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Full-Text Articles in Law

Environmental Law, Jocelyn Stacey Jan 2021

Environmental Law, Jocelyn Stacey

Faculty Publications

In commemoration of their 50th anniversary, this chapter examines the Federal Courts’ role in shaping environmental law in Canada. The chapter uses well-known environmental principles – the precautionary principle, sustainable development and access to (environmental) justice – as focal points for examining environmental law as well as the legal culture of the Federal Courts. The chapter identifies four distinct interpretive roles that the Federal Courts have ascribed to the precautionary principle and it argues that three of these roles have the potential to generate more coherent and transparent doctrine that upholds the rule of law in the environmental context. In contrast, chapter ...


Backgrounder To The Accompanying Report ‘’’Troubling Incrementalism’: Is The Canadian Pension Plan Fund Doing Enough To Advance The Transition To A Low-Carbon Economy?”, Cynthia Williams Sep 2020

Backgrounder To The Accompanying Report ‘’’Troubling Incrementalism’: Is The Canadian Pension Plan Fund Doing Enough To Advance The Transition To A Low-Carbon Economy?”, Cynthia Williams

Canada Climate Law Initiative

No abstract provided.


‘Troubling Incrementalism’: Is The Canadian Pension Plan Fund Doing Enough To Advance The Transition To A Low-Carbon Economy?, Cynthia Williams Sep 2020

‘Troubling Incrementalism’: Is The Canadian Pension Plan Fund Doing Enough To Advance The Transition To A Low-Carbon Economy?, Cynthia Williams

Canada Climate Law Initiative

The Canada Pension Plan (CPP) is one of the world’s largest public pension funds, with $409.5 billion in assets under management as of March 31, 2020. The mandate of the CPP Investment Board (CPPIB) is to manage the funds of the CPP in the best interests of Canadian Pension Plan contributors and beneficiaries, and to maximize investment returns without undue risk of loss. As CPP Investments CEO and President Mark Machin has recently observed, “our investment mandate and professional governance insulate our decision-making from short term distortions and gives us license to help shape the long-term future.” (In ...


Appellants' Opening Brief, Helen H. Kang Aug 2020

Appellants' Opening Brief, Helen H. Kang

Environmental Law and Justice Clinic

ELJC Students and Professors File an Appellate Brief Arguing that Claims for Declaratory and Mandate Relief Should Be Actionable for the Water Board’s Abdication of Duty

On August 14, 2020, the Clinic filed a brief with the Third Appellate District in the Court of Appeal in the State of California, arguing that claims alleging that the State water board violated its own regulations in issuing permits governing are actionable under state law. These permits govern more than a million acres of cropland. On behalf of a diverse coalition of clients, the Clinic documents in the brief that polluted runoff ...


Law As Scapegoat, Cary Coglianese Aug 2020

Law As Scapegoat, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Populist nationalist movements have been on the rise around the world in recent years. These movements have tapped into, and fueled, a deep anger among many members of the public. Especially in the face of stagnant or declining economic prospects—as well as expanding inequality—much anger has been directed at minorities and migrants. Politicians with authoritarian tendencies have sought to leverage such public anger by reinforcing tendencies to scapegoat others for their society’s problems. In this paper, I show that laws and regulations—like migrants—can be framed as “the other” too and made into scapegoats. With reference ...


Climate Change And The Human Rights Responsibilities Of Business Enterprises, Sara L. Seck Aug 2020

Climate Change And The Human Rights Responsibilities Of Business Enterprises, Sara L. Seck

Articles, Book Chapters, & Blogs

The causes of climate change and solutions to it are inherently tied to non-state actors, including businesses. As multinational business enterprises are at the heart of global emissions, historical and current, it is vital to understand how the attribution of climate change impacts goes beyond the responsibilities of states. The first lawsuits targeting companies have begun. Meanwhile, businesses are increasingly focused on sustainability at different levels of their organizations, including by endorsement of business responsibilities for human rights. What independent responsibilities do business enterprises have when they undertake to respect the human rights of those who are vulnerable to climate ...


