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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Economic Efficiency Case Against Business Tax Privacy, Daniel Schaffa Jan 2020

The Economic Efficiency Case Against Business Tax Privacy, Daniel Schaffa

Law Faculty Publications

By statute, business tax returns are not publicly available. But with public access, investors would acquire useful information that would help them make better investing decisions; business tax compliance and planning would become more uniform, preventing tax-savvy firms from gaining an advantage over other relatively more productive firms; and businesses could learn from one another, which would spare firms the cost of redundantly developing the same tax strategies. In the long run, these efficiency gains could result in lower prices, higher wages, more innovation, more leisure, and better investment returns. In the debate over business tax privacy, these sorts of ...


Natural Rights, Positive Rights, And The Right To Keep And Bear Arms, Jud Campbell Jan 2020

Natural Rights, Positive Rights, And The Right To Keep And Bear Arms, Jud Campbell

Law Faculty Publications

The first judicial opinions interpreting the right to bear arms embraced vastly divergent views of the right, leading scholars to perceive these decisions as being in disarray. This article argues that these conflicts reflect exactly the sorts of disagreements that one would expect given that Americans viewed the right to bear arms as a natural right and as a positive right. Indeed, the first right-to-bear-arms decisions exemplified tensions that emerged when judges confronted claims about natural rights and positive rights in a changing social and legal landscape. As a natural right, the right to carry firearms could only be limited ...


Speaking The Truth: Supporting Authentic Advocacy With Professional Identity Formation, Laura A. Webb Jan 2020

Speaking The Truth: Supporting Authentic Advocacy With Professional Identity Formation, Laura A. Webb

Law Faculty Publications

When law students are asked to articulate legal rules in a persuasive communication such as a brief, they may experience internal tension. Their version of the rule, as framed to benefit a particular client’s position, may be different from the way they would articulate the rule if they were not taking on an advocate’s role. The conflict between those two versions of a legal rule leads some students to wonder if advocacy itself is deceptive, if an advocate’s role requires one to sacrifice ethics for success, and if ancient Greek philosophers were correct when they derided persuasive ...


Filling The Ninth Circuit Vacancies, Carl Tobias Jan 2019

Filling The Ninth Circuit Vacancies, Carl Tobias

Law Faculty Publications

Upon Republican President Donald Trump’s inauguration, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit experienced some pressing appellate vacancies, which the Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AO) carefully identified as “judicial emergencies” because the tribunal resolves a massive docket. Last year’s death of the iconic liberal champion Stephen Reinhardt and the late 2017 departure of libertarian former Chief Judge Alex Kozinski—who both assumed pivotal circuit leadership roles over numerous years—and a few of their colleagues’ decision to leave active court service thereafter, mean the tribunal presently confronts four judicial emergencies and resolves ...


Institutional Design For Innovation: A Radical Proposal For Addressing § 101 Patent Eligible Subject Matter, Kristen Osenga Jan 2019

Institutional Design For Innovation: A Radical Proposal For Addressing § 101 Patent Eligible Subject Matter, Kristen Osenga

Law Faculty Publications

The doctrine of patent-eligible subject matter is a mess, and it is weakening patent rights in this country. Nearly everyone, from the bar to the bench and from academia to industry, has called for reform. Multiple proposals to amend 35 U.S.C. § 101 have been drafted, each aimed at trying to make the doctrine more workable. Although offered with the best intentions, the proposals to fix patent-eligible subject matter are doomed to fail because none of the proposals address which institution is best suited to determine patent eligibility.

This Article takes a different, and perhaps radical, tactic. Specifically, patent-eligible ...


Incorporating Collateral Consequences Into Criminal Procedure, Paul T. Crane Jan 2019

Incorporating Collateral Consequences Into Criminal Procedure, Paul T. Crane

Law Faculty Publications

A curious relationship currently exists between collateral consequences and criminal procedures. It is now widely accepted that collateral consequences are an integral component of the American criminal justice system. Such consequences shape the contours of many criminal cases, influencing what charges are brought by the government, the content of plea negotiations, the sentences imposed by trial judges, and the impact of criminal convictions on defendants. Yet, when it comes to the allocation of criminal procedures, collateral consequences continue to be treated as if they are external to the criminal justice process. Specifically, a conviction’s collateral consequences, no matter how ...


