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Full-Text Articles in Law

Laboratories Of Exclusion: Medicaid, Federalism & Immigrants, Medha D. Makhlouf Dec 2020

Laboratories Of Exclusion: Medicaid, Federalism & Immigrants, Medha D. Makhlouf

Faculty Scholarly Works

Forthcoming Dec. 2020

Medicaid’s cooperative federalism structure gives states significant discretion to include or exclude various categories of immigrants. This has created extreme geographic variability in immigrants’ access to health coverage. This Article describes federalism’s role in influencing state policies on immigrant eligibility for Medicaid and its implications for national health policy. Although there are disagreements over the extent to which public funds should be used to subsidize immigrant health coverage, this Article reveals that decentralized policymaking on immigrant access to Medicaid has weakened national health policy. It has failed to incentivize the type of state policy experimentation ...


Blockchain Is The Key To Facilitating The Healthcare System, Andrea Ortega May 2020

Blockchain Is The Key To Facilitating The Healthcare System, Andrea Ortega

Blockchain Law

The healthcare industry is one of the world’s largest industries, accounting for 17.7% of the United States Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Unsurprisingly, the health spending share is projected to rise from 17.7 percent, as reported in 2018, to 19.7 percent by 2028. The U.S. spends more on healthcare than any other country in the world. Being that we spend the most on healthcare, one would assume that we are the healthiest nation in the world. Unfortunately, despite the highest spending, “Americans experience worse health outcomes than [our] international peers.”

It is time for the United ...


Access To Lifesaving Medical Resources For African Countries: Covid-19 Testing And Response, Ethics, And Politics, Matthew M. Kavanagh, Ngozi A. Erondu, Oyewale Tomori, Victor J. Dzau, Emelda A. Okiro, Allan Maleche, Ifeyinwa C. Aniebo, Umunya Rugege, Charles B. Holmes, Lawrence O. Gostin May 2020

Access To Lifesaving Medical Resources For African Countries: Covid-19 Testing And Response, Ethics, And Politics, Matthew M. Kavanagh, Ngozi A. Erondu, Oyewale Tomori, Victor J. Dzau, Emelda A. Okiro, Allan Maleche, Ifeyinwa C. Aniebo, Umunya Rugege, Charles B. Holmes, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has revealed how strikingly unprepared the world is for a pandemic and how easily viruses spread in our interconnected world. A governance crisis is unfolding alongside the pandemic as health officials around the world compete for access to scarce medical supplies. As governments of African countries, and those in low-income and middle-income countries around the world, seek to avoid potentially catastrophic epidemics and learn from what has worked in other countries, testing and other medical resources are of concern. With accelerating spread, funding is urgently needed. Yet even where there is enough money, many African health ...


Digital Smartphone Tracking For Covid-19: Public Health And Civil Liberties In Tension, I. Glenn Cohen, Lawrence O. Gostin, Daniel J. Weitzner May 2020

Digital Smartphone Tracking For Covid-19: Public Health And Civil Liberties In Tension, I. Glenn Cohen, Lawrence O. Gostin, Daniel J. Weitzner

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This Viewpoint compares manual and digital strategies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) contact tracing, describes how countries in Asia and Europe have used smartphone tracking, and discusses privacy and discrimination concerns and strategies for balancing public health and civil liberties in the US.


Postscript: Covid-19 And The Legal Determinants Of Health, John Coggon, Lawrence O. Gostin May 2020

Postscript: Covid-19 And The Legal Determinants Of Health, John Coggon, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This is a short postscript to the Public Health Ethics special issue on the legal determinants of health. We reflect briefly on emerging responses to COVID-19, and raise important questions of ethics and law that must be addressed; including through the lens of legal determinants, and with critical attention to what it means to protect health with justice.