The Green New Deal And Green Transitions, Nicholas Bryner Jul 2020

The Green New Deal And Green Transitions, Nicholas Bryner

All Scholarship

In February 2019, Representative Ocasio-Cortez and Senator Markey introduced a "Green New Deal" Resolution in Congress, calling for a tenyear mobilization toward action on climate change, socioeconomic inequality, and other issues. A Green New Deal--evoking the language of FDR-erapolicy--envisions a transition to a green economy that is integrated with concern for the social and economic welfare of those who are most harmed by environmental degradation and those who are most likely to be displaced by the reinvention ofU.S. infrastructure and energy systems. This Article addresses the need for engaging with regulatory transition theory in order to assess the legal ...


Incorporating Free, Prior And Informed Consent (Fpic) Into Investment Approval Processes, Kelly Dudine, Sam Szoke-Burke Jul 2020

Incorporating Free, Prior And Informed Consent (Fpic) Into Investment Approval Processes, Kelly Dudine, Sam Szoke-Burke

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Investment approval processes are the gateway through which governments set the agenda for their country’s investment environment. Yet too often these processes fail to incorporate meaningful requirements regarding participation in decision-making by Indigenous and other affected communities, increasing the risk of under-performing and conflict-ridden investments.

Enabling meaningful participation by rights holders and obtaining and maintaining their Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) throughout different investment approval processes can help governments to fulfill their legal obligations, mitigate financial and political risk, and, ultimately, attract more sustainable land-based investments.

Featuring concrete guidance and drawing on case studies from Kenya, Liberia, Mexico ...


Submission To Bonsucro Re Production Standard V5 (2019-21), Nami Patel, Sam Szoke-Burke Jul 2020

Submission To Bonsucro Re Production Standard V5 (2019-21), Nami Patel, Sam Szoke-Burke

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

In July 2020, CCSI made a formal submission to Bonsucro, an international multi-stakeholder initiative and certification scheme concerned with promoting sustainable sugar cane production. The submission formed part of consultations for Bonsucro’s draft Production Standard version 5. CCSI’s submission focused on challenges associated with implementing, and auditing for compliance with, three aspects of Bonsucro’s draft standard, namely:

  • Obtaining the free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) of Indigenous and traditional communities when establishing or expanding sugar production operations
  • Implementing transparent and participatory processes to assess, monitor, and evaluate the environmental and social impacts of new and existing projects ...


Don’T Throw Caution To The Wind: In The Green Energy Transition, Not All Critical Minerals Will Be Goldmines, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Solina Kennedy, Howard Mann Jul 2020

Don’T Throw Caution To The Wind: In The Green Energy Transition, Not All Critical Minerals Will Be Goldmines, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Solina Kennedy, Howard Mann

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

The green energy transition will be exceedingly mineral intensive. Manufacturing solar panels, wind turbine and batteries to power cleaner energies is set to significantly increase the demand for co-called “critical” minerals. Such a forecast prompts high expectations in mineral-rich countries and suggests promising opportunities for developing countries.

However, the projects to increase the primary extraction of critical minerals rest on bullish forecasts and uncertain terrain due to a number of factors explored in the paper that threaten to leave these investments obsolete and economically stranded.

Governments, international actors, and mining advocates seeking to optimize the value of green energy mineral ...


Evidence Brief: Impact Assessment And Responsible Business Conduct, Sara L. Seck, Penelope Simons, Adebayo Majekolagbe, Naiomi Metallic, Meinhard Doelle Jun 2020

Evidence Brief: Impact Assessment And Responsible Business Conduct, Sara L. Seck, Penelope Simons, Adebayo Majekolagbe, Naiomi Metallic, Meinhard Doelle

Responsible Business Conduct and Impact Assessment Law

This Evidence Brief provides a concise overview of the April 2020 report, Sara Seck et al, "Impact Assessment and Responsible Business Guidance Tools in the Extractive Sector: Implications for Human Rights, Gender and Stakeholder Engagement" (Draft Final Report for the SSHRC Knowledge Synthesis Grant: Informing Best Practices in Environmental and Impact Assessments, 13 April 2020).


Regulation Of Lobster Bait Alternatives In New England, Victoria Rosa, Read Porter Jun 2020

Regulation Of Lobster Bait Alternatives In New England, Victoria Rosa, Read Porter

Sea Grant Law Fellow Publications

No abstract provided.