Navigating 21st Century Tax Jurisdiction, Hayes R. Holderness Jan 2019

Navigating 21st Century Tax Jurisdiction, Hayes R. Holderness

Law Faculty Publications

Hailed as a massive victory for the states, the Supreme Court’s 2018 decision in South Dakota v. Wayfair, Inc. brought dated state tax jurisdiction standards into the twenty-first century, freeing the states to tax internet vendors. However, the decision left the larger state tax jurisdiction doctrine undertheorized and at a crossroads: should the doctrine concern itself only with notice and fairness issues akin to those found in the due process personal jurisdiction realm, or should it also concern itself with protecting interstate commerce from undue state tax burdens?

This Article argues for the latter path by developing a robust ...


Jurisdiction And "Definitional Law", John F. Preis Jan 2019

Jurisdiction And "Definitional Law", John F. Preis

Law Faculty Publications

Professor Scott Dodson and I agree that the law of federal jurisdiction needs improvement. We disagree, however, on Congress’s power to make that happen. In an article published in 2017, Dodson argued that “jurisdiction” has an “inherent identity” that “[n]either Congress nor the courts can change.” In an article published the following year, I critiqued this claim. There, I argued that Congress is not obliged to respect jurisdiction’s inherent identity (to the extent it might have one). Rather, Congress need only respect the identity of jurisdiction contained in the United States Constitution. Professor Dodson recently published a ...


Investing In Corporate Procedure, Jessica M. Erickson Jan 2019

Investing In Corporate Procedure, Jessica M. Erickson

Law Faculty Publications

Corporate litigation is in crisis. At the state level, shareholder lawsuits challenging mergers and other corporate decisions are ubiquitous but rarely end with meaningful relief for shareholders. At the federal level, securities class actions are rife with ethical challenges and low-value settlements. Over the last several decades, multiple groups — including judges, legislatures, and corporate boards — have tried to solve this problem, but all have come up short. This Article argues that the solution lies in rewriting the procedural rules that govern corporate lawsuits. New standing requirements would lead to better screening of these claims. Discovery limits and heightened pleading requirements ...


Introduction To The Symposium: A Focus On Ethics In International Courts And Tribunals, Chiara Giorgetti, Jeffrey L. Dunoff Jan 2019

Introduction To The Symposium: A Focus On Ethics In International Courts And Tribunals, Chiara Giorgetti, Jeffrey L. Dunoff

Law Faculty Publications

Alarming developments in a recent arbitration between Croatia and Slovenia catapulted ethical issues to the center of debates over the functioning of international dispute settlement. On July 22, 2015, a Croatian newspaper published transcripts and audio files of ex parte communications between the arbitrator Slovenia appointed and Slovenia's agent in the case. In these discussions, the arbitrator disclosed the Tribunal's preliminary conclusions (which allegedly favored Slovenia) and discussed ways to influence the other arbitrators on the panel. Following the revelation of these conversations, Slovenia's Prime Minister demanded and received the resignations of both individuals and stated that ...


Ex Pluribus Unum? On The Form And Shape Of A Common Code Of Ethics In International Litigation, Chiara Giorgetti, Jeffrey L. Dunoff Jan 2019

Ex Pluribus Unum? On The Form And Shape Of A Common Code Of Ethics In International Litigation, Chiara Giorgetti, Jeffrey L. Dunoff

Law Faculty Publications

In April 2019, member-states of UNCITRAL Working Group III requested the UNCITRAL Secretariat to undertake preparatory work for a Code of Conduct for Investor-State Dispute Settlement focusing on the implementation and enforceability of such a code. This groundbreaking development signals that, for the first time, a consensus exists that a code of ethics for Investor-State dispute settlement is desirable and needed. This contribution addresses three threshold questions that such preparatory work raises, namely: the preferred form of the code, the code's substantive reach, and the optimal process for bringing a code to fruition. As set out below, we urge ...