Law In The Time Of Covid-19: Legal Considerations Amidst A Growing Crisis, Justice Tecson May 2020

Law In The Time Of Covid-19: Legal Considerations Amidst A Growing Crisis, Justice Tecson

GGU Law Review Blog

COVID-19 has resulted in the destabilization of several aspects of human society, which may potentially cause an influx in litigation in certain practice areas such as employment, healthcare, and contract law. Although the legal effects of the pandemic have yet to be seen in their entirety, having knowledge of the potential legal issues better prepares individuals and businesses in dealing with this increased risk of litigation and could possibly help mitigate the circumstances caused by this viral, unprecedented attack on humanity.


When Does A Major Outbreak Become A Public Health Emergency Of International Concern?, David N. Durrheim, Lawrence O. Gostin, Keymanthri Moodley May 2020

When Does A Major Outbreak Become A Public Health Emergency Of International Concern?, David N. Durrheim, Lawrence O. Gostin, Keymanthri Moodley

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The process of determining whether a Public Health Emergencies of International Concern (PHEIC) exists and should be declared has drawn increasing criticism over the past few years with allegations that it is more political than technical. Delaying declaration, where appropriate, means that the opportunity of garnering international solidarity and necessary resources in the early phases of epidemics, when public health measures may be more effective, is lost. A reform agenda aimed at enhancing WHO/Emergency Committee transparency and objectivity for the PHEIC declaration process is required.


State Prosecutors At The Center Of Mass Imprisonment And Criminal Justice Reform, Nora V. Demleitner May 2020

State Prosecutors At The Center Of Mass Imprisonment And Criminal Justice Reform, Nora V. Demleitner

Scholarly Articles

State prosecutors around the country have played a crucial role in mass imprisonment. Little supervision and virtually unsurpassed decision making power have provided them with unrivaled influence over the size, growth, and composition of our criminal justice system. They decide which cases to prosecute, whether to divert a case, whether to offer a plea, and what sentence to recommend. Their impact does not stop at sentencing. They weigh in on alternative dockets, supervision violations, parole release, and even clemency requests. But they are also part of a larger system that constrains them. Funding, judicial limits on their power, and legislative ...


The Legal Determinants Of Health: How Can We Achieve Universal Health Coverage And What Does It Mean?, Lawrence O. Gostin May 2020

The Legal Determinants Of Health: How Can We Achieve Universal Health Coverage And What Does It Mean?, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

How can we keep people – wherever they live – healthy and safe? Among all global health initiatives, Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has garnered most political attention. But can UHC (as important as it is) actually achieve the two fundamental aspirations of the right to health: keeping people healthy and safe, while leaving no one behind? There is a universal longing for health and security, but also a deep-seated belief in fairness and equity. Can UHC achieve both health and equity, or what I have called, “global health with justice.”?

What makes a population healthy and safe? Certainly, universal and affordable access ...


Has Global Health Law Risen To Meet The Covid-19 Challenge? Revisiting The International Health Regulations To Prepare For Future Threats, Lawrence O. Gostin, Roojin Habibi, Benjamin Mason Meier May 2020

Has Global Health Law Risen To Meet The Covid-19 Challenge? Revisiting The International Health Regulations To Prepare For Future Threats, Lawrence O. Gostin, Roojin Habibi, Benjamin Mason Meier

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Global health law is essential in responding to the infectious disease threats of a globalizing world, where no single country, or border, can wall off disease. Yet, the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has tested the essential legal foundations of the global health system. Within weeks, the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has circumnavigated the globe, bringing the world to a halt and exposing the fragility of the international legal order. Reflecting on how global health law will emerge in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, it will be crucial to examine the lessons learned in the COVID-19 response and the reforms required to ...


Global Health With Justice: Controlling The Floodgates Of The Upstream Determinants Of Health Through Evidence-Based Law, John Coggon, Lawrence O. Gostin May 2020

Global Health With Justice: Controlling The Floodgates Of The Upstream Determinants Of Health Through Evidence-Based Law, John Coggon, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article introduces a special issue on the legal determinants of health, following the publication of the Lancet–O’Neill Institute of Georgetown University Commission’s report on the subject. We contextualize legal determinants as a significant and vital aspect of the social determinants of health, explain the work of the Lancet–O’Neill Commission and outline where consequent research will usefully be directed. We also introduce the papers that follow in the special issue, which together set out in greater detail the work of the Commission and critically engage with different aspects of the report and the application of ...


