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Articles 4111 - 4140 of 161307

Full-Text Articles in Law

Illegal Predicate Searches And Tainted Warrants After Heien And Strieff, Kit Kinports Jan 2018

Illegal Predicate Searches And Tainted Warrants After Heien And Strieff, Kit Kinports

Journal Articles

A long-standing debate has surrounded the relationship between two features of the Fourth Amendment's exclusionary rule - the fruits of the poisonous tree doctrine and the good-faith exception - in cases where the evidence used to secure a search warrant was obtained in violation of the defendant's constitutional rights. Some judges and scholars maintain that the fruits of the poisonous tree doctrine takes precedence in such "tainted warrant" cases, leading to the suppression of any evidence seized in executing the warrant unless the warrant was supported by probable cause independent of the illegal predicate search. By contrast, others believe that ...


Improving Outcomes In Child Poverty And Wellness In Appalachia In The "New Normal" Era: Infusing Empathy Into Law, Jill C. Engle Jan 2018

Improving Outcomes In Child Poverty And Wellness In Appalachia In The "New Normal" Era: Infusing Empathy Into Law, Jill C. Engle

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


The Doctrine Of Severability In Constitutional Review: A Perspective From Singapore, Benjamin Joshua Ong Jan 2018

The Doctrine Of Severability In Constitutional Review: A Perspective From Singapore, Benjamin Joshua Ong

Research Collection School Of Law

The Singapore Court of Appeal’s decision in Prabagaran a/l Srivijayan v Public Prosecutor represents a substantial development in Singapore’s law on the doctrine of severability in constitutional review. An examination of Prabagaran reveals rich theoretical underpinnings relating to the nature of legislative intent. The case rightly locates the crux of the severability inquiry in secondary legislative intention, i.e. the legislature’s intention, at the time a statute was enacted, as to what should happen in the event that part of the statute is later held to be unconstitutional. This approach is preferable to the approach of ...


Should Commercial Surrogacy Be Legalised?, Seow Hon Tan Jan 2018

Should Commercial Surrogacy Be Legalised?, Seow Hon Tan

Research Collection School Of Law

Does Singapore condone commercial surrogacy? Thisquestion is in the limelight with a court judgment on a Singaporean doctor'sbid to adopt a boy he fathered through a commercial surrogacy arrangement inthe United States.


Achieving Substantive Justice In Mediation Through Procedural Justice: An Illusory Or Realizable Goal?, Dorcas Quek Anderson Jan 2018

Achieving Substantive Justice In Mediation Through Procedural Justice: An Illusory Or Realizable Goal?, Dorcas Quek Anderson

Research Collection School Of Law

Mediation has been plagued with a problem of legitimacy. Genn stated that mediation “does not contribute to substantive justice because mediation requires the parties to relinquish ideas of legal rights during mediation and focus, instead, on problem-solving”. Mediation appears to be all about procedural justice, a concept that is associated with perceptions of fair treatment. And procedural justice does not seem to have any discernible link with substantive justice, in terms of giving effect to well-accepted norms.This blog entry is drawn from a paper that was presented at the Australasian Dispute Resolution Research Network 6th Annual Roundtable and the ...


The Regulation Of Digital Trade In The Tpp: New Trade Rules For The Digital Age, Henry S. Gao Jan 2018

The Regulation Of Digital Trade In The Tpp: New Trade Rules For The Digital Age, Henry S. Gao

Research Collection School Of Law

With the rapid development of the internet, electronic commerce is also gaining importance in international trade. However, the rules governing digital trade is still largely lacking. While WTO Members have been discussing the regulation of electronic commerce since the last century, little progress has been made. Instead, most of the progresses are made in various free trade agreements, especially those sponsored by the United States. This article starts with a review of the efforts to regulate e-commerce in the WTO, as well as what the pre-TPP US FTAs have achieved so far, followed by a critical appraisal of the achievements ...