Clean Energy Justice: Charting An Emerging Agenda, Joel B. Eisen, Shelley Welton Jan 2019

Clean Energy Justice: Charting An Emerging Agenda, Joel B. Eisen, Shelley Welton

Law Faculty Publications

The rapid transition to clean energy is fraught with potential inequities. As clean energy policies ramp up in scale and ambition, they confront challenging new questions: Who should pay for the transition? Who should live next to the industrial-scale wind and solar farms these policies promote? Will the new “green” economy be a fairer one, with more widespread opportunity, than the fossil fuel economy it is replacing? Who gets to decide what kinds of resources power our decarbonized world? In this article, we frame these challenges as part of an emerging agenda of “clean energy justice.” Mapping this agenda highlights ...


Beyond Beholden, Da Lin Jan 2019

Beyond Beholden, Da Lin

Law Faculty Publications

Corporate law has long been concerned with director independence. In controlled companies, the conventional wisdom focuses on "beholdenness" as the main threat to independence. The prevailing theory argues that directors might feel pressured to reciprocate a past kindness from the controlling shareholder or fear retaliation. This Article argues that this conventional narrative is troublingly incomplete. I show that directors are also influenced by the prospect of rewards, or patronage, from the controller.

This Article is the first to identify controlling shareholder patronage as a systemic phenomenon and to explore how anticipation of future patronage can affect director behavior. It presents ...


The Invention Of First Amendment Federalism, Jud Campbell Jan 2019

The Invention Of First Amendment Federalism, Jud Campbell

Law Faculty Publications

When insisting that the Sedition Act of 1798 violated the First Amendment, Jeffersonian Republicans cast their argument in historical terms, claiming that the Speech and Press Clauses eliminated any federal power to restrict expression. Scholars, in turn, have generally accepted that Republicans had a consistent understanding of the First Amendment throughout the 1790s. But Founding Era constitutionalism was dynamic in practice, even while often conservative in rhetoric, and scholars have missed the striking novelty of the principal argument against the Sedition Act. Republicans had taken a rights provision and transformed it into a federalism rule.

Mostly ignored in the literature ...


Convergence And Conflation In Online Copyright, Christopher A. Cotropia, James Gibson Jan 2019

Convergence And Conflation In Online Copyright, Christopher A. Cotropia, James Gibson

Law Faculty Publications

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act is showing its age. Enacted in 1998, the DMCA succeeded in its initial goal of bringing clarity to wildly inconsistent judicial standards for online copyright infringement. But as time has passed, the Act has been overtaken—not by developments in technology, but by developments in copyright’s case law. Those cases are no longer as divergent as they were in the last millennium. Instead, over time the judicial standards and the statutory standards have converged, to the point where the differences between them are few.

At first glance, this convergence seems unproblematic. After all, uniformity ...


Compelled Subsidies And Original Meaning, Jud Campbell Jan 2019

Compelled Subsidies And Original Meaning, Jud Campbell

Law Faculty Publications

The rule against compelled subsidization of speech is at the forefront of modem First Amendment disputes. Challenges to mandatory union dues, laws preventing discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, and the federal "contraceptive mandate" have all featured variants of the anti-subsidization principle, reasoning that the government cannot compel people to support the objectionable activities of others. But the literature currently fails to evaluate modem compelled-subsidy doctrine in terms of the original meaning of the First Amendment. This Essay takes up that task.

Approaching any question of original meaning requires a willingness to encounter a constitutional world that looks very ...


Childcare, Vulnerability, And Resilience, Meredith Johnson Harbach Jan 2019

Childcare, Vulnerability, And Resilience, Meredith Johnson Harbach

Law Faculty Publications

The question of how to provide care for America’s youngest children, and the quality of that care, is among the most vexed for family law. Despite seismic demographic shifts in work and family, childcare law and policy in the United States still operates on the assumption that childcare is the private responsibility of parents and families rather than a state concern. But this private childcare model, based on unrealistic assumptions in liberal theory and buttressed by an ascendant neoliberalism, is inadequate to today’s childcare challenges. This project confronts the inadequacies of the private childcare model. Using Martha Albertson ...


Senator Chuck Grassley And Judicial Confirmations, Carl Tobias Jan 2019

Senator Chuck Grassley And Judicial Confirmations, Carl Tobias

Law Faculty Publications

Iowa Republican Senator Chuck Grassley finished his second term as Chair of the Senate Judiciary Committee with the early January 2019 adjournment of the 115th Congress. He was the first nonlawyer to lead the august committee over almost 200 years. A core panel duty is moving judicial nominees through the confirmation process, which helps senators discharge their constitutional advice and consent responsibility. Because the Chair plays an integral role—Grassley fulfilled this obligation in a critical, albeit controversial, manner—and because his service as Chair has ended, it is crucial to evaluate how the lawmaker discharged that important responsibility.

