Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Series

Intellectual Property Law

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 3656

Full-Text Articles in Law

Antitrust And Platform Monopoly, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Sep 2020

Antitrust And Platform Monopoly, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This article first considers an often-discussed question about large internet platforms that deal directly with consumers: Are they “winner take all,” or natural monopoly, firms? That question is complex and does not produce the same answer for every platform. The closer one looks at digital platforms they less they seem to be winner-take-all. As a result, we can assume that competition can be made to work in most of them.

Second, assuming that an antitrust violation is found, what should be the appropriate remedy? Breaking up large firms subject to extensive scale economies or positive network effects is generally thought ...


Competitive Harm From Vertical Mergers, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Sep 2020

Competitive Harm From Vertical Mergers, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The antitrust enforcement Agencies' 2020 Vertical Merger Guidelines introduce a nontechnical application of bargaining theory into the assessment of competitive effects from vertical acquisitions. The economics of such bargaining is complex and can produce skepticism among judges, who might regard its mathematics as overly technical, its game theory as excessively theoretical or speculative, or its assumptions as unrealistic.

However, we have been there before. The introduction of concentration indexes, particularly the HHI, in the Merger Guidelines was initially met with skepticism but gradually they were accepted as judges became more comfortable with them. The same thing very largely happened again ...


Covert Deception, Strategic Fraud, And The Rule Of Prohibited Intervention (Originally Published As Part Of The Hoover Institution’S Aegis Series), Gary Corn Sep 2020

Covert Deception, Strategic Fraud, And The Rule Of Prohibited Intervention (Originally Published As Part Of The Hoover Institution’S Aegis Series), Gary Corn

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

No abstract provided.


Open Is Not Forever: A Study Of Vanished Open Access Journals, Mikael Laakso, Lisa Matthias, Najko Jahn Sep 2020

Open Is Not Forever: A Study Of Vanished Open Access Journals, Mikael Laakso, Lisa Matthias, Najko Jahn

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

The preservation of the scholarly record has been a point of concern since the beginning of knowledge production. With print publications, the responsibility rested primarily with librarians, but the shift towards digital publishing and, in particular, the introduction of open access (OA) have caused ambiguity and complexity. Consequently, the long-term accessibility of journals is not always guaranteed, and they can even disappear from the web completely. The purpose of this exploratory study is to systematically study the phenomenon of vanished journals, something that has not been done before. For the analysis, we consulted several major bibliographic indexes, such as Scopus ...


Research 4.0: Research In The Age Of Automation, Rob Procter, Ben Glover, Elliot Jones Sep 2020

Research 4.0: Research In The Age Of Automation, Rob Procter, Ben Glover, Elliot Jones

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

Executive Summary

There is a growing consensus that we are at the start of a fourth industrial revolution, driven by developments in Artificial Intelligence, machine learning, robotics, the Internet of Things, 3-D printing, nanotechnology, biotechnology, 5G, new forms of energy storage and quantum computing. This wave of technical innovations is already having a significant impact on how research is conducted, with dramatic change across research methods in recent years within some disciplines, as this project’s interim report set out.

Whilst there are a wide range of technologies associated with the fourth industrial revolution, this report primarily seeks to understand ...


The State Of Journal Production And Access 2020: Report On Survey Of Society And University Publishers Aug 2020

The State Of Journal Production And Access 2020: Report On Survey Of Society And University Publishers

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

“The State of Journal Production and Access” survey ran between March and June 2020 and received 63 responses from individuals working with academic organizations that publish one or more peer-reviewed journals independently (i.e., not outsourced to a separate publisher). The survey encompassed questions in two areas: 1. journal production, including article formatting, layout, and metadata tagging practices and priorities; and 2. journal access, including publishers’ current access and funding models as well as respondents’ perceptions of the viability of alternate options. Among the main findings on the topic of journal production were: • Less than half of publishers surveyed reported ...


A List Of Zea Books, Published By University Of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, Zea Books Aug 2020

A List Of Zea Books, Published By University Of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, Zea Books

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

94 published titles (2005-2020), plus 1 forthcoming this fall.

Zea Books are produced by the Office of Scholarly Communications, and published by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries.

With links to online pdf editions and Lulu.com print-on-demand online storefront.

