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South Dakota State University

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

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Dark Cutting Beef - Why?, W. J. Costello Oct 1971

Dark Cutting Beef - Why?, W. J. Costello

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

Many producers have heard of the carcass that did not grade because it "cut dark". What is dark cutting beef and why does it happen?


Weaning Age And Management Systems For Fall Born Beef Calves, William Mccone Oct 1971

Weaning Age And Management Systems For Fall Born Beef Calves, William Mccone

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

Twenty-eight registered Angus and Hereford cows calved in September, 1970. The cows calved on pasture and remained on pasture until late November. From November 10 to December 28 the cows were bred for 1971 and started on a self-fed diet. The remaining 14, or one-half of the calves, were allowed to continue nursing the cows, but the calves also had access to calf creep with the same diet used for the weaned calves. At the start of the experiment the calves were randomly divided by sex, breed and age. At this time, December 30, 1970, the average age of all ...


Storing High Moisture Grain, James J. O'Connell Oct 1971

Storing High Moisture Grain, James J. O'Connell

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

For the past several years there has been increased interest in the harvesting and storing of high-moisture feed grains, particularly corn, barley and grain sorghum. With improved silos and grain harvesting equipment, the use of high-moisture grains has replaced the conventional methods of harvesting, storing and feeding grains on many cattle feeding farms. There are several reasons why this system is becoming more popular. Harvesting can be done earlier and faster, harvesting losses are reduced, and a minimum number of operations and amount of equipment are required. Storage costs are comparatively low and in most cases storage is rodent free ...


Feedlot Bulls And Steers Treated With Diethylstilbestrol And Zeranol, P. J. Thiex Oct 1971

Feedlot Bulls And Steers Treated With Diethylstilbestrol And Zeranol, P. J. Thiex

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

This experiment is one of a series to study effects of castration, growth stimulating compounds and various feeding and management systems on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot male and female cattle. It involved a comparison of bulls with steers and their response to diethylstilbestrol or zeranol (a resorcyclic acid lactone compound shown to have growth stimulating properties) implants when fed high-concentrate diets.


Drought-Damaged Corn Silage For Growing Beef Calves, Richard M. Luther, Jacob Fredrikson Oct 1971

Drought-Damaged Corn Silage For Growing Beef Calves, Richard M. Luther, Jacob Fredrikson

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

One hundred thirty-six steer calves averaging 440 lb. were used in a 56-day trial to study the value of supplementing drought-damaged corn silage with protein and energy. The silage contained only about 8 bushels of grain per acre and was harvested in mid-August at 30% dry matter. It was stored in a 71-ton stack, covered with a plastic cover and sealed with earth around the bottom. The stack was opened with a plastic cover and sealed with earth around the bottom. The nitrogen (dry basis) were 11.7 and 0.24 at ensiling. The four treatments (34 steers each) were ...


Levels Of Diethylstilbestrol And Types Of Protein Supplements In Ground Ear Corn Diets For Finishing Cattle, L. B. Embry Oct 1971

Levels Of Diethylstilbestrol And Types Of Protein Supplements In Ground Ear Corn Diets For Finishing Cattle, L. B. Embry

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

Results of numerous experiments have shown that diethylstilbestrol at 10 mg. daily in the feed of implanted at 30 to 36 mg. improves weight gains and feed efficiency of feedlot cattle. More recently it has been reported that feeding more than 10 mg. daily to heavier cattle results in further stimulation of weight gains and feed efficiency. Feeding of 20 mg. per head daily of diethylstilbestrol is now cleared for feedlot cattle above 750 lb.


Relative Position Of Farmer-Feeders In The Increasingly Competitive Cattle Feeding Business, D. G. Cox Oct 1971

Relative Position Of Farmer-Feeders In The Increasingly Competitive Cattle Feeding Business, D. G. Cox

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

Farmer-feeders can potentially compete with anyone in the cattle feeding business. They have traditionally had many built-in advantages. By feeding the cattle on the farm where the grain and roughage are grown, drying, handling, shrinkage and transportation costs are reduced, and returns can be increased per acre by being able to market roughages and silages through cattle. In addition, there are fewer people obtaining a profit out of both the cattle and the feed when cattle are fed at the source of the feed. Another plus factor that will become increasingly important is that pollution is not as big a ...


Fifteenth Annual Cattle Feeders Day, Animal Science Department Oct 1971

Fifteenth Annual Cattle Feeders Day, Animal Science Department

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

These are the complete proceedings of the fifteenth annual Cattle Feeders Day held on October 1, 1971 at South Dakota State University.