This ...


The Internet Of Torts: Expanding Civil Liability Standards To Address Corporate Remote Interference, Rebecca Crootof Jan 2019

The Internet Of Torts: Expanding Civil Liability Standards To Address Corporate Remote Interference, Rebecca Crootof

Law Faculty Publications

Thanks to the proliferation of internet-connected devices that constitute the “Internet of Things” (“IoT”), companies can now remotely and automatically alter or deactivate household items. In addition to empowering industry at the expense of individuals, this remote interference can cause property damage and bodily injury when an otherwise operational car, alarm system, or implanted medical device abruptly ceases to function.

Even as the potential for harm escalates, contract and tort law work in tandem to shield IoT companies from liability. Exculpatory clauses limit civil remedies, IoT devices’ bundled object/service nature thwarts implied warranty claims, and contractual notice of remote ...


"Cyborg Justice" And The Risk Of Technological-Legal Lock-In, Rebecca Crootof Jan 2019

"Cyborg Justice" And The Risk Of Technological-Legal Lock-In, Rebecca Crootof

Law Faculty Publications

Although Artificial Intelligence (AI) is already of use to litigants and legal practitioners, we must be cautious and deliberate in incorporating AI into the common law judicial process. Human beings and machine systems process information and reach conclusions in fundamentally different ways, with AI being particularly ill-suited for the rule application and value balancing required of human judges. Nor will “cyborg justice”—hybrid human/AI judicial systems that attempt to marry the best of human and machine decisionmaking and minimize the drawbacks of both—be a panacea. While such systems would ideally maximize the strengths of human and machine intelligence ...


Agency: Married Women Traders Of Nantucket, 1765-1865, Mary L. Heen Jan 2019

Agency: Married Women Traders Of Nantucket, 1765-1865, Mary L. Heen

Law Faculty Publications

Before the enactment of separate property and contract rights for married women, generations of married women in seaport cities and towns conducted business as merchants, traders and shopkeepers. The first part of this article shows how private law facilitated their business activities through traditional agency law, the use of powers of attorney, trade accounts and family business networks. These arrangements, largely hidden from public view in family papers, letters, and diaries, permitted married women to enter into contracts, to buy and sell property, and to appear in court. Private law, like equity, thus provided a more flexible alternative to the ...


President Donald Trump's War On Federal Judicial Diversity, Carl Tobias Jan 2019

President Donald Trump's War On Federal Judicial Diversity, Carl Tobias

Law Faculty Publications

In Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign, the candidate promised to nominate and confirm federal judges who would possess ideologically conservative perspectives. Across President Trump's first twenty-seven months, the chief executive implemented numerous actions to effectuate his campaign pledge. Indeed, federal judicial selection may be the area in which President Trump has achieved the most substantial success throughout his first twenty-seven months in office, as many of Trump's supporters within and outside the government recognize. Nevertheless, the chief executive's achievements, principally when nominating and confirming stalwart conservatives to the appellate court bench, have imposed numerous critical detrimental ...


Rights Accretion Redux, James Gibson Jan 2019

Rights Accretion Redux, James Gibson

Law Faculty Publications

When the Intellectual Property Redux conference was first announced two or so years ago, I remember having both a positive and negative reaction. The positive reaction was, "Wow, what a great idea for a conference." The negative reaction was, "Oh man, why didn't I think of it first?" But now that I have been included, all negative thoughts have washed away.

The article I am here to revisit is Risk Aversion and Rights Accretion in Intellectual Property Law, which was published in 2007. I'm going to give a brief recap of the thesis and then tum to a ...


The Workers' Constitution, Luke Norris Jan 2019

The Workers' Constitution, Luke Norris

Law Faculty Publications

This Article argues that the National Labor Relations Act of 1935, Social Security Act of 1935, and Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 should be understood as a “workers’ constitution.” The Article tells the history of how a connected wave of social movements responded to the insecurity that wage earners faced after the Industrial Revolution and Great Depression by working with government officials to bring about federal collective bargaining rights, wage and hour legislation, and social security legislation. It argues that the statutes are tied together as a set of “small c” constitutional commitments in both their histories and theory ...