Zea Books are online at https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/zeabook/

Print-on-demand editions are available @ http://www.lulu.com/spotlight/unllib


Did The America Invents Act Change University Technology Transfer?, Cynthia L. Dahl Aug 2020

Did The America Invents Act Change University Technology Transfer?, Cynthia L. Dahl

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

University technology transfer offices (TTOs) are the gatekeepers to groundbreaking innovations sparked in research laboratories around the U.S. With a business model reliant on patenting and licensing out for commercialization, TTOs were positioned for upheaval when the America Invents Act (AIA) transformed U.S. patent law in 2011. Now almost ten years later, this article examines the AIA’s actual effects on this patent-centric industry. It focuses on the five key areas of most interest to TTOs: i) first to file priority; ii) broadening of the universe of prior art; iii) carve-out to the prior commercial use defense; iv ...


Antiracism Toolkit For Allies Aug 2020

Antiracism Toolkit For Allies

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

While a growing awareness of racial disparities has resulted in a groundswell of support for inclusivity in scholarly publishing, we believe that the resulting initiatives would be more effective if our professional associations were able to provide training materials to help transform our workplaces and organizational cultures. As evidence of the interest and need, the project leaders of this guide have been contacted by individuals across scholarly publishing asking for resources about how to replicate workplace equity groups, what to do in cases of discrimination or microaggressions, and how to begin conversations about race. In support of necessary change, the ...


The Pharmaceutical Industry’S Corrupt Price Discrimination System: A Single Solution?, Samuel F. Ernst Aug 2020

The Pharmaceutical Industry’S Corrupt Price Discrimination System: A Single Solution?, Samuel F. Ernst

Publications

The patent exhaustion doctrine generally provides that when a patent holder sells or authorizes the sale of a patented product, the patent rights in that item are exhausted. The patent holder cannot chase the item down the stream of commerce to impose restrictions on its use or resale. One issue that arises is whether a domestic sale is required to trigger patent exhaustion, or if sales overseas can also trigger patent exhaustion. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (“TRIPS”) is agnostic on this question, providing that “nothing in this Agreement shall be used to address the issue ...


Accessibility In Institutional Repositories, Laura Waugh, Colleen Lyon, Abigail Shelton, Kristi Park, William Hicks, Nerissa Lindsey Aug 2020

Accessibility In Institutional Repositories, Laura Waugh, Colleen Lyon, Abigail Shelton, Kristi Park, William Hicks, Nerissa Lindsey

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

Purpose

Institutional repositories (IRs) are widely used for archiving, preserving, and disseminating scholarly works and making them available on the web. Much of the research and development in IRs has focused on platforms, workflows, and policies for adding content. In this study, the focus is to gauge practices to ensure accessibility of the digital content made available in IRs.

The purpose of this study is to:

1. Understand the current landscape of accessibility practices in institutional repositories in academic libraries.

2. Identify the average level of content accessibility implemented in institutional repositories in academic libraries.

For the purpose of this ...


Analysis Of Woods And Myburgh Comments On Cab, Jonathan Band Aug 2020

Analysis Of Woods And Myburgh Comments On Cab, Jonathan Band

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

On June 16, 2020, President Ramaphosa of the South African Republic referred the Copyright Amendment Bill (“CAB”) back to the National Assembly on the grounds that he had reservations concerning its constitutionality. In his referral letter, President Ramaphosa stated that the CAB may be in conflict with international intellectual property (IP) treaties South Africa had joined or was planning to join. CAB opponents’ arguments that the CAB is incompatible with IP treaties are based largely on comments prepared by Michele Woods, Director of the Copyright Law Division of the World Intellectual Property Organization, in 2018. Woods prepared these comments as ...


Labour Of Love: An Open Access Manifesto For Freedom, Integrity, And Creativity In The Humanities And Interpretive Social Sciences, Andrea E. Pia, Simon Batterbury, Agnieszka Joniak-Lüthi, Marcel Laflamme, Gerda Wielander, Filippo M. Zerilli, Melissa Nolas, Jon Schubert, Nicholas Loubere, Ivan Franceschini, Casey Walsh, Agathe Mora, Christos Varvantakis Jul 2020

Labour Of Love: An Open Access Manifesto For Freedom, Integrity, And Creativity In The Humanities And Interpretive Social Sciences, Andrea E. Pia, Simon Batterbury, Agnieszka Joniak-Lüthi, Marcel Laflamme, Gerda Wielander, Filippo M. Zerilli, Melissa Nolas, Jon Schubert, Nicholas Loubere, Ivan Franceschini, Casey Walsh, Agathe Mora, Christos Varvantakis

