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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Teaching Natural And Artificial Selection In Production Agriculture, Madhav P. Nepal, Clayton W. Scott Mar 2020

Teaching Natural And Artificial Selection In Production Agriculture, Madhav P. Nepal, Clayton W. Scott

iLEARN Teaching Resources

In this lesson, students will learn how natural selection and artificial selection impact both production agriculture and biological sciences. A natural selection is a mechanism that favors heritable traits that increase species survival and reproduction. Artificial selection is a selective breeding, where humans select for desirable traits in agricultural products.


Winter Patch Grazing, Patch Burn Grazing, And Bird Communities In Western South Dakota, Jennifer Lutze Jan 2020

Winter Patch Grazing, Patch Burn Grazing, And Bird Communities In Western South Dakota, Jennifer Lutze

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ground nesting bird species are on a considerable decline and research efforts are being made to increase these populations throughout the Great Plains. Ground nesting bird communities found in the Northern Great Plains are driven greatly by varying amounts of cover and area size. Past research implemented patch-burn grazing to increase structural heterogeneity and to increase grassland bird habitat in the tallgrass prairie. While bird populations were very responsive to this management in the Northern Great Plains fire management is viewed negatively, especially for Midwest cattle ranchers. We implemented research to determine if winter-patch grazing on mixed grass prairie could ...


Epidemiological Investigations Of Bighorn Sheep Respiratory Disease And Implications For Management, Brandi L. Felts Jan 2020

Epidemiological Investigations Of Bighorn Sheep Respiratory Disease And Implications For Management, Brandi L. Felts

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Infectious respiratory disease has long been identified as the cause of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) historical declines and extirpations, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (Movi) is the primary pathogen inducing disease and mortality. Population-level effects of pneumonia events range from mild to extirpation. Variable individual response to pathogen exposure emerges from dynamic interactions between competing evolutionary processes within the host and pathogen. Understanding impacts of this evolutionary warfare is essential to assessing long-term impacts of pathogen invasion and developing appropriate countermeasures to protect population health. Freeranging populations are faced with spillover infections from domestic sheep and goats as well as previously infected ...


Understanding How Agricultural Intensification Impacts Ring-Necked Pheasant Distribution And Survival In Eastern South Dakota, Hilary R. Kauth Jan 2020

Understanding How Agricultural Intensification Impacts Ring-Necked Pheasant Distribution And Survival In Eastern South Dakota, Hilary R. Kauth

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Historically, pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) have thrived in South Dakota in conjunction with successful land retirement programs or early farming practices through the 1950s, which created interspersions of agriculture and native landscapes that were ideal for pheasants. Recently, the Prairie Pothole ecosystem has undergone rapid agroeconomic expansion, effectively reducing ideal interspersions of native prairie and cropland into agriculturally homogeneous landscapes. Indices of pheasant abundance have suggested persistent population declines since 2008, raising concerns regarding landscape suitability. Our goal was to understand how agriculture intensification impacts pheasant ecology. The objectives were to: 1) estimate overwinter hen probability of survival, resource selection, and ...


Forum: Critical Decision Dates For Drought Management In Centraland Northern Great Plains Rangeland, Alexander J. Smart, Keith Harmoney, J. Derek Scasta, Mitchell B. Stephenson, Jerry D. Volesky, Lance T. Vermeire, Jeffrey C. Mosley, Kevin Sedivec, Miranda Meehan, Tonya Haigh, Justin D. Derner, Mitchel P. Mcclaran Nov 2019

Forum: Critical Decision Dates For Drought Management In Centraland Northern Great Plains Rangeland, Alexander J. Smart, Keith Harmoney, J. Derek Scasta, Mitchell B. Stephenson, Jerry D. Volesky, Lance T. Vermeire, Jeffrey C. Mosley, Kevin Sedivec, Miranda Meehan, Tonya Haigh, Justin D. Derner, Mitchel P. Mcclaran

Natural Resource Management Faculty Publications

Ranchers and other land managers of central and northern Great Plains rangelands face recurrent droughts that negatively influence economic returns and environmental resources for ranching enterprises. Accurately estimating annual forage production and initiating drought decision-making actions proactively early in the growing season are both critical to minimize financial losses and degradation to rangeland soil and plant resources. Long-term forage production data sets from Alberta, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming demonstrated that precipitation in April, May, and June (or some combination of these months) robustly predict annual forage production. Growth curves from clipping experiments and ecological site ...