Filling The California Ninth Circuit Vacancies, Carl Tobias Jan 2019

Filling The California Ninth Circuit Vacancies, Carl Tobias

Law Faculty Publications

At President Donald Trump’s inauguration, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit faced ample vacancies that the United States Courts’ Administrative Officelabeled “judicial emergencies” because of their protracted length and its huge caseload. Recent departures by Circuit Judge Stephen Reinhardt and former Chief Judge AlexKozinski, who occupied California posts, and other jurists’ decision to change their active status mean that the circuit has five emergencies, three in California, because Trump has appointed only three nominees. The court also resolves the most filings least expeditiously.

Limited clarity about whether more judges will leave active service over Trump ...


The Enumerated-Rights Reading Of The Privileges Or Immunities Clause: A Response To Barnett And Bernick, Kurt T. Lash Jan 2019

The Enumerated-Rights Reading Of The Privileges Or Immunities Clause: A Response To Barnett And Bernick, Kurt T. Lash

Law Faculty Publications

In prior scholarship, I have argued that the historical evidence suggests that the public originally understood the Privileges or Immunities Clause as protecting enumerated constitutional rights, including (though not limited to) those rights listed in the first eight amendments, but not as protecting absolute enumerated rights such as the unenumerated right to contract protected in cases like Lochner v. New York. In a recent article, Randy Barnett and Evan Bernick canvass more than two decades of my historical work on the Fourteenth Amendment and claim that I have failed to present a persuasive argument in favor of what they call ...


Testimonial Exclusions And Religious Freedom In Early America, Jud Campbell Jan 2019

Testimonial Exclusions And Religious Freedom In Early America, Jud Campbell

Law Faculty Publications

At the end of his presidency, George Washington published a letter reflecting on the character of the nascent American republic. Later known as his Farewell Address, the letter famously warned against the dangers of domestic political parties and entangling foreign alliances. In addition, Washington extolled the foundations of a virtuous citizenry: “Of all the dispositions and habits, which lead to political prosperity,” he proclaimed, “Religion and morality are indispensable supports.” Washington then offered an example: “Let it simply be asked where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths, which ...


Rethinking The Individual In International Law, Chiara Giorgetti Jan 2019

Rethinking The Individual In International Law, Chiara Giorgetti

Law Faculty Publications

The acceptance of the individual as a subject of international law has been gradual and asymmetrical. Individuals have become international law subjects in their own rights in some international legal areas, including human rights and international criminal law. This affords individuals substantive rights and obligations, as well as procedural rights. In most legal areas, however, individuals acquired substantive rights, but not direct procedural rights. In those instances, individuals need the filter of a nationality to enforce their claim and remedy in international proceedings. This Article criticizes the nationality-based approach and argues that there are better and alternative ways to provide ...


Filling The New York Federal District Court Vacancies, Carl Tobias Jan 2019

Filling The New York Federal District Court Vacancies, Carl Tobias

Law Faculty Publications

President Donald Trump contends that federal appellate court appointments constitute his foremost success. The president and the United States Senate Grand Old Party (GOP) majority have compiled records by approving forty-eight conservative, young, accomplished, overwhelmingly Caucasian, and predominantly male, appeals court jurists. However, their appointments have exacted a toll, particularly on the ninety-four district courts around the country that must address eighty-seven open judicial positions in 677 posts.

One riveting example is New York’s multiple tribunals, which confront twelve vacancies among fifty-two court slots. The Administrative Office of the United States Courts considers nine of these openings “judicial emergencies ...


Gender Disparity In Law Review Citation Rates, Christopher A. Cotropia Jan 2018

Gender Disparity In Law Review Citation Rates, Christopher A. Cotropia

Law Faculty Publications

Gender disparity in scholarly influence – measured in terms of differential citation to academic work – has been widely documented. The weight of the evidence is that, in many fields of academic inquiry, papers authored by women receive fewer citations than papers authored by men. To investigate whether a similar gender disparity in scholarly influence exists in legal studies we analyze the impact of gender on citation to articles published in top 100 law reviews between 1990 and 2010. We find evidence of gender disparity in citation rates, but in surprising contrast to observations made in other disciplines, we observe that articles ...