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

Over the next decade, Open Access (OA) is likely to become the default in scholarly publishing. Yet, as commercial publishers develop new models for capturing revenue (and as policy initiatives like Plan S remain reluctant to challenge their centrality), researchers, librarians, and other concerned observers are beginning to articulate a set of values that critically engages the industry-driven project of broadening access to specialist scholarship. While alternative genealogies exist, conversations about OA in the Global North have largely been concerned with the model of the STEM disciplines, lately shifting to focus on the development of infrastructural fixes that transcend traditional ...


Open Access Uptake By Universities Worldwide, Nicolas Robinson-Garcia, Rodrigo Costas, Thed N. Van Leeuwen Jul 2020

Open Access Uptake By Universities Worldwide, Nicolas Robinson-Garcia, Rodrigo Costas, Thed N. Van Leeuwen

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

The implementation of policies promoting the adoption of an open science (OS) culture must be accompanied by indicators that allow monitoring the uptake of such policies and their potential effects on research publishing and sharing practices. This study presents indicators of open access (OA) at the institutional level for universities worldwide. By combining data from Web of Science, Unpaywall and the Leiden Ranking disambiguation of institutions, we track OA coverage of universities' output for 963 institutions. This paper presents the methodological challenges, conceptual discrepancies and limitations and discusses further steps needed to move forward the discussion on fostering OA and ...


Cybersecurity-Corporate Espionage, Amy J. Ramson Jul 2020

Cybersecurity-Corporate Espionage, Amy J. Ramson

Open Educational Resources

The goals of this team activity in the area of criminal law, cybersecurity and cyber crime are to facilitate team work, critical thinking and presentation skills. Students will be grouped into two teams. As a team, they will analyze cases about corporate espionage committed by nation states and industry competitors through the questions presented in the activity. They will present their analysis to the class.


United States Patent And Trademark Office V. Booking.Com B.V.: How Do We Know When Something Is A Name?, Laura A. Heymann Jul 2020

United States Patent And Trademark Office V. Booking.Com B.V.: How Do We Know When Something Is A Name?, Laura A. Heymann

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Automated Copyright Enforcement Online: From Blocking To Monetization Of User-Generated Content, Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan Jul 2020

Automated Copyright Enforcement Online: From Blocking To Monetization Of User-Generated Content, Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

Global platforms such as YouTube, Facebook, Instagram or TikTok live on users ‘freely’ sharing content, in exchange for the data generated in the process. Many of these digital market actors nowadays employ automated copyright enforcement tools, allowing those who claim ownership to identify matching content uploaded by users. While most debates on state-sanctioned platform liability and automated private ordering by platforms has focused on the implications of user generated content being blocked, this paper places a spotlight on monetization. Using YouTube’s Content ID as principal example, I show how monetizing user content is by far the norm, and blocking ...


What Role Can Regulations Play? A South African Public Law Perspective On The Potential Response Through Regulations To Constitutional Reservations About The Copyright Amendment Bill, B-13b Of 2017, Jonathan Klaaren Jul 2020

What Role Can Regulations Play? A South African Public Law Perspective On The Potential Response Through Regulations To Constitutional Reservations About The Copyright Amendment Bill, B-13b Of 2017, Jonathan Klaaren

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

This working paper addresses several issues in South African law relevant to determining whether and to what extent regulations may address genuine problems in the Copyright Amendment Bill [CAB]. Regulations are of course not yet drafted for this Bill and the Bill remains a Bill and is not yet an Act. Indeed, as discussed further below, the Bill is currently under consideration in Parliament as part of a section 79 process. In addition to its focus on the CAB, this paper identifies a set of emerging South African public law issues associated with similarly situated legislation.

After a background section ...


Copyright Reform: Imagining More Balanced Copyright Laws, Michelle M. Wu Jun 2020

Copyright Reform: Imagining More Balanced Copyright Laws, Michelle M. Wu

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Earlier chapters of this book provide a history of copyright and libraries in the United States, a review of outdated language in the existing copyright code, and a discussion of actions by both copyright owners and the public to rebalance copyright outside of legislation. This chapter simply imagines what copyright could be if we disregard the known political and legal obstacles. It starts with no constraints, which one might argue is both impractical and foolish. Why spend time discussing what could be when treaties, self-interest, and powerful industry lobbies stand in the way?