Sustainable Agriculture Lesson For Middle School Classrooms, Sara Colombe, Madhav P. Nepal, Jennifer Mclaughlin, Matthew L. Miller, Larry B. Browning, P. Troy White Mar 2019

Sustainable Agriculture Lesson For Middle School Classrooms, Sara Colombe, Madhav P. Nepal, Jennifer Mclaughlin, Matthew L. Miller, Larry B. Browning, P. Troy White

iLEARN Teaching Resources

In this lesson, students will learn about sustainability, where farmers/agriculturists can meet the needs of food, fiber, and fuel for the growing population. Students learn about growing population, its growth rate, major food source, sustainability barrel, potential ripple effects of positive impacts as well as the food waste and its effects.


Climate Change Within A Biome, Tyone Kruse, Lisa Forcier, Madhav P. Nepal, Larry B. Browning, Matthew L. Miller, P. Troy White Jan 2019

Climate Change Within A Biome, Tyone Kruse, Lisa Forcier, Madhav P. Nepal, Larry B. Browning, Matthew L. Miller, P. Troy White

iLEARN Teaching Resources

In this iLEARN lesson, students will investigate impacts of climate change on the native plants and animals, as well as the fisheries, agriculture, and forestry, within a biome of their choosing, and then develop and refine a solution for one of the impacts resulting from the climate change.


Looking To The Future: Key Points For Sustainable Management Of Northern Great Plains Grasslands, Lora B. Perkins, Marissa Ahlering, Diane L. Larson Jan 2019

Looking To The Future: Key Points For Sustainable Management Of Northern Great Plains Grasslands, Lora B. Perkins, Marissa Ahlering, Diane L. Larson

Natural Resource Management Faculty Publications

The grasslands of the northern Great Plains (NGP) region of North America are considered endangered ecosystems and priority conservation areas yet have great ecological and economic importance. Grasslands in the NGP are no longer self-regulating adaptive systems. The challenges to these grasslands are widespread and serious (e.g. climate change, invasive species, fragmentation, altered disturbance regimes, and anthropogenic chemical loads). Because the challenges facing the region are dynamic, complex, and persistent, a paradigm shift in how we approach restoration and management of the grasslands in the NGP is imperative. The goal of this article is to highlight four key points ...


Oak Lake Wetland Restoration: Difference In Hydrology Between Newly Restored And Reference Wetlands, Jennifer A. Dailey, Nels H. Troelstrup Jr. Jan 2019

Oak Lake Wetland Restoration: Difference In Hydrology Between Newly Restored And Reference Wetlands, Jennifer A. Dailey, Nels H. Troelstrup Jr.

Oak Lake Field Station 30th Anniversary Retreat Presentations

No abstract provided.


Landscapes, Water Quality And Aquatic Assemblages, Nels H. Troelstrup Jr. Jan 2019

Landscapes, Water Quality And Aquatic Assemblages, Nels H. Troelstrup Jr.

Oak Lake Field Station 30th Anniversary Retreat Presentations

No abstract provided.


Oak Lake Field Station : Station Overview, Nels H. Troelstrup Jr. Jan 2019

Oak Lake Field Station : Station Overview, Nels H. Troelstrup Jr.

Oak Lake Field Station 30th Anniversary Retreat Presentations

No abstract provided.