Legal Requirements For Equitable Design And Implementation Of Flood Buyout Programs In Rhode Island, Sarah Friedman, Read Porter Jun 2020

Legal Requirements For Equitable Design And Implementation Of Flood Buyout Programs In Rhode Island, Sarah Friedman, Read Porter

Sea Grant Law Fellow Publications

No abstract provided.


Best Practices In Data Driven Development Planning In Mining Regions, Nicolas Maennling, Josefina Correa Jun 2020

Best Practices In Data Driven Development Planning In Mining Regions, Nicolas Maennling, Josefina Correa

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Strategic development planning has long been used by private and public sectors to guide actions that will lead to a determined goal in the medium- to long-term. The SDG framework has helped to create a common language of what development means, what the global objectives are by 2030, and how progress can be measured. With the world entering an era in which data is generated and used at an unprecedented scale, data and ICT systems should be used to better inform policy decision making and help evaluate progress to hold stakeholders accountable to their promises and performance. This report outlines ...


Mechanisms For Consultation And Free, Prior And Informed Consent In The Negotiation Of Investment Contracts, Sam Szoke-Burke, Kaitlin Y. Cordes Jun 2020

Mechanisms For Consultation And Free, Prior And Informed Consent In The Negotiation Of Investment Contracts, Sam Szoke-Burke, Kaitlin Y. Cordes

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Investor-state contracts are regularly used in low-and middle-income countries to grant concessions for land-based and natural resource investments, such as agricultural, extractive industry, forestry, or renewable energy projects. These contracts are rarely negotiated in the presence of, or with meaningful input from, the people who risk being adversely affected by the project. This practice will usually risk violating requirements for meaningful consultation, and, where applicable, free, prior and informed consent (FPIC), and is particularly concerning when the investor-state contract gives the investor company rights to lands or resources over which local communities have legitimate claims.

This article explores how consultation ...


Impact Assessment And Responsible Business Guidance Tools In The Extractive Sector: Implications For Human Rights, Gender And Stakeholder Engagement, Penelope Simons, Naiomi Metallic, Meinhard Doelle, Bayo Majekolagbe, Sara L. Seck May 2020

Impact Assessment And Responsible Business Guidance Tools In The Extractive Sector: Implications For Human Rights, Gender And Stakeholder Engagement, Penelope Simons, Naiomi Metallic, Meinhard Doelle, Bayo Majekolagbe, Sara L. Seck

Responsible Business Conduct and Impact Assessment Law

This report aims to identify RBC tools referenced in the literature as relevant and/or promoted to Canadian extractive companies operating within and outside Canada. While not appraising or pronouncing on the quality of RBC tools, we consider the different actors that promote these diverse tools and whether there is a coherent framework for the efficient and effective application of current and future tools. We focus on RBC tools on human rights, stakeholder engagement, the rights of Indigenous peoples, and the rights of women and girls. Further, we review the position of scholars on the relationship between RBC and IA.


Deploying Machine Learning For A Sustainable Future, Cary Coglianese May 2020

Deploying Machine Learning For A Sustainable Future, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

To meet the environmental challenges of a warming planet and an increasingly complex, high tech economy, government must become smarter about how it makes policies and deploys its limited resources. It specifically needs to build a robust capacity to analyze large volumes of environmental and economic data by using machine-learning algorithms to improve regulatory oversight, monitoring, and decision-making. Three challenges can be expected to drive the need for algorithmic environmental governance: more problems, less funding, and growing public demands. This paper explains why algorithmic governance will prove pivotal in meeting these challenges, but it also presents four likely obstacles that ...


California Should Lead The Nation In Controlling Agricultural Pollution, Helen H. Kang, Deborah Sivas May 2020

California Should Lead The Nation In Controlling Agricultural Pollution, Helen H. Kang, Deborah Sivas

Publications

Agricultural runoff is one of the largest sources of pollution in the nation’s waterways. In recent years, scientific journals and the media have been filled with reports of toxic algae blooms and dead zones near and far: The Everglades, Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico, Chesapeake Bay, and San Francisco Bay-Delta. Agricultural pollution also threatens public health in communities that rely on tainted groundwater. In California alone, more than a quarter million residents in largely agricultural areas are served by water systems with degraded groundwater quality.


