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Cosmology, Relativity, and Gravity Commons

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All Articles in Cosmology, Relativity, and Gravity

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Regional Distribution Of Mesospheric Small‐Scale Gravity Waves During Deepwave, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, S. D. Eckermann, Neal R. Criddle 2019 Utah State University

Regional Distribution Of Mesospheric Small‐Scale Gravity Waves During Deepwave, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, S. D. Eckermann, Neal R. Criddle

Publications

The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment project took place in June and July 2014 in New Zealand. Its overarching goal was to study gravity waves (GWs) as they propagate from the ground up to ~100 km, with a large number of ground‐based, airborne, and satellite instruments, combined with numerical forecast models. A suite of three mesospheric airglow imagers operated onboard the NSF Gulfstream V (GV) aircraft during 25 nighttime flights, recording the GW activity at OH altitude over a large region (>7,000,000 km2). Analysis of this data set reveals the distribution of the small‐scale GW mean power …


Hierarchical Structure Formation In The Sdss Eboss Ly-Alpha Forests, Devin Becker 2019 DePaul University

Hierarchical Structure Formation In The Sdss Eboss Ly-Alpha Forests, Devin Becker

DePaul Discoveries

In this study, we examine hierarchical structure at large redshifts utilizing Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Lyman-alpha forest data. Lyman-alpha forests are absorption lines in the spectrum of quasars that serve as tracers for clouds of primordial hydrogen. These data serve as a 1-dimensional probe of the matter density field at high redshift. Using a measure sensitive to hierarchical structure formation assembled around a discrete wavelet transform, we were able to detect hierarchical structure formation in the spectrum of every quasar studied. The nature of the hierarchy seems to pertain to two forms: one that is constant across all scales, …


What Do We Know About Lorentz Symmetry?, Q. G. Bailey 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

What Do We Know About Lorentz Symmetry?, Q. G. Bailey

Quentin Bailey

Precision tests of Lorentz symmetry have become increasingly of interest to the broader gravitational and high-energy physics communities. In this talk, recent work on violations of local Lorentz invariance in gravity is discussed, including recent analysis constraining Lorentz violation in a variety of gravitational tests. The arena of short-range tests of gravity is highlighted, demonstrating that such tests are sensitive to a broad class of unexplored signals that depend on sidereal time and the geometry of the experiment.


Test Particle Motion Around Brany Black Hole Immersed In An External Asymptotically Uniform Magnetic Field, Djavlanbek Rayimbaev, Azamjon Rakhmatov, Satimbay Palvanov, Ahror Mamadjanov 2019 Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute

Test Particle Motion Around Brany Black Hole Immersed In An External Asymptotically Uniform Magnetic Field, Djavlanbek Rayimbaev, Azamjon Rakhmatov, Satimbay Palvanov, Ahror Mamadjanov

Bulletin of National University of Uzbekistan: Mathematics and Natural Sciences

We investigate circular motion of charged and neutral particles around non-rotating black hole immersed in an external asymptotically uniform magnetic field. The effects of braneworlds on innermost circular stable orbits have been considered. Shown that innermost circular orbits (ISCO) decreases in decreasence of both brane charge and particle charge. Moreover, we have investigated energy extraction from black holes in braneworld through collision of two particles. Obtained that the presence of the brane charge parameter causes to decrease of the value of center of mass energy of colliding two charged particles, it means the brane charge acts as an additional gravity.


Propagation Of A Short Grb Jet In The Ejecta: Jet Launching Delay Time, Jet Structure, And Gw170817/Grb 170817a, Jin-Jun Geng, Bing Zhang, Anders Kölligan, Rolf Kuiper, Yong-Feng Huang 2019 Nanjing University

Propagation Of A Short Grb Jet In The Ejecta: Jet Launching Delay Time, Jet Structure, And Gw170817/Grb 170817a, Jin-Jun Geng, Bing Zhang, Anders Kölligan, Rolf Kuiper, Yong-Feng Huang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Research

