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Antibody Responses Elicited By Dna Prime-Protein Boost Hiv Vaccines: A Dissertation, Michael Vaine 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Antibody Responses Elicited By Dna Prime-Protein Boost Hiv Vaccines: A Dissertation, Michael Vaine

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The best known correlate of protection provided by vaccines is the presence of pathogen specific antibodies after immunization. However, against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) the mere presence of antibodies specific for the viral Envelope (Env) protein is not sufficient to provide protection. This necessitates in depth study of the humoral responses elicited during infection and by vaccination. While a significant amount of effort has been invested in studying the evolution of antibody responses to viral infection, only limited progress in understanding antibody responses elicited through vaccination has been made. In the studies described here, I attempt to rectify this ...


A Gis Analysis Of The Environmental Variables Related To Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks, Jacqueline Florette Jackson 2010 Old Dominion University

A Gis Analysis Of The Environmental Variables Related To Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks, Jacqueline Florette Jackson

Health Services Research Dissertations

Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne disease that causes widespread febrile illness and mortality in domestic animals as well as humans (Gaff, 2007). Rift Valley fever virus was first isolated in 1931 (Daubney, 1931), and since then, outbreaks have occurred in sub-Saharan Africa, southern Africa, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Madagascar, proving it to be a virus able to invade ecologically diverse regions (Gaff, 2007). The potential introduction of Rift Valley fever into the United States suggests the potential for human infection and major economic disruption. It is important to understand the role environmental variables have played in historical outbreaks ...


Practice Notes: Strategies In Health Education, Lisa D. Lieberman 2010 Montclair State University

Practice Notes: Strategies In Health Education, Lisa D. Lieberman

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Objective: The purpose of the Be Red Cross Ready Community Outreach Project (BRCR) was to train health education students to provide high-quality, theory-driven community preparedness education in a community on the U.S.-Mexico border. This aim was achieved through an innovative partnership between a community organization, a federal research center, and a university. The ultimate goal of the project was to increase disaster and emergency preparation to protect, promote, and preserve the health of the public.


An Intervention To Reduce Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Improves Pregnancy Outcomes, Ayman El-Mohandes, Michele Kiely, Susan M. Blake, Marie G. Gantz, M. Nabil El-Khorazaty 2010 CUNY School of Public Health

An Intervention To Reduce Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Improves Pregnancy Outcomes, Ayman El-Mohandes, Michele Kiely, Susan M. Blake, Marie G. Gantz, M. Nabil El-Khorazaty

Publications and Research

Objective—We tested the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention in reducing environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETSE) and improving pregnancy outcomes among African-American women.

Methods—We recruited 1,044 women to a randomized controlled trial during 2001-2004 in Washington, DC. Data on 691 women with self-reported ETSE were analyzed. A subset of 520 ETSE women and salivary cotinine levels (SCLs)/ml was also analyzed. Individually tailored counseling sessions adapted from evidence-based interventions for ETSE and other risks, were delivered to the intervention group. The usual care group received routine prenatal care as determined by their provider. Logistic regression models were used ...


The Responsibility To Protect Haiti, Linda A. Malone 2010 William & Mary Law School

The Responsibility To Protect Haiti, Linda A. Malone

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Development Of The Lung Function Questionnaire (Lfq) To Identify Airflow Obstruction, Barbara P. Yawn, Douglas W. Mapel, David M. Mannino, Fernando J. Martinez, James F. Donohue, Nicola A. Hanania, Mark Kosinski, Regina Rendas-Baum, Matthew Mintz, Steven Samuels, Anand A. Dalal 2010 Baylor College of Medicine

Development Of The Lung Function Questionnaire (Lfq) To Identify Airflow Obstruction, Barbara P. Yawn, Douglas W. Mapel, David M. Mannino, Fernando J. Martinez, James F. Donohue, Nicola A. Hanania, Mark Kosinski, Regina Rendas-Baum, Matthew Mintz, Steven Samuels, Anand A. Dalal

David M. Mannino

Objective:

To describe the item-selection and item-reduction for the Lung Function Questionnaire (LFQ), being developed to help clinicians identify patients appropriate for diagnostic evaluation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using spirometry.

Methods:

Item selection and reduction were based on information from 387 ≥40-year-old respondents to the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had self-reported chronic bronchitis. Item reduction involved stepwise logistic regression. The accuracy of the final subset of items for identifying individuals with airflow obstruction (forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity <0.70) versus those without it was assessed with receiver operating characteristic analysis. Content and face validity were assessed using focus groups of primary care physicians (n = 16) and interviews with COPD patients (n = 16).

Results:

The model with all five items (age; smoking history; the presence ...