Compliance Management Systems: Do They Make A Difference?, Cary Coglianese, Jennifer Nash May 2020

Compliance Management Systems: Do They Make A Difference?, Cary Coglianese, Jennifer Nash

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Regulatory compliance is vital for promoting the public values served by regulation. Yet many businesses remain out of compliance with some of the regulations that apply to them—presenting not only possible dangers to the public but also exposing themselves to potentially significant liability risk. Compliance management systems (CMSs) may help reduce the likelihood of noncompliance. In recent years, managers have begun using CMSs in an effort to address compliance issues in a variety of domains: environment, workplace health and safety, finance, health care, and aviation, among others. CMSs establish systematic, checklist-like processes by which managers seek to improve their ...


No Choice: At The Crossroads Of Poverty And Decreasing Abortion Access, Marja-Leena Aaltonen May 2020

No Choice: At The Crossroads Of Poverty And Decreasing Abortion Access, Marja-Leena Aaltonen

Poverty Law Conference & Symposium

This paper will briefly review a portion of current abortion law in the United States and then focus on the problem through a lens of poverty with regard to access. Then the discussion will turn to lawmakers’ and religious interests’ interference in family planning decisions. Finally, I offer two steps toward making abortion more accessible to all but especially toward mitigating the costs of accessing abortion.


Health Inequalities, Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman May 2020

Health Inequalities, Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The vast health inequalities in the United States and beyond that COVID-19 makes glaringly evident are frequently masked by aggregate statistics, which for years had been showing health improvements. Yet these improvements were inequitably distributed, with benefits disproportionately going to wealthier – and in the United States, white – populations. Globally, vast health inequities also exist among and within countries. The inequalities, which have also helped fuel the rise of populism, extend far beyond health care, including to wealth and income. Disaggregated, granular data is critical to understanding these inequalities.

Addressing health inequities must extend far beyond universal access to quality health ...


Youth Homelessness - State Policy Review, Adam Mercer Apr 2020

Youth Homelessness - State Policy Review, Adam Mercer

Student Research Projects

This project was sponsored by Waypoint within their runaway and homeless youth continuum. Waypoint is a private non-profit operating in New Hampshire and supporting homeless youth statewide. The objective of the project was to review state policies affecting youth for the purpose of increasing Waypoint’s ability to advocate for legislative changes that can prevent and bring an end to youth homelessness.

The rights and freedoms of minors in unsafe situations are often limited and tied to another person’s guardianship, which may not be the best option for them. Expanding their rights through new policy could improve their safety ...


Law School News: Rwu Law Professors Win Release For Two Immigrants At Risk For Covid-19 04-24-2020, Roger Williams University School Of Law Apr 2020

Law School News: Rwu Law Professors Win Release For Two Immigrants At Risk For Covid-19 04-24-2020, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Petitioners' Reply Memorandum In Support Of Their Emergency Petetion For A Writ Of Habeas Corpus, Joseph Mead, David J. Carey, Freda J. Levenson, David A. Singleton, Mark A. Vander Laan, Michael L. Zuckerman Apr 2020

Petitioners' Reply Memorandum In Support Of Their Emergency Petetion For A Writ Of Habeas Corpus, Joseph Mead, David J. Carey, Freda J. Levenson, David A. Singleton, Mark A. Vander Laan, Michael L. Zuckerman

Law Faculty Briefs

In the roughly 120 hours since Petitioners filed their emergency petition for a writ of habeas corpus, the death toll at Elkton has doubled, and the number of BOP-confirmed COVID-19 cases among prisoners has tripled. About three dozen corrections staff have tested positive for the virus, a number that has also tripled since this case was filed. Elkton now accounts for more than one-third of all prisoner deaths from COVID-19 in federal prisons nationwide, and over half of the COVID-19 deaths in Columbiana County, making it one of the deadliest places a person can live in the current pandemic. According ...