We perform a series of relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations to investigate how a hot magnetic jet propagates within the dynamical ejecta of a binary neutron star merger, focusing on how the jet structure depends on the delay time of jet launching with respect to the merger time, Δt jet. We find that regardless of the jet-launching delay time, a structured jet with an angle-dependent luminosity and Lorentz factor is always formed after the jet breaks out of the ejecta. On the other hand, the jet-launching delay time has an impact on the jet structure. If the jet-launching delay time is relatively …


A Tight Relation Between Spiral Arm Pitch Angle And Protplanetary Disk Mass, Si-Yue Yu, Luis C. Ho, Zhaohuan Zhu 2019 Peking University

A Tight Relation Between Spiral Arm Pitch Angle And Protplanetary Disk Mass, Si-Yue Yu, Luis C. Ho, Zhaohuan Zhu

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Research

We use two-dimensional Fourier transformation to measure the pitch angle () of the dominant spiral Fourier mode of well-defined spiral arms in 13 protoplanetary disks, making use of near-infrared scattered-light images of AB Aur, SAO 206462, MWC 758, V1247 Ori, HD 142527, DZ Cha, LkHα 330, and HD 100453, and ALMA millimeter continuum images of Elias 2-27, IM Lup, AS 205, and HT Lup. We find that the measured pitch angle correlates strongly with disk mass (M D ), such that more massive protoplanetary disks have smaller pitch angles, following . Interestingly, four disks with a known companion (HD 142527, …


Cosmology-Independent Estimate Of The Fraction Of Baryon Mass In The Igm From Fast Radio Burst Observations, Zhengxiang Li, He Gao, Jun-Jie Wei, Yuan-Pei Yang, Bing Zhang, Zong-Hong Zhu 2019 Beijing Normal University

Cosmology-Independent Estimate Of The Fraction Of Baryon Mass In The Igm From Fast Radio Burst Observations, Zhengxiang Li, He Gao, Jun-Jie Wei, Yuan-Pei Yang, Bing Zhang, Zong-Hong Zhu

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Research

The excessive dispersion measure (DM) of fast radio bursts (FRBs) has been proposed to be a powerful tool to study intergalactic medium (IGM) and to perform cosmography. One issue is that the fraction of baryons in the IGM, f IGM, is not properly constrained. Here, we propose a method of estimating f IGM using a putative sample of FRBs with the measurements of both DM and luminosity distance d L. The latter can be obtained if the FRB is associated with a distance indicator (e.g., a gamma-ray burst or a gravitational-wave event), or the redshift z of the FRB is …


A 3+1 Decomposition Of The Minimal Standard-Model Extension Gravitational Sector, Nils A. Nilsson, Kellie O'Neal-Ault, Quentin G. Bailey 2019 National Centre for Nuclear Research (Poland)

A 3+1 Decomposition Of The Minimal Standard-Model Extension Gravitational Sector, Nils A. Nilsson, Kellie O'Neal-Ault, Quentin G. Bailey

Publications

The 3+1 (ADM) formulation of General Relativity is used in, for example, canonical quantum gravity and numerical relativity. Here we present a 3+1 decomposition of the minimal Standard-Model Extension gravity Lagrangian. By choosing the leaves of foliation to lie along a timelike vector field we write the theory in a form which will allow for comparison and matching to other gravity models.


Recent Developments In Spacetime-Symmetry Tests In Gravity, Q. G. Bailey 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Recent Developments In Spacetime-Symmetry Tests In Gravity, Q. G. Bailey

Publications

Motivated by potentially detectable but minuscule signatures from Planckscale or other new physics, there has been a substantial increase in tests of spacetime symmetry in gravity in recent years. Some novel hypothetical effects that break local Lorentz symmetry and CPT symmetry in gravitational experiments as well as solar system and astrophysical observations have been studied in recent works. Much of this work uses the effective field theory framework, the Standard-Model Extension (SME), that includes gravitational couplings. In other cases, the parameters in specific hypothetical models of Lorentz violation in gravity have been tested.