Dry And High-Moisture Grain Fed Whole Or Rolled With Hay Or Haylage In Cattle Finishing Diets, J. D. Burkhardt, L. B. Embry Oct 1971

Dry And High-Moisture Grain Fed Whole Or Rolled With Hay Or Haylage In Cattle Finishing Diets, J. D. Burkhardt, L. B. Embry

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

In a previous experiment (A.S. Series 70-20 ) , steers were fed dry or reconstituted high-moisture corn grain , whole or rolled , at 1 lb . per 100 lb . of body weight with alfalfa-brome hay or reconstituted haylage to appetite from weights of about 500 to 825 lb . Higher rates of gain with lower feed requirements were obtained with high-moisture corn and haylage than from dry corn and hay. The greatest benefits from the moist feeds resulted when high-moisture corn and haylage were fed together. There appeared to be a slight advantage for rolling the corn under these conditions of limited grain and ...


Complying With Feed Additive And Drug Withdrawl Periods, D. G. Fox, J. H. Bailey Oct 1971

Complying With Feed Additive And Drug Withdrawl Periods, D. G. Fox, J. H. Bailey

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

Most drugs are accumulated in excretory organs such as the kidneys and liver , and they are found in higher levels for a longer time in these organs than in other tissue. Due to a continuous excretion of the drugs from these organs, tissue levels are usually rapidly reduced after the drug is no longer fed or injected. The rate of excretion of a drug and its end products from animal tissues must be established before it can be considered for approval by the Food and Drug Administration. Then withdrawal periods that are sufficiently long enough to permit complete or near ...


Can Beef Quality Be Evaluated?, W. J. Costello, R. J. Berns Oct 1971

Can Beef Quality Be Evaluated?, W. J. Costello, R. J. Berns

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

Beef quality is important to the consumer. She wants to serve tender, juicy, tasty beef to her family each time she serves it. If she can consistently serve quality beef, she will serve beef frequently. If she finds that she cannot consistently serve quality beef cuts, she will serve something else. For that reason, beef quality becomes important to every one along the production line between the brood cow and the consumer.


Value Of Shelter For Growing And Finishing Cattle, L. B. Embry, R. M. Luther, J. F. Fredrikson Oct 1971

Value Of Shelter For Growing And Finishing Cattle, L. B. Embry, R. M. Luther, J. F. Fredrikson

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

In an experiment which involved a study of sulfur additions to supplements with high levels of urea fed with corn silage and with ground ear corn silage and with ground ear corn, four diet treatments were replicated with inside or outside feeding. Results for this aspect of the experiment are summarized for this report.


Pine Sawdust As A Roughage Replacement In Cattle Finishing Diets, A. L. Slyter, L. D. Kamstra Oct 1971

Pine Sawdust As A Roughage Replacement In Cattle Finishing Diets, A. L. Slyter, L. D. Kamstra

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

Two lots of 12 heifers each were full fed daily one of two diets for 115 days to study the effect of sawdust replacement of ground alfalfa in a finishing diet on the performance and carcass characteristics of beef heifers. Diet composition is shown in table 1. Trace mineral salt and dicalcium phosphate were provided free choice.


Sulfur Supplementation With Urea As The Supplemental Protein With Corn Silage Or Ear Corn Diets For Beef Steers, L. B. Embry, R. M. Luther, J. F. Fredrikson Oct 1971

Sulfur Supplementation With Urea As The Supplemental Protein With Corn Silage Or Ear Corn Diets For Beef Steers, L. B. Embry, R. M. Luther, J. F. Fredrikson

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

This experiment was conducted to determined the need for a sulfur supplement with urea used as the primary supplemental protein in corn silage or ear corn diets for growing and finishing steers. Supplements which contained one part of sulfur to 10 or 20 parts nitrogen from the urea were compared to a urea supplement without added sulfur and to a low-protein corn supplement fed at the same level. The experiment consisted of a corn silage feeding phase of about 4 months and a ground ear corn phase of about 6 months.


Feedlot Herd Health Program, James H. Bailey Oct 1971

Feedlot Herd Health Program, James H. Bailey

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

The first two weeks in the feedlot are the most critical for cattle. Respiratory diseases are most apt to show up during the time the cattle are making adjustments to their new environment, feeding practices, etc. The effects of stress before and during shipping become evident at this time.