Emergency Petition For Writ Of Habeas Corpus, Injunctive, And Declaratory Relief - Class Action, Joseph Mead, David J. Carey, Mark A. Vander Laan, Freda Levenson, David Singleton Apr 2020

Emergency Petition For Writ Of Habeas Corpus, Injunctive, And Declaratory Relief - Class Action, Joseph Mead, David J. Carey, Mark A. Vander Laan, Freda Levenson, David Singleton

Law Faculty Briefs

As a tragic combination of infectious and deadly, COVID-19 poses a once-in-a-lifetime threat on a worldwide scale. Every state and territory in the United States has now been impacted, with nearly half a million cases and over 20,000 deaths reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Even under ordinary conditions, each person who contracts this illness can be expected to infect between 2 and 3 others.

Cramped, overcrowded prisons amplify this threat. With thousands of people literally stacked on top of each other and unable to move around without rubbing shoulders, such environments are fundamentally incompatible ...


Law School News: Rwu Law Professors File Emergency Covid-19 Lawsuit 04-12-2020, Michael M. Bowden Apr 2020

Law School News: Rwu Law Professors File Emergency Covid-19 Lawsuit 04-12-2020, Michael M. Bowden

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Governmental Public Health Powers During The Covid-19 Pandemic: Stay-At-Home Orders, Business Closures, And Travel Restrictions, Lawrence O. Gostin, Lindsay F. Wiley Apr 2020

Governmental Public Health Powers During The Covid-19 Pandemic: Stay-At-Home Orders, Business Closures, And Travel Restrictions, Lawrence O. Gostin, Lindsay F. Wiley

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The president and all 50 governors have declared health emergencies to combat the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While researchers race for vaccines, officials are implementing physical distancing, including orders to stay at home, restrict travel, and close non-essential businesses. To limit cross-border spread, a few states have issued mandatory quarantines for interstate travelers. Models suggest physical distancing would have to persist for 3 months to mitigate peak impacts on health systems and could continue on an intermittent basis for 12-18 months. What legal powers do governments have? What is ...


How Can Pennsylvania Protect Itself From Its Own Measles Outbreak?, Megan M. Riesmeyer, Kristen Feemster Apr 2020

How Can Pennsylvania Protect Itself From Its Own Measles Outbreak?, Megan M. Riesmeyer, Kristen Feemster

Faculty Scholarly Works

When a response to inaccurate information strives to be an informative exercise of its own, it is difficult to balance the desire to respond point by point to mischaracterized, misleading, or untrue information, with the need to simply offer a complete picture of facts. This article is a response to Abigail Wenger’s article regarding

vaccinations. To reply to each mischaracterization or inaccuracy in turn means this response loses its own informative intent and becomes simply a rebuttal. However, to ignore mischaracterizations and inaccuracies is to risk the reader’s acceptance of those points as true. Through illustrative examples in ...


The Ground On Which We All Stand: A Conversation About Menstrual Equity Law And Activism, Bridget J. Crawford, Margaret E. Johnson, Marcy L. Karin, Laura Strausfeld Esq., Emily Gold Waldman Apr 2020

The Ground On Which We All Stand: A Conversation About Menstrual Equity Law And Activism, Bridget J. Crawford, Margaret E. Johnson, Marcy L. Karin, Laura Strausfeld Esq., Emily Gold Waldman

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This essay grows out of a panel discussion among five lawyers on the subject of menstrual equity activism. Each of the authors is a scholar, activist or organizer involved in some form of menstrual equity work. The overall project is both enriched and complicated by an intersectional analysis.

This essay increases awareness of existing menstrual equity and menstrual justice work; it also identifies avenues for further inquiry, next steps for legal action, and opportunities that lie ahead. After describing prior and current work at the junction of law and menstruation, the contributors evaluate the successes and limitations of recent legal ...


