets were fed in Phase I (7 d) and Phase II (14 d) with all pigs fed a common Phase III diet (14 d). Experimental diets included: 1) negative control (NEG) containing corn, soybean meal and whey, 2) NEG + acidifier (NEGA), 3) NEG + FM (POS), 4) POS + acidifier (POSA), 5) NEG + MCSBM (MCSBM), and 6) MCSBM + acidifier (MCSBMA). The FM and MCSBM were included at 7.5% and 5.0% in Phase I and II diets, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet the standard nutrient requirements for weaned pigs. Pig BW and feed disappearance was measured weekly and fecal scores were measured daily for the first 14 d postweaning as an indicator of PWDS. Performance (BW, ADG, ADFI, and G/F) was not significantly different among treatments. Treatment for PWDS occurred on different days in each block. Analysis of fecal score was completed separately by block. Pigs fed the NEG diets had higher (P = 0.02) fecal scores than pigs fed the POS diets on d 2 and 3 (block 1) and higher (P < 0.05) than pigs fed MCSBM or POS diets and diets with dietary acidifier on d 6 and 3 (block 2). At the end of Phase I and II, one pig/pen was humanely euthanized for digesta and tissue collection. Digesta pH was measured in the pyloric region of the stomach, duodenum, middle jejunum, ileum, cecum, and middle colon. There was an effect of location (P < 0.0001), where the pH was lowest in the stomach and increased until the ileum with a slight dip in the cecum and increased in the colon. There was no effect of ingredient, dietary acid, or their interaction within the gastrointestinal tract. At the end of Phase I, pigs fed NEG and POSA diets had similar pH (P > 0.10) from the stomach to the duodenum ...