Chocolate, Fashion, Toys And Cabs: The Misunderstood Distinctiveness Of Non-Traditional Trademarks, Irene Calboli Jan 2018

Chocolate, Fashion, Toys And Cabs: The Misunderstood Distinctiveness Of Non-Traditional Trademarks, Irene Calboli

Research Collection School Of Law

What do Cadbury, Toblerone and Kit-Kat chocolates, the Rubik’s Cube and Lego mini-figurine toys, Louboutin shoes, Bottega Veneta bags and London Taxi Company cabs all have in common? These products have been, along with several others, protagonists of the rising trend of registering shapes and other non-traditional trademarks in a variety of countries, and then, in several cases, protagonist of ensuing litigation addressing the validity of these marks. To a large extent, the review panels and the courts involved in these cases have declared several of these marks invalid or have reduced their scope considerably. Hence, these cases have ...


China’S Rise: How It Took On The U.S. At The Wto, Greg Shaffer, Henry S. Gao Jan 2018

China’S Rise: How It Took On The U.S. At The Wto, Greg Shaffer, Henry S. Gao

Research Collection School Of Law

This Article builds from original fieldwork to show what lies behind China’s remarkably successful use of international trade law to take on the United States and Europe. The World Trade Organization (“WTO”) is unique in China’s international relations as it is the only forum where China, with its anti-legalist traditions, has resolved its disputes through law and the use of third-party dispute settlement. After China acceded to the WTO in 2001, it invested massively in building trade law capacity to transform itself and defend itself externally. Through these investments and its increased market power, China became a serious ...


An Overlooked Overriding Interest In Singapore's Torrens System?, Seng Wei, Edward Ti Jan 2018

An Overlooked Overriding Interest In Singapore's Torrens System?, Seng Wei, Edward Ti

Research Collection School Of Law

"A landowner free to develop his land as he wishes before the imposition of public controls, finds himself prohibited fromdoing so as a consequence of the controls. The title to his ownership of an estate or interest in the land is not disturbed orcalled into question in any fundamental way—he owns what he had previously … Nevertheless, the powers of ownershipare not what they were in all their fullness. He cannot legally do now what before he was at law and at liberty to do. Hisrights have been curtailed. He has lost something. What is it?"


The Impact Of Human Trafficking In Asean: Singapore As A Case-Study, Jaya Anil Kumar Jan 2018

The Impact Of Human Trafficking In Asean: Singapore As A Case-Study, Jaya Anil Kumar

Research Collection School Of Law

Southeast Asia remains a notorious hotbed for human trafficking. The seriousness of the problem has led to the emergence of various initiatives to combat human trafficking. This paper seeks to address why human trafficking in Southeast Asia remains a contentious issue despite the various initiatives put in place for its eradication. ASEAN Member States, including Singapore, can only resolve the current inertia when it comes to combatting trafficking-in-persons (TIP) by adopting a multidimensional, and multistakeholder approach to the problem. Within Singapore, it is recommended that the Prevention of Human Trafficking Act should be amended such that it provides greater protection ...


The Wto Practice Of Legality Is Ensuring Transparency Forself-Enforcing Trade, Abdulmalik Mousa S Altamimi Jan 2018

The Wto Practice Of Legality Is Ensuring Transparency Forself-Enforcing Trade, Abdulmalik Mousa S Altamimi

Research Collection School Of Law

Purpose One of the core objectives of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) is to maintain a practice of legality, including guaranteeing state and non-state actors interact based on the world trade norms. In seeking to achieve this objective, the WTO aims to uphold the trade rule of law by emphasising compliance with specified rules and procedures during the accession process, dispute settlement and trade policy review. This study aims to review these compliance procedures by invoking the interactional international law concept of a community of legal practice. Second, it briefly illuminates Chad Bown's proposal to establish an institute for ...


Out Now: Recognition And Enforcement Of Foreign Judgments In Asia, Adeline Chong Jan 2018

Out Now: Recognition And Enforcement Of Foreign Judgments In Asia, Adeline Chong

Research Collection School Of Law

A compendium of country reports on the law on the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in ASEAN, Australia, China, India, Japan and South Korea has been published by the Asian Business Law Institute, a research institute based in Singapore.