The answer is simply that environments can ...


Biomedcentral (Bmc) 2019 – 2020, Anqi Shi, Heather Morrison Jun 2020

Biomedcentral (Bmc) 2019 – 2020, Anqi Shi, Heather Morrison

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

Key points

  • Open access commercial publishing pioneer BMC is now wholly owned by a private company with a portfolio including lines of business that derive revenue from journal subscriptions, book sales, and textbook sales and rentals
  • Two former BMC fully OA journals, listed in DOAJ from 2014 – 2018 as having CC-BY licenses, are now hybrid and listed on the Springer website and have disappeared from the BMC website
  • 67% of BMC journals with APCs in 2019 and 2020 increased in price and 11% decreased in price.
  • Journals with price increases had a higher average APC in 2019, i.e. more ...


Reputational Economies Of Scale, Daniel M. Klerman, Miguel De Figueiredo Jun 2020

Reputational Economies Of Scale, Daniel M. Klerman, Miguel De Figueiredo

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

For many years, most scholars have assumed that the strength of reputational incentives is positively correlated with the frequency of repeat play. Firms that sell more products or services were thought more likely to be trustworthy than those that sell less because they have more to lose if consumers decide they have behaved badly. That assumption has been called into question by recent work that shows that, under the standard infinitely repeated game model of reputation, reputational economies of scale will occur only under special conditions, such as monopoly, because larger firms not only have more to lose from behaving ...


Choosing The Consequences Of Tam And Brunetti, Alfred C. Yen Jun 2020

Choosing The Consequences Of Tam And Brunetti, Alfred C. Yen

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

In Matal v. Tam and Iancu v. Brunetti, the Supreme Court did something it has never done before – namely apply strict First Amendment scrutiny to trademark law. This is a big deal. Many have argued, to relatively little effect, that intellectual property laws, like trademarks, raise serious free speech problems. It is therefore significant news for the Court to declare portions of the Lanham Act unconstitutional not once, but twice.

Like all Supreme Court decisions that break new ground, Tam and Brunetti raise questions about what comes next. In this Essay, I consider some of those possibilities and conclude that ...


Kenya’S Intellectual Property Bill, 2020, And Its Shortcomings In Adopting All Lawful Trips Public Health Flexibilities, Brook K. Baker Jun 2020

Kenya’S Intellectual Property Bill, 2020, And Its Shortcomings In Adopting All Lawful Trips Public Health Flexibilities, Brook K. Baker

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

Given the importance of access to medicines to human rights and well-being in Kenya, it is appropriate to analyze whether Kenya has currently incorporated the allowed public health flexibilities to the greatest extent possible in its draft Intellectual Property Bill, 2020. This analysis will focus on the patent, utility model, and enforcement measures only as they are the ones directly relevant to access to medicines and other health technologies. The analysis starts with the premise that Kenya wishes to avoid granting unwarranted patents on unworthy inventions, especially with respect to medicines and other health technologies. In particular, the assumption is ...


Response To White House Office Of Scientific And Technical Policy Request For Information: Public Access To Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Publications, Data And Code Resulting From Federally Funded Research, Paul Royster, Sue A. Gardner May 2020

Response To White House Office Of Scientific And Technical Policy Request For Information: Public Access To Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Publications, Data And Code Resulting From Federally Funded Research, Paul Royster, Sue A. Gardner

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

The current 12-month embargo period is widely disregarded. It is observed by PubMed Central (PMC), but the existence of preprint servers and academic social network sites (ResearchGate or Academia.edu) makes it possible for most authors to distribute peer-reviewed manuscripts at will. While enforcement of the embargo is lax or non-existent, its elimination would have a negative impact on publishers’ cooperation—pushing them to replace so-called “green” open access with author-pays models. The 12-month embargo allows PubMed Central time to prepare accurate and standardized versions of accepted author manuscripts. Requiring immediate access would not eliminate the PMC production time; there ...