Cytotoxicity Of Bacterial-Derived Toxins To Immortal Lung Epithelial And Macrophage Cells, Dianne E. Peterson, Jayne M. Collier, Matthew E. Katterman, Rachel A. Turner, Mark R. Riley 2010 University of Arizona, Tucson

Cytotoxicity Of Bacterial-Derived Toxins To Immortal Lung Epithelial And Macrophage Cells, Dianne E. Peterson, Jayne M. Collier, Matthew E. Katterman, Rachel A. Turner, Mark R. Riley

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Health risks associated with inhalation and deposition of biological materials have been a topic of great concern due to highly publicized cases of inhalation anthrax, of new regulations on the release of particulate matter, and to increased concerns on the hazards of indoor air pollution. Here, we present an evaluation of the sensitivity of two immortal cell lines (A549, human lung carcinoma epithelia) and NR8383 (rat alveolar macrophages) to a variety of bacterial-derived inhalation hazards and simulants including etoposide, gliotoxin, streptolysin O, and warfarin. The cell response is evaluated through quantification of changes in mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity, release of ...


Preventing Copd: Evidence Of Progress, David M. Mannino 2010 University of Kentucky Medical Center

Preventing Copd: Evidence Of Progress, David M. Mannino

David M. Mannino

Comment on

Trends in hospitalization with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-United States, 1990-2005. [COPD. 2010]

Trends in mortality from COPD in selected U.S. States differing in tobacco control efforts. [COPD. 2010]


Health-Related Quality Of Life And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease In North Carolina, David W. Brown, Roy Pleasants, Jill A. Ohar, Monica Kraft, James F. Donohue, David M. Mannino, Winston Liao, Harry Herric 2010 University of Kentucky Medical Center

Health-Related Quality Of Life And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease In North Carolina, David W. Brown, Roy Pleasants, Jill A. Ohar, Monica Kraft, James F. Donohue, David M. Mannino, Winston Liao, Harry Herric

David M. Mannino

Background:

Comparisons of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and adults in the general population are not well described.

Aims:

To examine associations between COPD and four measures of HRQOL in a population-based sample.

Patients & Methods:

These relationships were examined using data from 13,887 adults aged >18 years who participated in the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) conducted in North Carolina (NC). Logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted relative odds (aOR).

Results:

The age-adjusted prevalence of COPD among NC adults was 5.4% (standard error 0.27). Nearly half of adults with COPD reported fair/poor health compared with 15% of those without the condition (age-aOR, 5.5; 95% confidence interval [ CI] , 4.4 to 6.8). On average, adults with COPD reported twice as many unhealthy days (physical/mental) as those without the condition. The age-adjusted prevalence of >14 unhealthy days during the prior 30 days was 45% for adults with COPD and 17% for those without. The aOR of >14 unhealthy days was 1 ...


Addressing Cancer Health Disparities Using A Global Biopsychosocial Approach, Denae W. King 2010 Texas Southern University

Addressing Cancer Health Disparities Using A Global Biopsychosocial Approach, Denae W. King

Denae W King

The Center for Research on Minority Health has translated the biopsychosocial framework to address global cancer health disparities through the integration of biological (eg, endogenous steroids, genetic susceptibility, and pesticide levels) and behavioral (eg, dietary interventions) determinants, along with community-based research (eg, comprehensive involvement of community advisory boards) and educational approaches (eg, kindergarten through postgraduate training). Evidence of successful implementation of this framework includes health disparities training for >2000 individuals ranging from elementary to the postgraduate level, and conducting transdisciplinary projects that incorporate traditional and nontraditional health professionals to examine associations between biological and nonbiological determinants of health. Examples and ...


A Bland–Altman Comparison Of The Lead Care® System And Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry For Detecting Low-Level Lead In Child Whole Blood Samples, Christina Sobin, Tanner Schaub, Natali Parisi, Eva de la Riva 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

A Bland–Altman Comparison Of The Lead Care® System And Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry For Detecting Low-Level Lead In Child Whole Blood Samples, Christina Sobin, Tanner Schaub, Natali Parisi, Eva De La Riva

Christina Sobin, Ph.D.

Chronic childhood lead exposure, yielding blood lead levels consistently below 10 μg/dL, remains a major public health concern. Low neurotoxic effect thresholds have not yet been established. Progress requires accurate, efficient, and cost-effective methods for testing large numbers of children. The LeadCare® System (LCS) may provide one ready option. The comparability of this system to the “gold standard” method of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the purpose of detecting blood lead levels below 10 μg/dL has not yet been examined. Paired blood samples from 177 children ages 5.2–12.8 years were tested with LCS ...