The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights And The Challenge Of Religion, Samuel Moyn Jan 2018

The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights And The Challenge Of Religion, Samuel Moyn

Faculty Scholarship Series

As its title indicates, Johannes Morsink’s new book takes stock of the grounding and prospects of human rights ideals in the face of what people often call “the return of religion.” He starts by claiming that, given its Holocaust origins, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 reflected secular assumptions—a common agreement transcending all faith commitments and requiring none in particular and, in fact, no faith of any kind. I think he proves his case, but scants the reasons why human rights were compatible with so many religions at the time and sidesteps the considerable recent debate ...


Revisionist Municipal Liability, Avidan Y. Cover Jan 2018

Revisionist Municipal Liability, Avidan Y. Cover

Faculty Publications

The current constitutional torts system under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 affords little relief to victims of government wrongdoing. Victims of police brutality seeking accountability and compensation from local police departments find their remedies severely limited because the municipal liability doctrine demands plaintiffs meet near-impossible standards of proof relating to policies and causation.

The article provides a revisionist historical account of the Supreme Court’s municipal liability doctrine’s origins. Most private litigants’ claims for damages against cities or police departments do not implicate the doctrine’s early federalism concerns over protracted federal judicial interference with local governance. Meanwhile the ...


Step Therapy: Legal And Ethical Implications Of A Cost-Cutting Measure, Sharona Hoffman Jan 2018

Step Therapy: Legal And Ethical Implications Of A Cost-Cutting Measure, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

The very high and ever-increasing costs of medical care in the United States are well-recognized and much discussed. Health insurers have employed a variety of strategies in an effort to control their expenditures, including one that is common but has received relatively little attention: step therapy. Step therapy programs require patients to try less expensive treatments and find them to be ineffective or otherwise problematic before the insurer will approve a more high-priced option. This Article is the first law journal piece dedicated to analyzing this important cost control measure.

The Article explores the strengths and weaknesses of step therapy ...


Investors' Paradox, Anita K. Krug Jan 2018

Investors' Paradox, Anita K. Krug

Articles

For the first time in an era, new investment products for smaller ("retail ") investors are emerging. These products are mutual funds that engage in the types of trading and investment activities that have long been the province of sophisticated investors. Accordingly, the new funds (called "alternative funds") promise to reduce the gulf between retail investors and their sophisticated counterparts, in terms of portfolio diversification and investment results.

This Article describes the complex mix of factors that spawned alternative funds and critically evaluates the funds' potential, the first scholarly work to do so. It additionally unearths the paradox that impedes the ...


Visual Rulemaking, Elizabeth G. Porter, Kathryn A. Watts Jan 2018

Visual Rulemaking, Elizabeth G. Porter, Kathryn A. Watts

Articles

Visual politics are seeping into the technocracy. Rulemaking stakeholders—including agencies, the President, and members of the public—are deploying politically tinged visuals to push their agendas at every stage of high-stakes, often virulently controversial, rulemakings. These images, GIFs, and videos usually do not make it into the official rulemaking record, so this new “visual rulemaking” world has not been discussed much by scholars or others.

In this article, we explore the new visual rulemaking culture that emerged in Obama’s presidency, providing examples and discussing relevant policy implications. Although we recognize some risks, we argue that, on balance, visual ...


January 2018 Newsletter Jan 2018

January 2018 Newsletter

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No abstract provided.


Monitoring Behavior: Universities, Nonprofits, Patents, And Litigation, Michael S. Mireles, Teo Firpo Jan 2018

Monitoring Behavior: Universities, Nonprofits, Patents, And Litigation, Michael S. Mireles, Teo Firpo

McGeorge School of Law Scholarly Articles

This paper examines the confluence of two important issues concerning patent law. The two issues are the merits of the debate concerning the supposed “patent troll” crisis and the increased patenting and licensing of university and other nonprofit inventions, including the litigation of those patents.