The Technical Standardization Ecosystem And Institutional Decision Making: The Case Of Intellectual Property Rights Policies, Justus Baron, Jorge L. Contreras, Martin Husovec, Pierre Larouche, Nikolaus Thumm May 2020

The Technical Standardization Ecosystem And Institutional Decision Making: The Case Of Intellectual Property Rights Policies, Justus Baron, Jorge L. Contreras, Martin Husovec, Pierre Larouche, Nikolaus Thumm

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

In this paper, we analyze decision making on Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) policies in the standardization ecosystem. While a large literature has studied IPR policies of Standard Developing Organizations (SDOs), we contribute a more rigorous analysis of how these IPR policies are shaped by the interdependencies between SDOs and between SDOs and a variety of stakeholders. While SDO stakeholders often have opposing policy preferences, they are tied together by non-generic complementarities and a joint interest in the overall performance of the standardization system, which are constitutive characteristics of an ecosystem. The standardization ecosystem is characterized by widely shared institutional norms ...


Is China Stealing Our Tech? A Look Into The Role Of Intellectual Property Rights In Us-China Trade Relations, Ryan Chester May 2020

Is China Stealing Our Tech? A Look Into The Role Of Intellectual Property Rights In Us-China Trade Relations, Ryan Chester

Honors Scholar Theses

This thesis aims to further the current scholarship on Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and their effects on international trade and the US-China trade relationship more specifically. The main analysis of this thesis is a quantitative cross-country analysis of over 100 countries to see how IPR plays a role in international trade, while analyzing how the Sino-US trade relationship fits into larger trends. This thesis aims to answer the questions as follows: What are the current policies surrounding Intellectual Property Rights between China and the US? Does increasing the strength of IPR laws influence imports? Does the strength of a country ...


Stealth Commoditization: The Misuse Of Smartphone Antitrust, Jonathan M. Barnett Apr 2020

Stealth Commoditization: The Misuse Of Smartphone Antitrust, Jonathan M. Barnett

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

This contribution condenses the author’s previous detailed analyses of antitrust and patent policies in global smartphone markets. The discussion comprises three elements. First, it identifies the key constituencies in the smartphone ecosystem and the role each constituency plays in the technology supply chain. Second, it describes how courts’ and regulators’ interventions in the smartphone market rest on empirically unsubstantiated theories of competitive harm while advancing the private interests of producer-firms and producer-jurisdictions in reduced technology input costs. Third, it shows how this implicit renegotiation of licensing arrangements between innovators and implementers endangers the legal infrastructure of reliable intellectual property ...


Patent Tigers: The New Geography Of Global Innovation, Jonathan M. Barnett Apr 2020

Patent Tigers: The New Geography Of Global Innovation, Jonathan M. Barnett

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

It is widely argued that international extension of the patent system hinders innovation and growth in developing countries by restricting access to technological inputs. I re-examine the connection between patents, innovation and development by assessing the extent to which the U.S. patent regime supports R&D investment by firms in certain emerging market countries. Based on USPTO data covering all utility patents issued to U.S. and foreign inventors (a total of 6,122,217 patents issued to inventors resident in 188 countries and territories) during 1965-2015, and supplemented by additional data sources, I argue that the U.S ...


"Patent Tigers" And Global Innovation (2020 Update), Jonathan M. Barnett Apr 2020

"Patent Tigers" And Global Innovation (2020 Update), Jonathan M. Barnett

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

This short contribution updates through 2018 the author’s prior empirical study on global innovation trends as indicated by USPTO patenting data during 1965-2015. The principal trends identified previously have largely continued, with the exception of a slight universal decline in annual patenting volume in 2018. First, non-U.S. inventors continued to receive a slight majority (53% as of 2018) of all utility patents issued annually at the USPTO, with East Asia representing the largest regional group. Second, when normalized to adjust for population size, three smaller countries continue to outperform in terms of annually issued utility patents: as of ...


Guest Post Out Of The Blue The Federal Circuit Devises A New Rule For Color Mark, Christine Farley Apr 2020

Guest Post Out Of The Blue The Federal Circuit Devises A New Rule For Color Mark, Christine Farley

Editorial Contributions

The Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit has held that color marks on product packaging can be inherently distinctive. On April 8, 2020, the court issued its opinion in In re: Forney Industries, Inc. It stated that “a distinct color-based product packaging mark can indicate the source of the goods to a consumer, and, therefore, can be inherently distinctive.”URL: https://patentlyo.com/patent/2020/04/federal-circuit-devises.html