The Tortoise (Wildfire) And The Hare (Heavy Winter Grazing) For Promoting Heterogeneity And Improving Ecosystem Services, Lucas W. Zilverberg Jan 2019

The Tortoise (Wildfire) And The Hare (Heavy Winter Grazing) For Promoting Heterogeneity And Improving Ecosystem Services, Lucas W. Zilverberg

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Northern Great Plains (NGP) mixed-grass prairie developed under fire, grazing, and periodic droughts, which created a heterogeneous landscape. Since European settlement, heterogeneous landscapes have declined due to fire suppression and the maximization of livestock production, leading to the need for an alternative management practice. Our overall project objective was to determine if heavy winter grazing could be used as an alternative to patch-burn grazing for promoting heterogeneity and improving ecosystem services in the NGP. Fire has been used very effectively in patch-burn grazing management to create heterogeneity in pastures in some areas, however burning is not readily adopted in ...


Winter Snow Depth In Arctic Alaska Results In Complex Changes In Caribou Forage Quality, Jessica C. Richert Jan 2019

Winter Snow Depth In Arctic Alaska Results In Complex Changes In Caribou Forage Quality, Jessica C. Richert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) rely on the short growing season for much of their annual nutrition, making them susceptible to even small changes in forage quantity and quality. Body condition in the summer and fall is linked to winter survival rates and fecundity in cows, critical factors in the robustness of caribou populations. Due to a warmer, wetter climate, snowfall is predicted to increase over Alaska’s North Slope in the next several decades. Deeper snow results in higher soil temperatures, allowing microbial mineralization of nitrogen to continue throughout the winter and increasing the availability of nitrogen for plants in spring ...


Prairie Dogs And Livestock In Rangeland Systems: Balancing Biodiversity And Production In The Northern Mixed-Grass Prairie, Jameson Robert Brennan Jan 2019

Prairie Dogs And Livestock In Rangeland Systems: Balancing Biodiversity And Production In The Northern Mixed-Grass Prairie, Jameson Robert Brennan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A major constraint of beef production within the Standing Rock Reservation has been identified as a reduction in rangeland quality due in large part to wide-scale colonization by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). The desire exists within the community to design a holistic framework which incorporates livestock management with the goal of increasing production and rangeland health while still maintaining increased diversity associated with prairie dogs. Prairie dogs reduce the carrying capacity of cattle on rangelands by up to 50% on occupied hectares through direct consumption of vegetation and waste due to clipping to improve detection of predators. Livestock stocking ...


Effect Of Water Velocity And Temperature On Energy Use, Behavior, And Mortality Of Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus Albus Larvae, Joseph Thomas Mrnak Jan 2019

Effect Of Water Velocity And Temperature On Energy Use, Behavior, And Mortality Of Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus Albus Larvae, Joseph Thomas Mrnak

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus are a federally endangered species endemic to the Missouri River basin. Natural reproduction has been limited for decades and a recruitment bottleneck is hypothesized to occur during the larval stage of development. Understanding factors that affect survival of Pallid Sturgeon larvae is key given their critical status and ongoing recovery efforts. In this study, I evaluated the effects of water velocity and temperature on energy use, behavior, and mortality of endogenously feeding Pallid Sturgeon larvae (< 25 mm TL). In the first experiment, I examined the effect of water velocity (0 – 8.3 cm s−1) on larval growth, energy density, swimming activity, and mortality. Larval growth rate at 16.3 °C was similar across treatments ...


Diversifying Cornfields By Interseeding Cover Crops: Practical Implications And The Response Of Invertebrate Communities, Michael Bredeson Jan 2019

Diversifying Cornfields By Interseeding Cover Crops: Practical Implications And The Response Of Invertebrate Communities, Michael Bredeson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The lack of suitable habitat conditions for beneficial organisms in simplified agroecosystems leads to unstable invertebrate communities and overreliance on chemical control of herbivores. It is possible to manage pest populations without agrichemicals by manipulating farmland so that herbivores are impaired by plant-driven bottom-up and enemy-driven top-down antagonisms. Interseeding cover crops between established crop rows is a method used by farmers to improve habitat suitability for natural enemies and hinder host-finding, feeding and movement by herbivores. Here I address three important research gaps related to interseeding cover crops. A calcium carbonate seed coating, used to improve seed-broadcasting efficiency, was tested ...