Carryout In The Covid-19 Crisis: The Environmental Impact Of The Increased Reliance On Restaurant Carryout Materials During The World-Wide Covid-19 Pandemic, Sabrina Guice May 2020

Carryout In The Covid-19 Crisis: The Environmental Impact Of The Increased Reliance On Restaurant Carryout Materials During The World-Wide Covid-19 Pandemic, Sabrina Guice

Environmental Law Journal blog

While carryout enables restaurants to maintain a reduced stream of income amidst the COVID-19 crisis, the incidental adverse effects of carryout is unduly placed on the environment, particularly with regard to non-reusable food containers. The environmental impact of carryout during COVID-19 does not simply begin when the consumer purchases their food from a restaurant. Rather, the environmental impacts of carryout containers during COVID-19 is galvanized. The impact of carryout containers begins during production of the containers, distribution to restaurants, delivery to customers, and does not end until and unless the containers are properly disposed of and their use is maximized.


Law School News: Dennis W. Nixon: Doctor Of Laws, Honoris Causa 05-09-2020, Roger Williams University School Of Law May 2020

Law School News: Dennis W. Nixon: Doctor Of Laws, Honoris Causa 05-09-2020, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Resilience Theory And Wicked Problems, Robin Kundis Craig May 2020

Resilience Theory And Wicked Problems, Robin Kundis Craig

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

This Article posits, first, that resilience theory offers important insights into our understanding of wicked problems and, second, that to understand the value of resilience theory to wicked problems, we should start by going back to the context of Rittel’s and Webber’s 1973 delineation of the ten characteristics of a “wicked problem.” Rittel and Webber were in fact among the vanguard of researchers beginning to articulate the realization that social and ecological systems — now social-ecological systems, or SESs — do not follow the predictable and mechanistic rules of Newtonian physics. As a result, SESs do not yield, at least ...


Issuance Of The Keystone Xl Permit: Presidential Prerogative Or Presidential “Chutzpah”, Hope M. Babcock May 2020

Issuance Of The Keystone Xl Permit: Presidential Prerogative Or Presidential “Chutzpah”, Hope M. Babcock

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article uses President Trump's issuance of the Keystone XL Pipeline permit to illustrate the dangers of an imperial presidency, one in which the exercise of discretionary authority, based on neither the text of Article II of the Constitution nor a statute, will in all likelihood be unchecked by Congress, the courts, or popular opinion. To understand the dimensions of this concern, Part I of this article briefly describes the process and requirements for a presidential permit. Part II identifies key facts surrounding issuance of the Keystone XL Pipeline permit, the chronology of its issuance, and commonly given reasons ...


Concrete Production And The Regulatory Role Of The Bay Area Air Quality Management District, Golden Gate University School Of Law May 2020

Concrete Production And The Regulatory Role Of The Bay Area Air Quality Management District, Golden Gate University School Of Law

Environmental Law and Justice Clinic

On behalf of several grassroots community groups, the Environmental Law and Justice Clinic at Golden Gate University School of Law issues this report to publicize the Bay Area Air Quality Management District’s permitting and enforcement practices that insufficiently protect the public against harmful air pollution, including particulate matter (PM) and toxic air contaminants.

The Clinic’s investigation focused on the Air District’s oversight of three companies operating on Port of San Francisco-owned properties at Piers 92 and 94 in the City of San Francisco: CEMEX Construction Materials Pacific, LLC (CEMEX), Central Concrete Supply Co., Inc. (Central), and Hanson ...


California’S Draft Water Resilience Portfolio: Improving Public Health And Achieving Long Term Water Resilience Through Investments In California Water Infrastructure, Ian Harris Apr 2020

California’S Draft Water Resilience Portfolio: Improving Public Health And Achieving Long Term Water Resilience Through Investments In California Water Infrastructure, Ian Harris

Environmental Law Journal blog

With public health at the forefront of everyone’s mind, refocusing on investing in California’s aging water infrastructure presents key opportunities to provide clean, safe drinking water to all and begin to sustainably rebuild state water infrastructure resources. It is no secret that clean safe drinking water is necessary for a healthy life, nor is it a secret that significant portions of California’s water infrastructure, including distribution and transmission pipelines, water storage facilities and water treatment facilities, are well past their expiration dates. In the unfortunate wake of COVID-19, it will be critical for local and state level ...