First, there is a debate in the literature concerning the presence and scope of the problem concerning so-called “patent trolls.” To some, supposed “patent troll” behavior is ordinary litigation behavior, and to others, it points to problems with the patent litigation system. Indeed, some may argue that the benefits of “patent trolls” may outweigh the ...


Everywhere A Cluck-Cluck: Frigaliment Importing Co. V. B.N.S. Int'l Sales Corp., Michael P. Malloy Jan 2018

Everywhere A Cluck-Cluck: Frigaliment Importing Co. V. B.N.S. Int'l Sales Corp., Michael P. Malloy

McGeorge School of Law Scholarly Articles

No abstract provided.


Horizontal Shareholding And Antitrust Policy, Fiona M. Scott Morton, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Jan 2018

Horizontal Shareholding And Antitrust Policy, Fiona M. Scott Morton, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

“Horizontal shareholding” occurs when one or more equity funds own shares of competitors operating in a concentrated product market. For example, the four largest mutual fund companies might be large shareholders of all the major United States air carriers. A growing body of empirical literature concludes that under these conditions market output in the product market is lower and prices higher than they would otherwise be.

Here we consider how the antitrust laws might be applied to this practice, identifying the issues that courts are likely to encounter and attempting to anticipate litigation problems. We assume that neither the mutual ...


The Global Diffusion Of Law: Transnational Crime And The Case Of Human Trafficking, Beth A. Simmons, Paulette Lloyd, Brandon M. Steward Jan 2018

The Global Diffusion Of Law: Transnational Crime And The Case Of Human Trafficking, Beth A. Simmons, Paulette Lloyd, Brandon M. Steward

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The past few decades have seen the proliferation of new laws criminalizing certain transnational activities, from money laundering to corruption; from insider trading to trafficking in weapons and drugs. Human trafficking is one example. We argue criminalization of trafficking in persons has diffused in large part because of the way the issue has been framed: primarily as a problem of organized crime rather than predominantly an egregious human rights abuse. Framing human trafficking as an organized crime practice empowers states to confront cross border human movements viewed as potentially threatening. We show that the diffusion of criminalization is explained by ...


Communities In Peril: The Dispersion Of Temporary Protected Status Populations Throughout Massachusetts, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos, Lorna Rivera Jan 2018

Communities In Peril: The Dispersion Of Temporary Protected Status Populations Throughout Massachusetts, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos, Lorna Rivera

Gastón Institute Publications

Massachusetts is estimated to have over 12,000 residents with Temporary Protected Status (TPS). TPS is a non-immigrant status granted when a country's nationals in the United States cannot return safely or, in certain circumstances, when the country is unable to handle the return of its nationals adequately. This legal status was instituted as part of the 1990 Immigration Act, which was sponsored by Senator Edward M. Kennedy and signed into law by President George H. W. Bush. TPS beneficiaries are not removable from the United States, can obtain an employment authorization document (EAD), and may be granted travel ...


Childhood Obesity And Positive Obligations: A Child Rights-Based Approach, Benedetta Faedi Duramy Jan 2018

Childhood Obesity And Positive Obligations: A Child Rights-Based Approach, Benedetta Faedi Duramy

Publications

Childhood obesity is one of the most serious current public health challenges. Its prevalence has increased at an alarming rate. The World Health Organization estimated that in 2016 the global number of overweight children under the age of five was over 41 million. Although there is widespread concern about the rising rates of childhood obesity, there is not as much consensus on how to address the problem. Obesity has been mostly considered either a matter of personal responsibility or of parental responsibility when it concerns children. Inadequate attention has been given instead to the obligations borne by States to prevent ...


Total Patent Exhaustion!, Samuel F. Ernst Jan 2018

Total Patent Exhaustion!, Samuel F. Ernst

Publications

The exhaustion doctrine generally provides that when a patent holder sells or authorizes another party to sell a patented item, the patent rights in that item are exhausted, and the patent holder cannot pursue that product down the stream of commerce to demand royalties from each party that subsequently acquires the item. Patent holders have often sought to evade patent exhaustion by drafting licensing agreements attending or authorizing the sale of their patented products that place restrictions on the use of the patented item or otherwise provide that no patent exhaustion has occurred. In Impression Products v. Lexmark, the Supreme ...