Stoichiometric Homeostasis In Two Native And Two Invasive South Dakotan Grasses, Joshua Thonas Harvey Jan 2019

Stoichiometric Homeostasis In Two Native And Two Invasive South Dakotan Grasses, Joshua Thonas Harvey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Increased nutrient availability has been widely linked to the success of invasive plants, however a general mechanism explaining these observations is lacking. Stoichiometric homeostasis (H), which is the regulation of internal nutrient concentrations, has been used to explain changes in plant community diversity under alterations in nutrient availability. One hypothesis holds that plants with high regulation (larger H) decrease in abundance in nutrient enriched conditions but are stable in nutrient deficient and drought conditions, likely due to extensive root systems. Additionally, plants with low regulation (lower H) increase in abundance under nutrient enriched conditions but are sensitive to drought conditions ...


Maximizing Ecosystem Services Provided To The New Oil Crop Brassica Carinata Through Landscape And Arthropod Diversity, Shane Stiles Jan 2019

Maximizing Ecosystem Services Provided To The New Oil Crop Brassica Carinata Through Landscape And Arthropod Diversity, Shane Stiles

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Prairies, once spanning the Upper Midwest, have now largely been replaced by agriculture. The lack of resources available to pollinators in agricultural fields and the practices employed by farmers to maximize yield has led to a decline in insect and pollinator diversity. There is a need to better understand how ecosystem services provided by a diverse insect community scale to current farming practices as they relate to crop yield. We sought to explain how landscape heterogeneity relates to insect and pollinator diversity, as well as how insect diversity relates to crop yield across common farming practices. To evaluate how farming ...


Vulnerability Of Protected Areas To Human Encroachment, Climate Change And Fire In The Fragmented Tropical Forests Of West Africa, Francis Kwabena Dwomoh Jan 2018

Vulnerability Of Protected Areas To Human Encroachment, Climate Change And Fire In The Fragmented Tropical Forests Of West Africa, Francis Kwabena Dwomoh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Upper Guinean region of West Africa is home to some of the most globally significant tropical biodiversity hotspots, providing ecosystem services that are crucial for the region’s socio-economic and environmental wellbeing. Nonetheless, following decades of human-caused destruction of natural habitats, protected areas currently remain the only significant refugia of original vegetation relics in landscapes that are highly fragmented. Aside from having strong geographic variation in land use, climate, vegetation, and human population, the region has also experienced remarkable biophysical and socio-economic changes in recent decades. All these factors influence the fire regime and the vulnerability of forests within ...


Black-Tailed Prairie Dog (Cynomys Ludovicianus) State-And-Transition Model For Loamy Ecological Sites In Mlra 62 In Custer State Park, South Dakota, Mark R. Hendrix Jan 2018

Black-Tailed Prairie Dog (Cynomys Ludovicianus) State-And-Transition Model For Loamy Ecological Sites In Mlra 62 In Custer State Park, South Dakota, Mark R. Hendrix

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are native burrowing rodents that occupy large areas in the shortgrass and mixed-grass prairies of the Northern Great Plains. They are an important component of these prairie systems due to their impacts on plant communities. Currently State-and-Transition models (STMs) for grassland Ecological Site Descriptions (ESDs) address grazing by livestock as a major factor affecting states and phases within states. Impacts from other grazers, such as prairie dogs, are either not addressed directly, or are included only in a transition to a generalized early seral state. There are, however, dramatic differences in plant communities within prairie ...