Cercla Cleanup 2020.04.09 Response From Epa To Eljc Letter Dated Dec. 2019, United States Environmental Protection Agency Apr 2020

Cercla Cleanup 2020.04.09 Response From Epa To Eljc Letter Dated Dec. 2019, United States Environmental Protection Agency

Environmental Law and Justice Clinic - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard Documents

ELJC’s Dec. 13, 2019 letter commented on EPA’s November 15 letter to the Navy regarding the Navy's draft evaluation of radiological soil remediation goals at HPNS. This is EPA’s response to the four concerns identified in that letter: consideration of the risk posed by homegrown produce; lack of health based support for remediation goal for radium-226; retesting’s use of methods to adequately detect pollution; and, the Navy’s repeated unfounded statements to the public that the remediation goals are protective.


Legal Limits On Recreational Fishing Near Offshore Wind Facilities, Kaitlynn Webster, Read Porter Apr 2020

Legal Limits On Recreational Fishing Near Offshore Wind Facilities, Kaitlynn Webster, Read Porter

Sea Grant Law Fellow Publications

No abstract provided.


Using Citizen Suits To Remedy Environmental Injustice And Achieve Clean Water In California, Paul Kneitz Apr 2020

Using Citizen Suits To Remedy Environmental Injustice And Achieve Clean Water In California, Paul Kneitz

Poverty Law Conference & Symposium

Nearly fifty years since the passage of the Clean Water Act (“CWA”) in 1972, widespread pollution of California’s surface and groundwater continues across the state. “Over half of California’s lakes, bays, wetlands, and estuaries are too polluted to swim, drink, or fish,” according to the State Water Resources Control Board. Poor and working-class communities suffer disproportionately from the negative externalities and environmental impacts of water pollution, including effects on human health and wellness.

With a focus on the CWA citizen suit provision, this paper examines how the legal and administrative processes for water pollution control have not effectively ...


Authority For Municipal Resilient Road Infrastructure Funding Strategies In Rhode Island, Jimmy Smith, Read Porter Apr 2020

Authority For Municipal Resilient Road Infrastructure Funding Strategies In Rhode Island, Jimmy Smith, Read Porter

Sea Grant Law Fellow Publications

No abstract provided.


Changing Consultation, Elizabeth Kronk Warner, Kathy Lynn, Kyle Whyte Apr 2020

Changing Consultation, Elizabeth Kronk Warner, Kathy Lynn, Kyle Whyte

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

As climate change and fossil fuel extractive industries ravage Indian country and burden many Indigenous communities with risks, the negative impacts on tribal sovereignty, health, and cultural resources demand consultation between tribes and the federal government. Yet, this is an area where the law fails to provide adequate guidance to parties who should be engaging or are already engaging in tribal consultations. The law, both domestic and international, may require that consultation occurs, but leaves parties to determine themselves what constitutes effective and efficient consultation. The legacy of the law’s inability to provide effective guidance has generated a litany ...


Cities And Citizens Seethe: A Case Study Of Local Efforts To Influence Natural Gas Pipeline Routing Decisions, Heidi Gorovitz Robertson Apr 2020

Cities And Citizens Seethe: A Case Study Of Local Efforts To Influence Natural Gas Pipeline Routing Decisions, Heidi Gorovitz Robertson

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This Article explores the reasons local governments find difficulty influencing pipeline-routing decisions. For example, federal law controls interstate natural gas pipeline permitting, which is complicated and inaccessible. State law, particularly in Ohio, heavily favors utilities, in part by preempting local efforts to make local decisions regarding oil and gas development. Finally, the information gaps are enormous between what local governments need to influence pipeline-routing decisions and what is accessible.

This Article addresses barriers to local influence by discussing the efforts of citizens and local governments to influence the routing of NexusSpectra's natural gas transmission pipeline, which was recently constructed ...