Urea Vs. Soybean Meal During Feedlot Adaptation And Later Growing And Finishing, J. D. Burkhardt Oct 1971

Urea Vs. Soybean Meal During Feedlot Adaptation And Later Growing And Finishing, J. D. Burkhardt

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

Urea is a common ingredient in cattle diets. While this nonprotein nitrogren compound is a satisfactory source of supplemental protein in many cattle diets, there are limitations as to levels in the diet and conditions of use. The primary basis for the use of urea as a substitute for conventional high-protein ingredients is the lower cost for protein supplementation.


Dry And High-Moisture Corn As Affected By Processing And Type Of Diet, L. B. Embry, J. D. Burkhardt Oct 1971

Dry And High-Moisture Corn As Affected By Processing And Type Of Diet, L. B. Embry, J. D. Burkhardt

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

High-moisture grains have received considerable emphasis in cattle feeding research and by feedlot operators during recent years. Large quantities of grain are harvested at high-moisture contents because of harvesting and other advantages associated with the high-moisture content or because of unfavorable natural drying conditions. Drying grain is expensive, and it would appear that first consideration should be given to storing and using the grain in the high-moisture form if it is to be fed livestock.


Dry And High-Moisture Corn Fed Whole Or Rolled With Corn Silage In Cattle Growing-Finishing Diets, J. D. Burkhardt, L. B. Embry Oct 1971

Dry And High-Moisture Corn Fed Whole Or Rolled With Corn Silage In Cattle Growing-Finishing Diets, J. D. Burkhardt, L. B. Embry

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

One area of research in beef cattle feeding that is receiving major emphasis at this station is the comparative value of dry and high-moisture grain under various conditions of use and the benefits of processing in comparison to feeding as whole grain. Previous research has involved levels of roughage and moisture content of the roughage (hay or haylage).
In this experiment, dry or high-moisture corn grain was fed whole and rolled with a limited feed of corn silage with urea or soybean meal furnishing the supplemental protein.


Performance Of Calves Fed Chlortetracycline-Sulfamethazine During Feedlot Adaptation Followed By Chlortetracycline, P. J. Thiex, L. B. Embry Oct 1971

Performance Of Calves Fed Chlortetracycline-Sulfamethazine During Feedlot Adaptation Followed By Chlortetracycline, P. J. Thiex, L. B. Embry

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing calves with a chlortetracycline-sulfamethazine combination for 4 weeks following weaning. Chlortetracycline was then fed at 70 mg. daily during a growing phase when the calves were fed a high-roughage diet.


Pine Sawdust As A Roughage Replacement In Feeder Cattle Diets, A. L. Slyter, L. D. Kamstra Oct 1971

Pine Sawdust As A Roughage Replacement In Feeder Cattle Diets, A. L. Slyter, L. D. Kamstra

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

Eight lots, five or six heifers each, (42 heifers total) were fed one of four diets for 119 days to study the effect of sawdust inclusion in a growing diet on the performance of feeder calves. The diets were alfalfa-concentrate, sawdust-concentrate, corn silage and sawdust silage. (See table 1 for specific diet composition). Trace mineral salt and dicalcium phosphate were fed free choice and vitamin A was supplemented to provide a calculated 10,000 to 12,000 I.U. per head per day. Brome-alfalfa loose hay was provided for the first week during adaptation to the experimental diets.


Nutritional Quality Control And Feedbunk Management Of Feedlot Cattle, Donald Gill Oct 1971

Nutritional Quality Control And Feedbunk Management Of Feedlot Cattle, Donald Gill

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

Small errors in the nutrition and management of feedlot cattle frequently spell the difference between success and failure as a cattle feeder. Some frequently insignificant appearing factors may at times allow cost of gain to increase up to $4 to $5 per hundredweight.


Types Of Urea Supplement For Wintering Beef Calves, A. L. Slyter, L. B. Embry, J. Herndon Oct 1971

Types Of Urea Supplement For Wintering Beef Calves, A. L. Slyter, L. B. Embry, J. Herndon

South Dakota Cattle Feeders Field Day Proceedings and Research Reports, 1971

Previous research at the Cottonwood Station showed that calves fed low levels of urea during an adaptation period made faster gains than unadapted calves when fed higher levels of urea during the wintering period. Calves fed a corn-base urea supplement in pellet form gained faster than those fed a commercial, molasses-base urea supplement in liquid form. The following tow experiments were conducted as replications of those reported previously under this title.