Testing The Gravitational Weak Equivalence Principle In The Standard-Model Extension With Binary Pulsars, Lijing Shao, Quentin G. Bailey 2019 Peking University

Testing The Gravitational Weak Equivalence Principle In The Standard-Model Extension With Binary Pulsars, Lijing Shao, Quentin G. Bailey

Publications

The standard model extension provides a framework to systematically investigate possible violation of the Lorentz symmetry. Concerning gravity, the linearized version was extensively examined. We here cast the first set of experimental bounds on the nonlinear terms in the field equation from the anisotropic cubic curvature couplings. These terms introduce body-dependent accelerations for self-gravitating objects, thus violating the gravitational weak equivalence principle (GWEP). Novel phenomena, which are absent in the linearized gravity, remain experimentally unexplored. We constrain them with precise binary-orbit measurements from pulsar timing, wherein the high density and large compactness of neutron stars are crucial for the test. …


Dark Halos: The Windowed Power Spectrum, David Coria 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Dark Halos: The Windowed Power Spectrum, David Coria

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Today, it is believed that approximately 80 percent of the matter that comprises the universe takes the form of dark matter--a theorized substance that interacts with “normal” baryonic matter mostly through gravitational force. Through gravitation, dark matter creates potential wells that determine the motion of stars inside galaxies and galaxies inside galaxy clusters. Dark matter accumulates and forms roughly spherical structures called “dark halos”. Most galaxies and groups of galaxies are located inside such halos. Visible matter tends to cluster inside these halos because of the higher accumulation of dark matter and deeper gravitational wells. The power spectrum is obtained …


Taller In The Saddle: Constraining Cmb Physics Using Saddle Points, Jow L. Dylan, Dagoberto Contreras, Douglas Scott, Emory F. Bunn 2019 University of Richmond

Taller In The Saddle: Constraining Cmb Physics Using Saddle Points, Jow L. Dylan, Dagoberto Contreras, Douglas Scott, Emory F. Bunn

Physics Faculty Publications

The statistics of extremal points in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature (hot and cold spots) have been well explored in the literature, and have been used to constrain models of the early Universe. Here, we extend the study of critical points in the CMB to the set that remains after removing extrema, namely the saddle points. We perform stacks of temperature and polarization about temperature saddle points in simulations of the CMB, as well as in data from the Plancksatellite. We then compute the theoretical profile of saddle-point stacks, given the underlying power spectra of the CMB. As an …


From Big Science To “Deep Science”, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto 2019 University of New Mexico

From Big Science To “Deep Science”, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto

Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

The Standard Model of particle physics has accomplished a great deal including the discovery of Higgs boson in 2012. However, since the supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model has not been successful so far, some physicists are asking what alternative deeper theory could be beyond the Standard Model? This article discusses the relationship between mathematics and physical reality and explores the ways to go from Big Science to “Deep Science”.


A Complete Analytic Gravitational Wave Model For Undergraduates, Dillon Buskirk, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton 2019 Marshall University

A Complete Analytic Gravitational Wave Model For Undergraduates, Dillon Buskirk, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton

Physics Faculty Research

Gravitational waves are produced by orbiting massive binary objects, such as black holes and neutron stars, and propagate as ripples in the very fabric of space-time. As the waves carry off orbital energy, the two bodies spiral into each other and eventually merge. They are described by Einstein's equations of general relativity. For the early phase of the orbit, called the inspiral, Einstein equations can be linearised and solved through analytical approximations, while for the late phase, near the merger, we need to solve the fully nonlinear Einstein's equations on supercomputers. In order to recover the gravitational wave for the …


Gwtc-1: A Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog Of Compact Binary Mergers Observed By Ligo And Virgo During The First And Second Observing Runs, B. P. Abbott 2019 LIGO, California Institute of Technology

Gwtc-1: A Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog Of Compact Binary Mergers Observed By Ligo And Virgo During The First And Second Observing Runs, B. P. Abbott