Environmental Valuation: The Sum Of Specific Damages Approach, PHILIP E. GRAVES 2010 University of Colorado at Boulder

Environmental Valuation: The Sum Of Specific Damages Approach, Philip E. Graves

PHILIP E GRAVES

There is no abstract for this book chapter.


Short-Term Variation In Near-Highway Air Pollutant Gradients On A Winter Morning, Ezra Wood, J. Durant, C. Ash, S. Herndon, J. Jayne, W. Knighton, M. Canagaratna, J. Trull, D. Brugge, W. Zamore, C. Kolb 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Short-Term Variation In Near-Highway Air Pollutant Gradients On A Winter Morning, Ezra Wood, J. Durant, C. Ash, S. Herndon, J. Jayne, W. Knighton, M. Canagaratna, J. Trull, D. Brugge, W. Zamore, C. Kolb

Public Health Department Faculty Publication Series

Quantification of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants near highways is hampered by incomplete knowledge of the scales of temporal variation of pollutant gradients. The goal of this study was to characterize short-term temporal variation of vehicular pollutant gradients within 200–400 m of a major highway (>150 000 vehicles/d). Monitoring was done near Interstate 93 in Somerville (Massachusetts) from 06:00 to 11:00 on 16 January 2008 using a mobile monitoring platform equipped with instruments that measured ultrafine and fine particles (6–1000 nm, particle number concentration (PNC)); particle-phase (>30 nm) equation M1, equation M2, and organic compounds ...


Investigation Of The Correlation Between Odd Oxygen And Secondary Organic Aerosol In Mexico City And Houston, Ezra Wood, M. Canagaratna, S. Herndon, J. Kroll, T. Onasch, C. Kolb, D. Worsnop, W. Knighton, R. Seila, M. Zavala, L. Molina, P. DeCarlo, J. Jimenez, A. Weinheimer, D. Knapp, B. Jobson, J. Stutz, W. Kuster, E. Williams 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Investigation Of The Correlation Between Odd Oxygen And Secondary Organic Aerosol In Mexico City And Houston, Ezra Wood, M. Canagaratna, S. Herndon, J. Kroll, T. Onasch, C. Kolb, D. Worsnop, W. Knighton, R. Seila, M. Zavala, L. Molina, P. Decarlo, J. Jimenez, A. Weinheimer, D. Knapp, B. Jobson, J. Stutz, W. Kuster, E. Williams

Public Health Department Faculty Publication Series

Many recent models underpredict secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particulate matter (PM) concentrations in polluted regions, indicating serious deficiencies in the models' chemical mechanisms and/or missing SOA precursors. Since tropospheric photochemical ozone production is much better understood, we investigate the correlation of odd-oxygen ([Ox]≡[O3]+[NO2]) and the oxygenated component of organic aerosol (OOA), which is interpreted as a surrogate for SOA. OOA and Ox measured in Mexico City in 2006 and Houston in 2000 were well correlated in air masses where both species were formed on similar timescales (less than 8 h) and not well correlated when their formation ...


Application Of Quantum Cascade Lasers To High-Precision Atmospheric Trace Gas Measurements, Ezra Wood, J. Barry McManus, Mark Zahniser, David Nelson, Joanne Shorter, Scott Herndon, Rick Wehr 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Application Of Quantum Cascade Lasers To High-Precision Atmospheric Trace Gas Measurements, Ezra Wood, J. Barry Mcmanus, Mark Zahniser, David Nelson, Joanne Shorter, Scott Herndon, Rick Wehr

Public Health Department Faculty Publication Series

We review our recent results in development of high-precision laser spectroscopic instrumentation using midinfrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). Some of these instruments have been directed at measurements of atmospheric trace gases where a fractional precision of 10−3 or better of ambient concentration may be required. Such high precision is needed in measurements of fluxes of stable atmospheric gases and measurements of isotopic ratios. Instruments that are based on thermoelectrically cooled midinfrared QCLs and thermoelectrically cooled detectors have been demonstrated that meet the requirements of high-precision atmospheric measurements, without the need for cryogens. We also describe the design of and ...


Application Of Positive Matrix Factorization To On-Road Measurements For Source Apportionment Of Diesel- And Gasoline-Powered Vehicle Emissions In Mexico City, Ezra Wood, D. Thornhill, A. Williams, T. Onasch, S. Herndon, C. Kolb, W. Knighton, M. Zavala, L. Molina, L. Marr 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Application Of Positive Matrix Factorization To On-Road Measurements For Source Apportionment Of Diesel- And Gasoline-Powered Vehicle Emissions In Mexico City, Ezra Wood, D. Thornhill, A. Williams, T. Onasch, S. Herndon, C. Kolb, W. Knighton, M. Zavala, L. Molina, L. Marr

Public Health Department Faculty Publication Series

The goal of this research is to quantify diesel- and gasoline-powered motor vehicle emissions within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) using on-road measurements captured by a mobile laboratory combined with positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor modeling. During the MCMA-2006 ground-based component of the MILAGRO field campaign, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML) measured many gaseous and particulate pollutants, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), benzene, toluene, alkylated aromatics, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, ammonia, particle number, fine particulate mass (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC). These serve as inputs to the receptor model, which is able to resolve three ...