Collective Struggles: A Comparative Analysis Of Unionizing Temporary Foreign Farm Workers In The United States And Canada, Robert Russo Jan 2018

Collective Struggles: A Comparative Analysis Of Unionizing Temporary Foreign Farm Workers In The United States And Canada, Robert Russo

Faculty Publications

The use of temporary foreign migrant workers in the labor sector is part of a vibrant political and legal discussion in both the United States and Canada. Current reforms of temporary foreign worker programs in both countries call for an analysis of this workforce. This article focuses on documented temporary foreign workers performing agricultural labor in both countries. It is a comparative study of alleged violations of documented temporary foreign farm workers' rights relating to unionization in the United States and Canada.


Devalued Liberty And Undue Deference: The Tort Of False Imprisonment And The Law Of Solitary Confinement, Efrat Arbel Jan 2018

Devalued Liberty And Undue Deference: The Tort Of False Imprisonment And The Law Of Solitary Confinement, Efrat Arbel

Faculty Publications

Despite numerous calls for reform and restraint, solitary confinement continues to be both misused and overused in Canadian prisons. This paper charts a path through which to address such misuse, but analyzing solitary confinement through the tort of false imprisonment. This analysis is new: while some scholars have examined how other branches of tort law can address harms caused by solitary confinement, none have examined the application of this tort. I argue that the tort of false imprisonment provides segregated prisoners with an effective means through which to seek compensation for individual harm. As an intentional tort that is actionable ...


The Role Of Section 718.2(A)(Ii) In Sentencing For Male Intimate Partner Violence Against Women, Isabel Grant Jan 2018

The Role Of Section 718.2(A)(Ii) In Sentencing For Male Intimate Partner Violence Against Women, Isabel Grant

Faculty Publications

This article examines sentencing for male intimate partner violence against women since the 1996 enactment of s 718.2(a)(ii) of the Criminal Code, which requires that a spousal/common-law relationship between an offender and victim be considered an aggravating factor in sentencing. The article argues that, while in general appellate courts in Canada are taking this violence seriously, cases involving level I sexual assaults still demonstrate the longstanding tendency to treat the intimate relationship as mitigating. Further appellate guidance is necessary on how courts should reconcile s 718.2(a)(ii) with s 718.2(e), which requires ...


When Deciding Whether To Allow A Taking Of Property We Need To Ask What We Want Property Rights To Do, Douglas C. Harris Jan 2018

When Deciding Whether To Allow A Taking Of Property We Need To Ask What We Want Property Rights To Do, Douglas C. Harris

Faculty Publications

In recognition of the dangers inherent to a regime that enables a majority of owners to terminate the individual property interests of a dissenting minority, the Strata Property Act requires that strata corporations secure court confirmation of dissolution votes. Not surprisingly, the shift to a lower dissolution threshold, the rapidly rising land values in British Columbia’s urban centres, and the increased costs of maintaining aging buildings, have precipitated a growing number of dissolution votes and a steady flow of applications to the British Columbia Supreme Court (BCSC) to confirm the votes.


A Bridge Over Troubled Waters - Resolving Bank Financial Distress In Canada, Janis P. Sarra Jan 2018

A Bridge Over Troubled Waters - Resolving Bank Financial Distress In Canada, Janis P. Sarra

Faculty Publications

Effective June 2017, Canada formalized its new resolution regime for “domestic systemically important banks”. This article examines the new resolution regime in the context of the early intervention program by the financial services regulator. The system offers a complex but integrated set of mechanisms to monitor the financial health of financial institutions, to intervene at an early stage of financial distress, and to resolve the financially distressed bank in a timely manner. Resolution is the restructuring of a financially distressed or insolvent bank by a designated authority. To “resolve” a bank is to use a series of tools under banking ...