Law Library Blog (April 2020): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Apr 2020

Law Library Blog (April 2020): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


Responding To Covid‐19: How To Navigate A Public Health Emergency Legally And Ethically, Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman, Sarah A. Wetter Mar 2020

Responding To Covid‐19: How To Navigate A Public Health Emergency Legally And Ethically, Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman, Sarah A. Wetter

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Widespread social separation is rapidly becoming the norm, including closure of schools and universities, tele-commuting to work, bans on large gatherings, and millions of people isolated in their homes or make-shift facilities. Bans on international travel are already pervasive. Domestic travel restrictions are exceedingly rare, but now within the realm of possibility. Officials are even discussing cordon sanitaires (guarded areas where people may not enter or leave), popularly described as “lockdowns” or mass quarantines.

When the health system becomes stretched beyond capacity, how can we ethically allocate scarce health goods and services? How can we ensure that marginalized populations can ...


Regulating In Pandemic: Evaluating Economic And Financial Policy Responses To The Coronavirus Crisis, Hiba Hafiz, Shu-Yi Oei, Diane M. Ring, Natalya Shnitser Mar 2020

Regulating In Pandemic: Evaluating Economic And Financial Policy Responses To The Coronavirus Crisis, Hiba Hafiz, Shu-Yi Oei, Diane M. Ring, Natalya Shnitser

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The United States is currently trying to manage a fast-moving public health crisis due to the coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19). The economic and financial ramifications of the outbreak are serious. This Working Paper discusses these ramifications and identifies three interrelated but potentially conflicting policy priorities at stake in managing the economic and financial fallout of the COVID-19 crisis: (1) providing social insurance to individuals and families in need; (2) managing systemic economic and financial risk; and (3) encouraging critical spatial behaviors to help contain COVID-19 transmission. The confluence of these three policy considerations and the potential conflicts among them make the ...


The Paradox Of Insurance, Gideon Parchomovsky, Peter Siegelman Mar 2020

The Paradox Of Insurance, Gideon Parchomovsky, Peter Siegelman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this Article, we uncover a paradoxical phenomenon that has hitherto largely escaped the attention of legal scholars and economists, yet it has far-reaching implications for insurance law: loss-creation by uninsured parties caused by the presence of insurance. Contrary to the conventional wisdom, we show that insurance can create significant negative externalities by inducing third parties to engage in antisocial, illegal and unethical activities in order to extract money from insureds or insurers. Moreover, as the amount and scope of insurance grows, so does its distortionary effect on third parties. We term this phenomenon the paradox of insurance. The risk ...


Carter, Will-Parker (Sc 3517), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Mar 2020

Carter, Will-Parker (Sc 3517), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 3517. “A Life of Service: The Domestic Healthcare Policies of Dr. Tim Lee Carter,” a research paper by Kentucky congressman Carter’s great-nephew Will-Carter Parker, written while he was a student at Georgetown College, Georgetown, Kentucky. He reviews Dr. Carter’s legislative work and argues that his ideas influenced the content of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010).


Chain Restaurant Calorie Posting Laws, Obesity, And Consumer Welfare, Charles J. Courtemanche, David Frisvold, David Jimenez-Gomez, Mariétou H. Ouayogodé, Michael Price Mar 2020

Chain Restaurant Calorie Posting Laws, Obesity, And Consumer Welfare, Charles J. Courtemanche, David Frisvold, David Jimenez-Gomez, Mariétou H. Ouayogodé, Michael Price

Institute for the Study of Free Enterprise Working Papers

The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) introduced a mandate requiring chain restaurants to post calorie counts on menus and menu boards. This paper investigates whether and why calorie posting laws work. To do so, we develop a model of calories consumed that highlights two potential channels through which mandates influence choice and outlines an empirical strategy to disentangle these alternatives. We test the predictions of our model using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to compare changes in body mass index (BMI), obesity, and consumer well-being in locations that implemented calorie-posting laws between 2008 and ...


Do Bans Help Modern Public Health?, Lawrence O. Gostin Jan 2020

Do Bans Help Modern Public Health?, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

A century ago, the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution went into effect, banning the “manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors.” Fourteen years after its ratification, the 18th Amendment was repealed by the 21st Amendment. What did Prohibition teach us about banning hazardous products like alcohol, tobacco, or e-cigarettes?


Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter, Winter 2020 Jan 2020

Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter, Winter 2020

Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter

No abstract provided.