Pollution And Public Health In A Shrinking World: Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations As A Paradigm For Emergent Needs In Environmental And Public Health Policy, Leland Stillman 2010 Connecticut College

Pollution And Public Health In A Shrinking World: Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations As A Paradigm For Emergent Needs In Environmental And Public Health Policy, Leland Stillman

Self-Designed Majors Honors Papers

Environmental factors play a major part in human health. Environmental pollutants are often as poisonous to humans as the environment. Presently, much time and energy is dedicated to keeping pollution apart from human society, with varying success. But as global population densities rise, current levels of pollution will become inviable due to public health concerns. An emergent example of this is in the concentration of livestock operations. Recent changes in the structure of U.S. hog farming have resulted in an industry-wide shift from small or medium production farms to high capacity, “concentrated animal feeding operations” (CAFO). These operations have ...


Application Of Positive Matrix Factorization To On-Road Measurements For Source Apportionment Of Diesel- And Gasoline-Powered Vehicle Emissions In Mexico City, Ezra Wood, D. A. Thornhill, A. E. Williams, T. B. Onasch, S. C. Herndon, C. E. Kolb, W. B. Knighton, M. Zavala, L. T. Molina, L. C. Marr 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Application Of Positive Matrix Factorization To On-Road Measurements For Source Apportionment Of Diesel- And Gasoline-Powered Vehicle Emissions In Mexico City, Ezra Wood, D. A. Thornhill, A. E. Williams, T. B. Onasch, S. C. Herndon, C. E. Kolb, W. B. Knighton, M. Zavala, L. T. Molina, L. C. Marr

Ezra Wood

The goal of this research is to quantify diesel- and gasoline-powered motor vehicle emissions within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) using on-road measurements captured by a mobile laboratory combined with positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor modeling. During the MCMA-2006 ground-based component of the MILAGRO field campaign, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML) measured many gaseous and particulate pollutants, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), benzene, toluene, alkylated aromatics, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, ammonia, particle number, fine particulate mass (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC). These serve as inputs to the receptor model, which is able to resolve three ...


Short-Term Variation In Near-Highway Air Pollutant Gradients On A Winter Morning, Ezra Wood, J. L. Durant, C. A. Ash, S. C. Herndon, J. T. Jayne, W. B. Knighton, M. R. Canagaratna, J. B. Trull, D. Brugge, W. Zamore, C. E. Kolb 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Short-Term Variation In Near-Highway Air Pollutant Gradients On A Winter Morning, Ezra Wood, J. L. Durant, C. A. Ash, S. C. Herndon, J. T. Jayne, W. B. Knighton, M. R. Canagaratna, J. B. Trull, D. Brugge, W. Zamore, C. E. Kolb

Ezra Wood

Quantification of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants near highways is hampered by incomplete knowledge of the scales of temporal variation of pollutant gradients. The goal of this study was to characterize short-term temporal variation of vehicular pollutant gradients within 200–400 m of a major highway (>150 000 vehicles/d). Monitoring was done near Interstate 93 in Somerville (Massachusetts) from 06:00 to 11:00 on 16 January 2008 using a mobile monitoring platform equipped with instruments that measured ultrafine and fine particles (6–1000 nm, particle number concentration (PNC)); particle-phase (>30 nm) equation M1, equation M2, and organic compounds ...


Southern Lagoon And Village Of Gales Point, Belize, Ca: Water Uses, Water Quality, And Potential Health Impacts, Rasmi Nair, Ritchie Taylor 2010 Western Kentucky University

Southern Lagoon And Village Of Gales Point, Belize, Ca: Water Uses, Water Quality, And Potential Health Impacts, Rasmi Nair, Ritchie Taylor

Impact Belize

An International Health Service Learning Program, Impact Belize 2010, was conducted by Western Kentucky University. Faculty and students worked closely with Gales Point villagers to gain an insight into the use of Southern Lagoon. The objective of the study was to assess fecal coliform levels in Southern lagoon, its primary and secondary contact use by villagers and its potential impact on health. Study methodology involved collection of water samples, both near shore and offshore, in the lagoon and incubating them using ColiQuant EZ method approved by EPA. A questionnaire was administered to villagers attending the WKU clinic to collect data ...


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