Evaluation Of Methods Used To Improve Grasslands As Ring-Necked Pheasant (Phasianus Colchicus) Brood Habitat, Mandy Orth Jan 2018

Evaluation Of Methods Used To Improve Grasslands As Ring-Necked Pheasant (Phasianus Colchicus) Brood Habitat, Mandy Orth

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Management practices designed for upland game species often focus on nest survival and hen winter survival due to the importance of these life history stages on population vital rates. However, chick survival is an important component of gallinaceous bird population dynamics, but it is poorly understood and often tends to be overlooked. Ideal brood habitat not only provides open understory for easy movement and canopy cover for protection, but also provides an abundance of arthropod foods for chicks. It has been hypothesized that restricted movement of chicks through thick vegetation in unmanaged grasslands results in lower brood survival rates. Research ...


Evaluating Bighorn Sheep Herd Response After Selective Removal Of Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae Chronic Shedders, Tyler J. Garwood Jan 2018

Evaluating Bighorn Sheep Herd Response After Selective Removal Of Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae Chronic Shedders, Tyler J. Garwood

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Infected individuals vary in their contribution to disease persistence, and chronically infected individuals may sustain disease in a population. One disease that might persist in a population through chronically infected individuals is pneumonia in wild sheep. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (Mo), a pathogen of Caprinae commonly present in domestic sheep and goats, strongly correlates with pneumonia epizootics when it infects wild sheep populations. These epizootics can cause 40-100% herd mortality in an initial all-age dieoff, precipitate annual lamb mortality as high as 100% in following years, and sustain adult mortality long after initial all-age dieoffs. We conducted an experiment in the Black ...


Weed Establishment And Persistence After Water Pipeline Installation And Reclamation In The Mixed Grass Prairie Of Western North Dakota, Erin K. Espeland, Lora B. Perkins Dec 2017

Weed Establishment And Persistence After Water Pipeline Installation And Reclamation In The Mixed Grass Prairie Of Western North Dakota, Erin K. Espeland, Lora B. Perkins

Natural Resource Management Faculty Publications

Weeds in reclamations interfere with success by: 1) competing with desirable species seeded during revegetation; 2) preventing recolonization of reclamations by native species; and 3) reducing the integrity of landscapes by expanding from reclamations into adjacent, intact areas. In the Bakken oilfield of western North Dakota, dispersed reclamation activity and increased traffic may provide many opportunities for weeds to spread. To determine the potential for disturbance and reclamation to increase resident weed populations and introduce new weed species, we tracked twenty-one weed (non-native/ruderal/invasive) species over a four-year period after the installation of a 1.8 km livestock water ...


Development And Application Of A Fish-Based Index Of Biotic Integrity For Lakes In Eastern South Dakota, Daniel T. Nelson Jan 2017

Development And Application Of A Fish-Based Index Of Biotic Integrity For Lakes In Eastern South Dakota, Daniel T. Nelson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) was developed to summarize the impact of watershed and water quality degradation to biotic communities and help to provide a more complete picture of water quality changes that are not captured in traditional physical and chemical measurements. In 2014, nearly 15% of South Dakota lakes did not meet their designated beneficial uses based on water quality measures but the impacts to the fish communities are unknown. The goal of this study was to develop a fish-based IBI for eastern South Dakota lakes by addressing three specific objectives:
1) Determine whether an IBI could be ...


Invertebrate Prey Selectivity Of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) In Western South Dakota Prairie Streams, Erin D. Peterson Jan 2017

Invertebrate Prey Selectivity Of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) In Western South Dakota Prairie Streams, Erin D. Peterson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Benthic invertebrates are an important resource for aquatic consumers and should be considered in management of sportfish populations as a factor influencing fishery health. Our study seeks to draw a relationship between invertebrate prey availability and the Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus fishery of western South Dakota through diet analysis, but invertebrate surveys in the area have not focused on invertebrates as a prey source. Our objectives were to characterize patterns in availability of the invertebrate prey base in five major river basins, and to evaluate the effects of availability on Channel Catfish prey selectivity and condition. Invertebrates were collected at ...