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

We present the results from three gravitational-wave searches for coalescing compact binaries with component masses above 1 M⊙ during the first and second observing runs of the advanced gravitationalwave detector network. During the first observing run (O1), from September 12, 2015 to January 19, 2016, gravitational waves from three binary black hole mergers were detected. The second observing run (O2), which ran from November 30, 2016 to August 25, 2017, saw the first detection of gravitational waves from a binary neutron star inspiral, in addition to the observation of gravitational waves from a total of seven binary black hole mergers, …


Determination Of Multi-Messenger Signals From Matter Outflows Of Merger Systems, Ronny Nguyen 2019 UNH Department of Physics

Determination Of Multi-Messenger Signals From Matter Outflows Of Merger Systems, Ronny Nguyen

Honors Theses and Capstones

In 2017, LIGO detected gravitational waves from GW170817. This presented for the first time, gravitational waves originating from a neutron star - neutron star merger. Studies of neutron star mergers are significant because the multi-messenger signals in the form of gravitational waves and electromagnetic waves can inform us on the nuclear physics of neutron stars and the creation of heavy elements in the universe. Matter is ejected in the merging process and forms the outflow which provides a neutron-rich environment for rapid neutron capture (r-process) to occur leading to the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements. What we detect on Earth are …


On The New Concept Creatio Ex-Rotatione, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto 2019 University of New Mexico

On The New Concept Creatio Ex-Rotatione, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto

Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

It is known that the Big Bang theory was based on the concept of creation ex nihilo, after ancient Greek philosophers. In this paper, we discuss the concept of creatio ex nihilo, as well as two other approaches - Intelligent Design and Emergence Theory. We argue that beside the above three approaches, a new concept called creatio ex-rotatione offers a resolution to the long standing disputes between beginning and eternity of the Universe. We agree with Vaas: [h]ow a conceptual and perhaps physical solution of the temporal aspect of Immanuel Kant’s “first antinomy of pure reason” is possible, i.e., how …


Integrable Cosmological Model With Van Der Waals Gas And Matter Creation, Rossen Ivanov, Emil Prodanov 2019 Technological University Dublin

Integrable Cosmological Model With Van Der Waals Gas And Matter Creation, Rossen Ivanov, Emil Prodanov

Articles

A cosmological model with van der Waals gas and dust has been studied in the context of a three-component autonomous non-linear dynamical system involving the time evolution of the particle number density, the Hubble parameter and the temperature. Due to the presence of a symmetry of the model, the temperature evolution law is determined (in terms of the particle number density) and with this the dynamical system reduces to a two-component one which is fully integrable. The globally conserved Hamiltonian is identified and, in addition to it, some special (second) integrals, defined and conserved on a lower-dimensional manifold, are found. …


A Few Calculations Of Receding Moon From Spherical Kinetic Dynamics, Receding Planetary Orbits, And The Quantization Of Celestial Motions, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd 2019 University of New Mexico

A Few Calculations Of Receding Moon From Spherical Kinetic Dynamics, Receding Planetary Orbits, And The Quantization Of Celestial Motions, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd

Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

The present article discusses some interesting phenomena including the Lense-Thirring type anomalous precession, using a known spherical kinetic dynamics approach. Other implications include a plausible revised version of the celestial quantization equation described by Nottale and Rubcic & Rubcic. If the proposition described herein corresponds to the facts, then this kinetic dynamics interpretation of ‘frame-dragging’ effect could be viewed as a step to unification between GTR-type phenomena and QM. Further observation to verify or refute this conjecture is recommended, plausibly using LAGEOS type satellites.


What Causes Black Holes To Spin?, Mac B. Selesnick 2019 Bard College

What Causes Black Holes To Spin?, Mac B. Selesnick

Senior Projects Spring 2019

Black holes are recently at the cutting edge of cosmological and astrophysical research. Both experiment and theory are leading to surprising conclusions on the physical properties of black holes and their affects on space and time. In this project, I set out to explore the origin and mechanics of a black hole's spin, that is, its internal angular momentum. What causes a black hole to spin in the first place is rich and nuanced. In order to make this project accessible and focused I explore the process of a minor merger, a collision between two black holes, one large and …


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