The Cattle Dung Arthropod Community In Eastern South Dakota: Their Colonization, Impact On Degradation, And Response To Rangeland Management, Jacob Pecenka Jan 2017

The Cattle Dung Arthropod Community In Eastern South Dakota: Their Colonization, Impact On Degradation, And Response To Rangeland Management, Jacob Pecenka

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cattle grazing operations are an important industry throughout the world and a vital component of the economy of the Northern Great Plains. Rangeland management is important to ensure that cattle grazing remains not only profitable but also environmentally sustainable. Conventionally managed rangeland systems that practice continuous grazing and repeated applications of chemicals such as avermectins pose a risk to the continuing productivity of rangelands. These practices have ecological consequences, primarily to the arthropod community that inhabits cattle dung pats. This diverse community works together to recycle dung pats and make the nutrients in dung accessible to the surrounding plant community ...


An Integrated Evaluation Of The Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program In South Dakota, Jarrett D. Pfrimmer Jan 2017

An Integrated Evaluation Of The Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program In South Dakota, Jarrett D. Pfrimmer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Grassland restoration efforts in North America typically share the goal of improving ecological conditions for wildlife; however, it is unclear in many cases if goals are met. The South Dakota Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) was initiated to alleviate agriculturally-related environmental degradation by converting 40,469 hectares of eligible cropland and marginal pastureland to perennial vegetation. The program aims to provide habitat for obligate grassland breeding songbirds, while producing an additional 285,000 pheasants and 60,000 ducks annually. As part of a collaborative comprehensive evaluation effort, my research assessed the response of grassland-dependent breeding birds to CREP implementation at ...


Biotic Integrity In The Northwestern Great Plains And Mechanisms Regulating Stream Condition In South Dakota, Chad Kaiser Jan 2017

Biotic Integrity In The Northwestern Great Plains And Mechanisms Regulating Stream Condition In South Dakota, Chad Kaiser

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Anthropogenic disturbance of streams can alter biotic integrity in various ways. Some degradation is easy to classify and monitor, others such as habitat impairment may be less easy to quantify. The Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is a unique method of assessing the aquatic health of an ecosystem. Beginning in 2010 the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources (SD DENR) began implementing biological monitoring on wadeable streams by developing an IBI for the Northern Glaciated Plains ecoregion in eastern SD (Krause et al. 2013). Prior to this survey the condition of the majority of SD’s streams was ...


Reassessing Survival, Movement, Resource Selection, And Sightability Of Pronghorn In Western South Dakota, Adam Kauth Jan 2017

Reassessing Survival, Movement, Resource Selection, And Sightability Of Pronghorn In Western South Dakota, Adam Kauth

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Limited information exists on the survival, movements, resource selection, and densities of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) inhabiting sagebrush-steppe regions within the Dakotas. Primary objectives of this study were to develop a sightability model for aerial surveying and to document survival rates and movement patterns for pronghorn in western South Dakota. Secondary objectives were to estimate seasonal home ranges, daily movements, determine cause-specific mortality, and evaluate summer and winter resource use and selection. Additionally, we evaluated exposure of pronghorn to novel diseases including Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD), West Nile Virus (WNV), Blue Tongue Virus (BTV), Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Neospora, and ...


An Evaluation Of Nitrogen Supplementation And Processed Soy Fractions On The Performance Of Cultured Fishes, Brandon M. White Jan 2017

An Evaluation Of Nitrogen Supplementation And Processed Soy Fractions On The Performance Of Cultured Fishes, Brandon M. White

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

World population growth has resulted in an increased demand for a sustainable food supply. This rapid growth coupled with an increased per capita consumption of seafood, has resulted in many of the world’s marine fisheries being over-exploited in an effort to meet the global demand for seafood. Aquaculture has attempted to fill the supply and demand gap created by the dwindling supply of fish in the world’s oceans. Fishmeal (FM) has traditionally been the primary protein ingredient in aquafeeds fed to farm-raised fish, however its unstable supply and increasing price have driven researchers to identify alternative protein sources ...